बीरबल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

birabal
birabal
poora nam raja birabal
any nam maheshadas
janm 1528 ee.
janm bhoomi trivikramapur, kanapur, uttar pradesh[1]
mrityu tithi 1586 ee.
mrityu sthan svat, bharat (ab pakistan)
upadhi akabar ne birabal ko 'raja' aur 'kaviray' ki upadhi se sammanit kiya tha.
dharmik manyata din-e-ilahi
prasiddhi akabar ke navaratnon men se ek
upanam birabal ka upanam brahm tha.[2]
any janakari raja birabal dan dene men apane samay advitiy the aur puraskar dene men snsar-prasiddh the. gan vidya bhi achchhi janate the. unake kavitt aur dohe prasiddh hain.

birabal (janm-1528 ee.; mrityu- 1586 ee.) mugal badashah akabar ke akabar ke navaratnon men sarvadhik lokapriy ek brahman darabari tha. birabal ki vyngyapoorn kahaniyon aur kavy rachanaon ne unhen prasiddh banaya tha. birabal ne din-e-ilahi apanaya tha aur fatehapur sikari men unaka ek sundar makan tha.[3] badashah akabar ke prashasan men birabal mugal darabar ka pramukh vazir tha aur raj darabar men usaka bahut prabhav tha. birabal kaviyon ka bahut samman karata tha. vah svayn bhi brajabhasha ka achchha janakar aur kavi tha.

parichay

raja birabal ka janm snvat 1584 vikrami men kanapur zile ke antargat 'trivikramapur' arthath tikavanpur men hua tha. bhooshan kavi ne apane janmasthan trivikramapur men hi inaka janm hona likha hai.[1]prayag ke ashok-stnbh par yah lekh hai-

snvat 1632 shake 1493 marg badi 5 somavar gngadas sut maharaj birabal shri tiratharaj ki yatra suphal likhitn.

badayoonni ne birabal ke upanam brahm men das milakar inaka nam brahmadas likha hai.[4]ye kanyakubj brahman the.[1] akabar ne birabal ko 'raja' padavi di thi. birabal utana prabhavashali senapati nahin tha, jitana prabhavashali kavi tha. kuchh itihasakaron ne birabal ko rajapoot saradar bataya hai. birabal akabar ka snehapatr tha. akabar ne birabal ko 'raja' aur 'kaviray' ki upadhi se sammanit kiya tha. par unaka sahityik jivan akabar ke darabar men manornjan karane tak hi simit raha.

prabhavashali kavi

maharaj birabal brajabhasha ke achchhe kavi the aur kaviyon ka badi udarata ke sath samman karate the. kahate hain, keshavadas ji ko inhonne ek bar chhah lakh rupaye die the aur keshavadas ki pairavi se orachha naresh par ek karod ka zurmana muaph kara diya tha. inake marane par akabar ne yah soratha kaha tha, -

din dekhi sab din, ek n dinhon dusah dukh.
so ab ham kahn din, kachhu nahin rakhyo birabal

  • inaki koee pustak nahin milati hai, par kee sau kavitton ka ek sngrah bharatapur men hai. inaki rachana alnkar adi kavyangon se poorn aur saras hoti thi. kavita men ye apana nam brahm rakhate the.

uchhari uchhari bheki jhapatai urag par,
urag pai kekin ke lapatai lahaki hain.
kekin ke surati hie ki na kachhoo hai, bhe,
eki kari kehari, n bolat bahaki hai.
kahai kavi brahm vari herat harin phirain,
baihar bahat bade zor so jahaki hain.
tarani kai tavan tava si bhee bhoomi rahi,
dasahoo disan men davari si dahaki hai

poot kapoot, kulachchhani nari, larak parosi, lajayan saro.
bndhu kubuddhi , purohit lnpat, chakar chor, atith dhutaro
sahab soom, adak turng, kisan kathor, divan nakaro.
brahm bhanai sunu sah akabbar barahaun bandhi samudr men darau

kaviray pad

birabal hindi ki achchhi kavitaen karate the, isase pahale inako kaviray (jo malikushshoara arthath kaviyon ke raja ke pray: barabar hai) ki padavi mili thi. 18ven varsh jab badashah ne nagarakot ke raja jayachand par kruddh hokar use qaid kar liya, tab usaka putr vidhichandr (jo alpavayask tha) apane ko usaka uttaradhikari samajh kar vidrohi ho gaya. badashah ne vah prant kaviray ko (jisaki jagir pas hi thi) de di aur pnjab ke soobedar husain kuli khan khanejahan ko agyapatr bheja ki us prant ke saradaron ke sath vahan jakar nagarakot vidhichandr se chhinakar kaviray ke adhikar men de de. inhen raja birabal (jisaka arth bahadur hai) ki padavi dekar us kary par niyat kiya.

