मुग़लकालीन भाषा साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akhil bharatiy star par sarakari kam-kaj tatha any baton ke lie farasi tatha snskrit bhashaon ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika tatha bhakti andolan ke prabhav se prantiy bhashaon ka vikas ho chuka tha. prantiy bhashaon ke vikas ka ek aur karan sthaniy tatha prantiy rajaon dvara diya gaya snrakshan tatha protsahan tha. solahavin tatha satrahavin shatabdi men ye dharaen jari rahin. akabar ke kal tak uttari bharat men farasi ke alava sthaniy bhasha (hindavi) men kagazat ko rakhana band hi kar diya gaya. isake bavajood satrahavin shatabdi men dakkan ke rajyon ke patan tak unamen sthaniy bhashaon men dastavezon ko rakhane ki parampara jari rahi.

farasi bhasha ka prachalan

mugal kal ka sahity
kramank pustak lekhak
1. babaranama babar
2. tarikh-e-alafi mulla daud
3. aina-e-akabari, akabaranama abul phazal
4. muntakhab at tavarikh badayoonni
5. tabakat-e-akabari nijamuddin ahamad
6. humayoonnama gulabadan begam
7. tarikh-e-sherashahi abbas khan saravani
8. makhajan afagani niyamatulla
9. padashahanama abdul hamid lahauri
10. fatava-e-alamagiri aurngazeb
11. alamagiranama mirza muhammad kajim shiraji
12. khulasa-ul-tavarikh suan ray khatri
13. futuhat-e-alamagiri eeshvaradas
14. nuskha-e-dilakusha muhammd saphi
15. padmavat malik muhammad jayasi
16. soorasagar sooradas
17. ramacharitamanas tulasidas
18. masar-e-jahangiri khvaja kamagar
19. shahajahannama inayat khan
20. makajjam-e-afagani niyamat ulla
21. prem vatika rasakhan
22. tujuk-e-babari babar

farasi gady tatha pady akabar ke shasanakal men apane shikhar par the. us kal ke mahanh lekhak aur vidvanh tatha itihasakar abul fazal ne gady ki aisi shaili prachalit ki, jisaka kee pidhiyon ne anusaran kiya. us kal ka pramukh kavi faizi, abul fazal ka bhaee tha, aur usane akabar ke anuvad vibhag men badi sahayata ki. usake nirikshan men mahabharat ka anuvad bhi kiya gaya. us kal ke farasi ke do any pramukh kavi 'utbi' tatha 'nazori' the. inaka janm eeran men hua tha, par ye un vidvanon aur kaviyon men the, jo badi snkhya men us kal men eeran se bharat ae the aur jinhonne mugal darabar ko islami jagath ka ek pramukh sanskritik kendr bana diya tha. farasi sahity ke vikas men hinduon ne bhi mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. is kal men sahityik tatha aitihasik kritiyon ke alava farasi bhasha ke kee prasiddh vishvakosh bhi taiyar kie ge.

is kal men yadyapi snskrit ki koee mool athava mahattvapoorn kriti ki rachana nahin ki gee, is bhasha men rachit kritiyon ki snkhya kafi badi thi. pahale ki tarah dakshin tatha poorvi bharat men adhikatar kritiyan sthaniy rajaon ke snrakshan men rachi geen, par kuchh kritiyan un brahmanon ki thin, jo samraton ke anuvad vibhag men niyukt the.

sngitamay rachana tatha anuvad

is kal men kshetriy bhashaon men paripakvata aee tatha utkrisht sngitamay kavy ki rachana huee. bngali, udiya, hindi, rajasthani tatha gujarati bhashaon ke kavy men is kal men radha-krishn tatha krishn aur gopiyon ki lila tatha bhagavat ki kahaniyon ka kafi prayog kiya gaya. ram par adharit kee bhakti giton ki rachana ki gee tatha ramayan aur mahabharat ka kshetriy bhashaon, visheshakar unamen, jinamen inaka anuvad pahale nahin hua tha, men anuvad kiya gaya. kuchh farasi kritiyon ka bhi anuvad kiya gaya. is kary men hindoo tatha musalaman, donon ne yogadan diya. alaol ne bngala men apani rachanaen bhi kin aur sath men musalaman soofi sant dvara rachit hindi kavy 'padmavat' ka anuvad bhi kiya. is kavy men malik muhammad jayasi ne alauddin khilaji ke chittaud abhiyan ko adhar banakar atma tatha paramatma ke sambandh men soofi vicharon, aur maya ke bare men hindoo shastron ke siddhanton ka pratipadan kiya.

braj bhasha ko protsahan

madhyakalin bharat men mugal samraton tatha hindoo rajaon ne agara tatha usake asapas ke kshetron men boli jane vali bhasha braj ko bhi pretsahan pradan kiya. akabar ke kal se mugal rajadarabar men hindoo kavi bhi rahane lage. ek pramukh mugal saradar abdularahim khan-e-khana ne apane bhaktikavy men manaviy sambandhon ke bare men farasi vicharon ka bhi samanvay kiya. is prakar farasi tatha hindi ki sahityik paramparaen ek-doosare se prabhavit hueen. is kal ke sabase pramukh hindi kavi tulasidas the. jinhonne uttar pradesh ke poorvi kshetron men bole jane vali avadhi bhasha men ek mahakavy ki rachana ki, jisake nayak ram the. unhonne ek aisi jati vyavastha ka anumodan kiya, jisamen jati, janm ke adhar par nahin, varanh manav ke vyaktigat gunon par adharit thi. tulasidas vastav men manavatavadi kavi the. jinhonne parivarik moolyon ko mahatv diya aur yah bataya ki mukti ka marg har vyakti ke lie sambhav hai aur yah marg ram ke prati poorn bhakti hai.

ekanath ka kathan

dakshin bharat men malayalam men bhi sahityik parampara arambh huee. ekanath aur tukaram ne marathi bhasha ko shikhar par pahuncha diya. marathi bhasha ki mahatta batate hue ekanath kahate hain- "yadi snskrit eeshvar ki den hai, to kya prakrit chor tatha uchchakon ne di hai. yah baten matr ghamnd aur bhram par adharit hain. eeshvar kisi bhi bhasha ka pakshapati nahin. isake lie snskrit tatha prakrit ekasaman hain. meri bhasha marathi ke madhyam se uchch se uchch vichar vyakt kie ja sakate hain aur yah adhyatmik gyan se paripoorn hai."

  • is ukti men kshetriy bhashaon ke rachanakaron ka garv spasht hai tatha isamen in bhashaon men likhane valon ka atmavishvas tatha unaka garv bhi parilakshit hota hai. sikkh guruon ki rachanaon ne pnjabi bhasha men naye pran phoonk die.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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