दक्षिण भारत 1615-1656  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


1622 ke bad jab jahangir ke viruddh shahazada shahajahan ke vidroh ke karan dakkan men avyavastha huee, to malik ambar ne mugalon ke hathon hare hue bahut se kshetr phir se jit lie. is prakar dakkan men mugalon ki sthiti ko sudridh karane ke jahangir ke prayatn viphal ho gaye. kintu mugalon ke sath shatruta ko phir se prarambh karane se ahamadanagar ko hue labh lambe samay tak bane rahe, yah sndehaspad hai. isase aisi sthiti paida ho gee thi ki shahajahan ko nirnay karana pada ahamadanagar ke svatntr astitv ko mitane ke atirikt aur koee rasta nahin hai. 1626 men 80 varsh ki ayu men malik ambar ki mrityu ho gee. kintu usaki shatruta ki parampara ke kadave phal usake uttaradhikariyon ko chabane pade.

ahamadanagar ka patan

shahajahan 1627 men gaddi par baitha. dakkan ke viruddh do abhiyanon ka netritv karane tatha pita se vidroh ke samay vahan kafi samay vyatit karane ke karan shahajahan ko dakkan aur usaki rajaniti ka bahut vyaktigat gyan tha. shahanashah ke roop men shahajahan ka pahala kam nizamashahi shasak dvara chhine ge dakkani pradeshon ko vapas lena tha. is kam ke lie usane purane aur anubhavi saradar khan-e-jahan lodi ko niyukt kiya. kintu khan-e-jahan apane prayatn men asaphal hua aur use vapas darabar bula liya gaya. lekin usane jaldi hi vidroh kar diya aur nizamashah se mil gaya. nizamashah ne use barar aur balaghat ke shesh kshetron se mugalon ko khadedane ke lie niyukt kar diya. ek pramukh mugal saradar ko is prakar sharan dena ek aisi chunauti thi, jise shahajahan nazarandaj nahin kar sakata tha. yah spasht tha ki maliq ambar ki mrityu ke bad bhi barar aur balaghat par mugal prabhutv ko svikar karane ki niti nizamashahi shasak ne chhodi nahin thi. atah shahajahan is nishkarsh par pahuncha ki dakkan men mugalon ke lie tab tak shanti snbhav nahin hai, jab tak ki ahamadanagar ka svatntr astitv bana hua hai. yah nirnay akabar aur jahangir ki niti se ekadam alag tha, phir bhi shahajahan ki ruchi dakkan men atyavashyak se adhik vistar karane ki nahin thi. atah bijapur ke shasak ke pas yah prastav bheja ki yadi vah ahamadanagar ke viruddh akraman men mugalon ka sahayog kare to riyasat ka ek-tihaee use de diya jayega. shahajahan ki is chatur chal ka mantavy ahamadanagar ko rajanayik aur sainik star par akela karana tha. usane mugalon ki sena men sammilit karane ke lie maratha saradaron ke pas bhi toh lene ke lie vyakti bheje.

shahajahan ki saphalata

shahajahan ko apane prayatnon men prarambhik saphalata mili. malik ambar ne apane abhiyanon ke dauran kuchh mahattvapoorn bijapuri saradaron ki hatya kar di thi. adilashah bhi malik ambar dvara naurasapur ko jalane aur sholapur ko chhin lene ke apaman se jal raha tha. atah usane shahajahan ka prastav svikar kar liya aur nizamashahi sima par mugalon ki sahayata ke lie sena tainat kar di. lagabhag isi samay ek mahattvapoorn maratha saradar lakhaji jadhav par mugalon ke sath shadayantr karane ka arop lagakar kapatata se mar dala gaya. jadhav jahangir ke samay mugalon ke sath mil gaya tha. lekin bad men nizamashahi ki seva men chala gaya tha. jadhav ki hatya ke parinamasvaroop usaka damad shahaji bhonsale (shivaji ka pita) apane sambandhiyon ke sath mugalon ke sath mil gaya. shahajahan ne use pnchahazari ka manasab diya aur use poona kshetr men jagir di. kee aur mahattvapoorn maratha saradar bhi shahajahan ke paksh men ho gaye.

