मुग़लकालीन सैन्य व्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mugalakalin sainy vyavastha ek mazaboot sainy vyavastha thi. agar mugalon ne bharat par itane lambe samay tak shasan kiya tha, to usake pichhe nisndeh hi unaki dridh, achchhe dhng se susajjit aur mazaboot sainy vyavastha thi. mugalon ne apani sena ka vargikaran bhi bahut hi behatarin tariqe se kiya tha. mugal badashahon babar, humayoon, akabar, jahangir, shahajahan aur aurngazeb adi ne apani mugal sena ka sngathan kushal tariqe se kiya tha aur yahi karan tha ki, ve kafi lambe samay tak bharat par shasan karane men saphal rahe.

manasabadari pratha

arabi bhasha ke shabd ‘manasab’ ka shabdik arth hai- ‘pad’. manasabadari vyavastha ki pratha 'khalifa abba seed' dvara arambh ki gee tatha chngez khan aur taimoor ne isaka vikas kiya. is prakar akabar ne manasabadari ki prerana madhy eshiya se grahan ki thi. mugalakalin sainy vyavastha poornatah manasabadari pratha par adharit thi. akabar dvara arambh ki gayi is vyavastha men un vyaktiyon ko samrat dvara ek pad pradan kiya jata tha, jo shahi sena men hote the. diye jane vale pad ko ‘manasab’ evn grahan karane vale ko ‘manasabadar’ kaha jata tha. manasab prapt karane ke uparant us vyakti ki shahi darabar men pratishtha, sthan v usake vetan ka gyan hota tha. sambhavatah akabar ki manasabadari vyavastha mngol neta chngez khan ki ‘dashamalav pranali’ par adharit thi.

‘pad’ ya ‘shreni’ ke arth vale manasab shabd ka pratham ullekh akabar ke shasan ke 11ven varsh men milata hai, parantu manasab ke jari hone ka ullekh 1567 ee. se milata hai. manasabadar ke pad ke sath 1594-1595 ee. se ‘savar’ ka pad bhi judane laga. is tarah akabar ke shasanakal men manasabadari pratha kee charanon se guzar kar utkarsh par pahunchi thi.

manasab vibhajan

akabar ke shasan kal men pratyek uchch padadhikari keval qazi evn sadr ko chhodakar sena men padasin hota tha. yuddh ke samay avashyakata padane par use sainy snchalan bhi karana padata tha. in sabako manasab prapt hota tha. parantu sainy vibhag se alag any vibhagon men karyarat in padadhikariyon ko ‘manasabadar’ ke sthan par ‘rojinadar’ kaha jata tha. akabar ke samay men sabase chhota manasab das evn sabase bada manasab 10,000 ka hota tha, parantu kalantar men yah badhakar 12,000 ka ho gaya. shahi parivar ke shahazadon ko 5000 se oopar ka manasab milata tha. manasab prapt karane vale mukhyatah tin vargon men vibhakt the- 10 se 500 tak manasab prapt karane vale ‘umara’ kahalate the evn 2500 se oopar manasab prapt karane vale vyakti ‘amir-e-umda’ ya ‘amir-e-ajam’ kahalate the.

‘jat’ se vyakti ke vetan v pratishtha ka gyan hota tha. ‘savar’ pad se ghudasavar daston ki snkhya ka gyan hota tha. 1595 ee. men jat pad ke sath savar pad ko jod dene se 'jat-o-savar' pad tin shreniyon men bnt gaya. pratham shreni ke manasabadar ko apane jat pad ke barabar hi ghudasavar sainikon ki vyavastha karani padati thi, jaise 5000/5000 jat/savar. dvitiy shreni ke manasabadar ko apane jat-pad se thoda kam ya phir adhe ghudasavar sainikon ki vyavastha karani hoti thi. jaise 5000/3000 jat/savar. tritiy shreni ke manasabadaron ko apane jat pad se adhe se kam ghudasavar sainikon ki vyavastha karani hoti thi, jaise 5000/2000 jat/savar.

  • aina-e-akabari’ men 66 manasabon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, kintu vyavahar men 33 manasab hi pradan kiye jate the.

niyam v parivartan

manasabadaron ko vetan naqad v jagir donon hi roop men dene ki vyavastha thi. karyakal ke samay manasabadaron ke marane par usaki sampatti ko jabt kar liya jata tha. is prakar manasabadar ka pad anuvnshik nahin tha. manasabadaron ki jagiren ek prant se doosare prant men sthanantarit kar di jati thin. aisi jagiron ko ‘vatan jagir’ bhi kahate the. akabar ke samay men kul manasabadaron ki snkhya lagabhag 1803 thi, jo aurngazeb ke samay men badhakar 14,449 ho gee. akabar ke shasan kal ke antim charan men yah niyam banaya gaya ki, kisi bhi manasabadar ka savar pad usake jat pad se adhik nahin ho sakata.

manasabadari vyavastha men kuchh parivartan karate hue jahangir ne savar pad men ‘du-aspa’ evn ‘sinh-aspa’ ki vyavastha ki. du-aspa men manasabadaron ko nirdharit snkhya men ghudasavaron ke sath utane hi ‘kotal’ (atirikt) ghode rakhane hote the, jabaki sinh-aspa men manasabadaron ko dugune kotal (atirikt) ghode rakhane hote the.