fateh khan-shahajahan ka samajhauta aur nizamashah ki hatya

1629 men shahajahan ne ahamadanagar ke viruddh vishal senayen tainat kar di. unamen se ek ko balaghat kshetr men pashchim se akraman karana tha aur doosari ko telngana kshetr men poorv se. unaki gatividhiyon men samnjasy banaye rakhane ke lie shahajahan svayn burahanapur chala gaya. bhari dabav dalakar ahamadanagar riyasat ka bada hissa mugal adhikar men le liya gaya. riyasat ki ek bahari chauki parenda par ghera dal diya gaya. ab nizamashah ne adilashah ke pas dayaniyata se bhari prarthana bheji aur kaha ki riyasat ka adhikansh bhag pahale hi mugal adhikar men hai, agar parenda ka bhi patan ho gaya to usaka arth hoga nizamashahi vnsh ka ant. sath hi usane chetavani bhi di ki ahamadanagar ke bad bijapur ki bari ayegi. bijapur ke darabar men, mugalon ki tez gati ko dekhakar saradaron ka shaktishali dal bechain tha. vastav men sima par sthit bijapuri senaon ne matr darshak ki haisiyat se sara ghatana-kram dikhaya. unhonne mugal karravaee men sakriy bhag nahin liya tha. doosari or mugalon ne sndhi ke anusar ahamadanagar ke jite hue kshetron ka ek tihaee adilashah ko dene se inkar kar diya tha. parinamatah adilashah ne pasa palata aur nizamashah ki sahayata karane ka nirnay kar liya. nizamashah ne use sholapur lauta dene ka vayada kiya tha. rajanitik paristhitiyon ke is parivartan se vivash hokar mugalon ne parenda ka ghera utha liya aur pichhe hat gaye. kintu tabhi ahamadanagar ki antarik sthiti mugalon ke hak men ho gayi. malik ambar ke putr fateh khan ko nizamashah ne kuchh samay poorv hi is asha se peshava niyukt kiya tha ki vah shahajahan ko shanti ki sndhi ke lie prerit kar lega. lekin, fateh khan ne shahajahan se samajhauta kar liya aur usake kahane par usane nizamashah ki hatya kar di aur ek kathaputali ko gaddi par baitha diya gaya. usane mugal badashah ke nam se khutba bhi padha aur sikka bhi nikala. inam ke roop men fateh khan ko mugal seva men le liya gaya aur use poona ke nikat vah jagir pradan kar di gee jo pahale shahaji ko di gee thi. isake parinamasvaroop shahaji ne mugalon ka paksh chhod diya. yah ghatana 1632 men ghati.

Blockquote-open.gif ali adilashah ka uttaradhikari ibrahim adilashah dvitiy (1580-1627) keval nau varsh ki avastha men gaddi par baitha. vah nirdhanon ka bahut khyal rakhata tha aur use 'abala baba' arthath 'nirdhanon ka mitr' kaha jata tha. sngit men usaki gahari ruchi thi. usane ragon par adharit giton ki ek pustak 'kitab-e-nauras' likhi thi. usane ek naye nagar ka nirman karavaya, jisaka nam 'naurasapur' rakha gaya aur vahan basane ke lie anek sngitakaron ko amntrit kiya gaya. apane giton men usane bar-bar sngit aur gyan ki devi sarasvati ki vandana ki hai. apane vishal drishtikon ke karan vah "jagat guru" kahalata tha. usane hindoo santon aur mandiron sahit sabhi ko snrakshan diya. usane vitobha ki bhakti ke kendr pandharapur ko bhi anudan diya. yah maharashtr men bhakti andolan ka kendr bana. Blockquote-close.gif

fateh khan ke samarpan ke pashchath shahajahan ne mahabat khan ko dakkan ka vayasaray niyukt kar diya aur svayn agara laut aya. bijapur aur sthaniy nizamashahi saradaron ke snyukt virodh ke karan mahabatakhan ne svayn ko bahut kathin paristhitiyon se ghira paya. bijapur ne daulatabad ke qile par zoradar dava kiya. isake lie bijapur ne fateh khan ko bhi qile ke samarpan ke badale paisa dene ka lalach diya. aur sthanon par bhi mugalon ne apani sthiti ko banaye rakhana kathin paya.