shahajahan ne apane shasan kal men manasabadari vyavastha men vyapt bhrashtachar ko rokane ke lie un manasabadaron ke lie niyam banaye, jo apane pad ki tulana men ghudasavaron ki snkhya kam kar dete the. ab manasabadaron ke lie yah avashyak ho gaya ki ve apane pad hetu nirdharit ghudasavaron ki snkhya ki kam se kam ek-chauthaee fauji tukadi avashy rakhen. yadi unaki niyukti bharat se bahar hoti thi, to manasabadaron ko ek-chauthaee ke sthan par 1/5 sainik tukadiyan rakhani hoti thin.

jagir vyavastha

akabar ke kal se hi nirntar yah shikayat chali a rahi thi ki, jagiron ki anumanit ay (jama) tatha vastavik ay (hasil) men antar hota tha, arthath jagiron se hone vali ay vastav men kam hoti thi. shahajahan ne vastusthiti ka adhyayan karane ke bad samasya ka ek hal nikala tatha jagiron ko vastavik vasooli ke adhar par mahina jagiron- 'shishamaha', 'simaha' adi ki vyavastha shuroo ki. isake anusar yadi kisi jagir se rajasv ki vasooli 50 pratishat hoti thi, to usako shishamaha jagir mana jata tha tatha vasooli yadi kul jama ka ek chauthaee hoti thi, to jagir simahi mani jati thi. is prakar yadi kisi manasabadar ko shishamaha jagir pradan ki jati thi, to usake dayitvon ka bhi usi anupat se nirdharan karake katauti ki jati thi.

manasabadari pratha ka patan

aurngazeb ke samay men saksham manasabadaron ke kisi mahattvapoorn pad jaise faujadar ya qiledar adi par niyukt ya phir kisi mahattvapoorn abhiyan par jate samay usake jat pad men vriddhi kiy bina kisi savar pad men atirikt vriddhi ka ek aur madhyam nikala gaya, jise ‘masharut’ kaha gaya. manasabadaron ka pad vnshanugat nahin hota tha. ayogy v aksham manasabadar ko samrat hata deta tha. aurngazeb ke shasan kal men visheshakar uchch shreniyon ke manasabadaron ki snkhya men bahut vriddhi huee. sthiti yahan tak a gayi ki, unhen pradan karane ke lie jagiren nahin rah gayi thin. aurngazeb ka samakalin itihasakar mamoori is samasya ko 'bejagiri' kahakar snbodhit karata hai. snkat itana vikat ho gaya ki, samrat aur usake mntri bar-bar sabhi nayi moortiyan rokane ki sochane lage, lekin paristhiti men unhen aisa karane ki anumati nahin di. manasabadaron ki snkhya atishay vriddhi aur jagiron ke abhav ne jagiradari pratha aur krishijany snkat ko janm diya. jisake parinamasvaroop aurngazeb ke shasan ke paravarti dinon men manasabadari vyavastha bhi patanonmukh ho gayi.

dag pratha

akabar ne apane shasan ke 18ven varsh (1574 ee.) men ‘dag’ pratha ko chalaya, jisaka vidhivat prayog 19ven varsh men prarambh hua. is pratha men hathi evn ghodon ko daga jata tha. dag men do tarah ke nishan lagaye jate the, dayen ya sidhe putte par lagane vala nishan shahi nishan evn bayen putthe ke nishan ko manasabadar ka nishan mana jata tha. akabar ne isake lie 'dag-e-mahali' namak ek prithakh vibhag khola tha.

  • manasabadaron ke atirikt do tarah ke sainik ya sipahi hote the. pratham ‘ahadi’ (sabhy) sipahi evn dvitiy ‘dakhili’ (poorak) sipahi.

mugalakalin sena

mugalakal men sena mukhyatah 4 bhagon men vibhakt thi-

  1. paidal sena - yah do prakar ki hoti thi- ‘ahasham’ evn ‘sehabandi’. ahasham sainik yuddh karane vale sainik hote the. ‘sehabandi’ sainik malaguzari vasoolane ke samay men sahayata karate the. mevara, mevat nivasi the, jo dhavak aur jasoosi ka kary karate the.
  2. ghudasavar sena - yah mugal sena ka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn bhag hota tha. isamen do prakar ke ghudasavar hote the- ‘siledar’ evn ‘baragir’. siledar ko ghode evn astr-shastr ki vyavastha svayn karani hoti thi, jabaki baragir ko saj ka sara saman sarakar ki or se milata tha.
  3. topakhana - yah do bhagon men vibhakt tha- ‘jinshi’ evn ‘dasti’. ‘jinshi’ men bhari topen hoti thin evn dasti men halki topen. topakhana vibhag ka adhyaksh 'mir-e-atish' athava 'daroga-e-topakhana' kahalata tha.
  4. hasti sena - akabar ko hathiyon ka bada shauq tha. akabar apani sena ke lie jin hathiyon ka prayog karata unhen ‘khas’ kaha jata tha.
  • mugal kal men ‘jal sena’ ka bhi ullekh milata hai. akabar ke samay men jal sena ke pradhan ko ‘amir-ul-bahar’ kaha jata tha.
  • mugalakalin sena ‘ek bhari chalayaman shahar’ ki tarah thi, jo shahi darabar ke ativyayi saj-samanon ke bojh men dabi rahati thi.
  • isake atirikt any bhag bhi the-

gajanal - hathiyon par le jane vali topen.
naranal - sainikon dvara le jane vali topen.
shutaranal - oont par le jane vali topen.
akabar ke samay men 'ustad kabir' evn 'husain' top evn bandooq visheshgy the. manoochi ne bhi mugal topakhane ke prabhari ke roop men kary kiya tha.


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