mugalon aur bijapur ka sngharsh

atah yah spasht hai ki parajit ahamadanagar ko apase men bantane ke lie mugalon aur bijapur men vastav men sngharsh tha. adilashah ne 1633 men daulatabad se samarpan karavane tatha vahan ki sena ko rasad pahunchane ke lie radaula khan aur murari pndit ke netritv men ek vishal sena bheji. shahaji ko bhi mugalon ko pareshan karane tatha unaki rasad katane ke lie bijapur ki seva men le liya gaya tha. parantu bijapuri senaon aur shahaji ki sammilit shakti saphal nahin ho saki. mahavatakhan ne daulatabad ke ekadam nikat pahunchakar ghera dal diya aur vahan ki sena ko samarpan karane par vivash kar diya. nizamashah ko gvaliyar ki jel men bhej diya gaya. isi se nizamashahi vnsh ka ant ho gaya. lekin isase bhi mugalon ki samasyaon ka ant nahin hua. malik ambar ka anusaran karate hue shahaji ne ek nizamashahi shahazade ko dhoondh nikala aur use shasak bana diya. adilashah ne sat se ath hazar ghudasavaron ki sena shahaji ki sahayata ke lie bheji aur anek nizamashahi saradaron ko apane qile shahaji ko samarpit karane ke lie prerit kiya. anek bikhare hue nizamashahi sipahi shahaji ki sena men a gaye aur usaki sena bis hazar ghudasavaron tak pahunch gayi. is sena ki sahayata se usane mugalon ko kafi pareshan kiya aur ahamadanagar riyasat ke bahut se bhagon par adhikar kar liya.

isake bad shahajahan ne dakkan ki samasya par vyaktigat dhyan dene ka nirnay liya. usane yah samajh liya ki samasya ka mool karan bijapur ka rukh hai. isalie usane ek badi sena bijapur par akraman karane ke lie ravana ki aur sath hi adilashah ke pas is toh ke lie bhi doot bheje ki purani sndhi ko lagoo kare ahamadanagar riyasat ko bijapur aur mugalon men vibhajit kar liya jae.

shahajahan ki sndhiyan

lalach aur chhadi ki is niti ka shahajahan ke dakkan ki or kooch se bijapur ki niti men ek aur parivartan hua. murari pndit sahit mugal virodhi dal ke netaon ko apadasth karake mar dala gaya aur shahajahan ke sath ek nayi sndhi ya ahamaname par hastakshar kiye ge. is sndhi ke anusar adilashah ne mugalon ki prabhutta ko svikar kar liya. isake sath hi usane golakunda ke karyon men bhi hastakshep n karana svikar kiya, jo mugalon ki suraksha men tha. yah bhi tay kiya gaya ki bijapur aur golakunda ke bich sabhi bhavi vivad shahajahan ki madhyasthata se hal honge. adilashah ne yah bhi mnjoor kiya ki shahaji ko kaboo men karane ke lie vah mugalon ke sath milakar kam karega aur shahaji dvara bijapur ki seva men ana svikar kar lene par use mugal-sima se door dakshin men tainat karega. in sabake badale men bis lakh hoon (lagabhag assi lakh rupaye) salana ki ay vala ahamadanagar riyasat ka ek bhag bijapur ko de diya gaya. shahajahan ne sndhi ki atootata ka vishvas dilane ke lie adilashah ke pas apani hatheli ki chhap laga kar pratigya karate hue ek faraman bhi bheja.

shahajahan ne golakunda ke sath bhi ek sndhi karake dakkan ke mamalon men samajhaute ko antim roop diya. golakunda ke shasak ne khutbe se eeran ke shah ka nam nikal kar shahajahan ka nam sammilit karana svikar kar liya. qutubashah ne mugal badashah ke prati vafadar rahane ka vachan diya. isake badale char lakh hoonon ka vah kar jo pahale golakunda bijapur ko deta tha, maf kar diya gaya. suraksha ke badale mugal badashah ko do lakh hoon salana dene ki vyavastha rakhi gayi.

bijapur aur golakunda se 1636 ki ye sndhiyan rajanitigyochit thin. vastutah inake madhyam se shahajahan ne akabar ke antim lakshyon ko poorn kiya. desh ke ek kone se doosare kone tak mugalon ki prabhutta svikar kar li gayi thi. mugalon ke sath shanti sndhi ne dakkani riyasaton ko dakshin ki or apane vistar ka aur agale do dashakon men unhen apani shakti aur samriddhi ki charam sima tak pahunchane ka avasar pradan kiya.

1636 ki sndhi ke bad ke dashak men bijapur aur golakunda ne krishn nadi se tnjaur aur usase bhi age ke samriddh aur upajaoo kshetr ko raund dala. is kshetr men kee chhoti-chhoti svatntr hindoo riyasaten bhi thin jinamen se bahut namamatr ko hi vijayanagar ke bhootapoorv raja rayal ke prati vafadar thi. jaise tnjaur, maduree aur jinji ke nayakon ki riyasaten. in riyasaton ke viruddh bijapur aur golakunda ne lagatar kee akraman kie. shahajahan ki madhyasthata se unhonne yah samajhauta kar liya ki vijit pradesh aur loot ko do aur ek ke anupat se vibhajit kar liya jayega. do-tihaee bijapur ka bhag tha aur ek-tihaee golakunda ka. in donon ke madhy anek jhagadon ke bavajood dakshin men vijayon ka kram jari raha.

shahaji aur shivaji

is prakar bahut kam samay men hi in donon riyasaton ka kshetraphal dogune se bhi adhik ho gaya aur ye apani shakti aur samriddhi ki charam sima par pahunch gayin. yadi ye shasak jite hue pradeshon men apani sthiti mazaboot banaye rakh sakate, to dakkan men ek lamba shanti kal sthapit ho sakata tha. durbhagy se tezi se hue vistar ke karan in donon riyasaton men bacha-khucha antarik samnjasy bhi samapt ho gaya. bijapur men mahattvakankshi saradar shahaji aur usake putr shivaji ne tatha golakunda men pramukh saradar mir jumala ne apane-apane prabhav kshetr banane shuroo kar die. mugalon ne bhi dekha ki dakkan men shanti sntulan bigad gaya hai. unhonne bhi vistaravadi karravaee ke samay kripapoorvak tatasth bane rahane ki kimat mangi. 1656 men muhammad adilashah ki mrityu aur dakkan men aurngazeb ke mugal vayasaray ban kar a jane se ye paristhitiyan poori tarah se paripakv ho gayin.

dakkani riyasaton ko anek sanskritik yogadanon ka kshetr mana jata hai. ali adilashah, hindoo aur musalaman santon se charchaen karana pasand karata tha. use 'soofi' ke roop men jana jata tha. usane apane darabar men akabar se kahin pahale eesaee dharm pracharakon ko amntrit kiya tha. usake pas bahut samriddh pustakalay tha. jisamen usane snskrit ke prasiddh achary vaman pndit ko niyukt kiya tha. snskrit aur marathi ko snrakshan dene ki parampara ka palan usake uttaradhikariyon ne bhi kiya.

ibrahim adilashah dvitiy

ali adilashah ka uttaradhikari ibrahim adilashah dvitiy (1580-1627) keval nau varsh ki avastha men gaddi par baitha. vah nirdhanon ka bahut khyal rakhata tha aur use 'abala baba' arthath 'nirdhanon ka mitr' kaha jata tha. sngit men usaki gahari ruchi thi. usane ragon par adharit giton ki ek pustak 'kitab-e-nauras' likhi thi. usane ek naye nagar ka nirman karavaya, jisaka nam 'naurasapur' rakha gaya aur vahan basane ke lie anek sngitakaron ko amntrit kiya gaya. apane giton men usane bar-bar sngit aur gyan ki devi sarasvati ki vandana ki hai. apane vishal drishtikon ke karan vah "jagat guru" kahalata tha. usane hindoo santon aur mandiron sahit sabhi ko snrakshan diya. usane vitobha ki bhakti ke kendr pandharapur ko bhi anudan diya. yah maharashtr men bhakti andolan ka kendr bana.


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