akabar aur birabal

birabal maheshadas namak badafarosh[5] brahman the jise hindi men bhat kahate hain. yah jati dhanadhyon ki prashnsa karane vali thi. yadyapi birabal kam poonji ke karan buri avastha men din vyatit kar rahe the, par birabal men buddhi aur samajh bhari huee thi. apani buddhimani aur samajhadari ke karan yah apane samay ke barabar logon men many ho ge. jab saubhagy se akabar badashah ki seva men pahunche, tab apani vakh-chaturi aur hnsodapan se badashahi majalis ke musahibon aur mukhy logon ke gol men ja pahunche aur dhire-dhire un sab logon se age badh ge. bahudha badashahi pannon men inhen musahibe-danishavar raja birabal likha gaya hai.
jab raja lahaur pahunche to husain kuli khan ne jagiradaron ke sath sasainy nagarakot pahunchakar use gher liya. jis samay durg vale kathinaee men pade hue the, daivath usi samay ibrahim husen mirza ka balava arambh ho gaya tha aur is karan ki us vidroh ka shant karana us samay ka avashyak kary tha, isase durg vijay karana chhod dena pada. ant men raja ki sammati se vidhichandr se panch man sona aur khutaba padhavane, badashahi sikka dhalane tatha durg kangada ke phatak ke pas masajid banavane ka vachan lekar ghera utha liya gaya. 30ven varsh sanh 994 hi. (sanh 1586 ee.) men jain khan koka yoosufajee jati ko, jo svad aur bajaur namak pahadi desh ki rahanevali thi, dnd dene ke lie niyukt hua tha. usane bajaur par chadhaee karake svat [6] pahunch kar us jati ko dnd diya.
ghatiyan par karate-karate sena thak gee thi, isaliye jain khan koka ne badashah ke pas nee sena ke lie sahayatarth prarthana ki. shekh abul fazal ne utsah aur svamibhakti se is kary ke liye badashah ne apane ko niyukt kiye jane ki prarthana ki. badashah ne inake aur raja birabal ke nam par goli dali. daivath vah raja ke nam ki nikali. inake niyukt hone ke anantar shnka ke karan haqim abulafajal ke adhin ek sena pichhe se aur bhej di. jab donon saradar pahadi desh men hokar koka ke pas pahunche tab, yadyapi kokalatash tatha raja ke bich pahile hi se manomaliny tha, tathapi koka ne majalis karake navagntukon ko nimantrit kiya. raja ne is par krodh pradarshit kiya. koka dhairy ko kam men lakar raja ke pas gaya aur jab ray hone lagi; tab raja ( jo hakim se bhi pahile hi se manomaliny rakhata tha) se kadi-kadi baten hueen aur ant men gali-galauj tak ho gaya.

phal yah hua ki kisi ka hriday svachchh nahin raha aur har ek doosare ki sammati ko katane laga. yahan tak ki apas ki phoot aur jhagade se bina thik prabandh kie ve balndari ki ghati men ghuse. afaganon ne har or se tir aur patthar phenkana arambh kiya aur ghabarahat se hathi, ghode aur manushy ek men mil ge. bahut adami mare ge aur doosare din bina kram hi ke kooch karake andhere men ghatiyon men phns kar bahut se mare ge. raja birabal bhi isi men mare ge.[7]

kahate hain ki jab raja karakar pahunche the, tab kisi ne unase kaha tha ki aj ki rat men afagan akraman karenge; isase tin char kos zamin (jo samane hai) par kar li jay to ratri-akraman ka khataka n rah jaega. raja ne jain khan ko bina isaka pata die hi sndhya samay kooch kar diya. unake pichhe kul sena chal di. jo hona tha so ho gaya. badashahi sena ka bhari parajay hua aur lagabhag sahastr manushy mare ge jinamen se kuchh aise the jinhen badashah pahachanate the. raja ne bahut kuchh hath pair mara (ki bahar nikal jayen) par mara gaya.[8]

jab koee kritaghnata aur akritgyta se dhanyavad dene ke badale men buraee karane lagata hai, tab yah kntakamay snsar use jaldi usake kamon ka badala de deta hai. kahate hain ki jab raja us parvaty pradesh men pahuncha, tab usaka mukh aur hriday bigada hua tha aur apane sathiyon se kahata tha ki 'ham logon ka samay hi bigada hua hai ki ek haqim ke sath koka ki sahayata ke lie jngal aur pahad napana padega. isaka phal n jane kya ho! yah nahin janata tha ki svami ke kam karane aur usaki agya manane men hi bhalaee hai. yah karan kitana hi asntoshajanak raha ho, par yah prakat hai ki jain khan dhay-bhaee aur oonche mansab ka hone se uchchapadasth tha. raja keval do hazari mansabadar tha[9], par usane musahibi aur mitrata (jo badashah ke sath thi) ke ghamnd men aisa bartab kiya tha.[1]

birabal ki mrityu

mugal sena ke nayak ke roop men pashchimottar simaprant ke ek yuddh men sanh 1586 ee. men birabal ki mrityu ho gee thi. kahate hain ki akabar ne usaki mrityu-varta sun kar do din tak khan-pan nahin kiya[10] aur us faraman se (jo khan-e-khana mirza abdurrahim ko usake shok par likha tha aur jo allami shekh abul fazal ke grnth men diya hua hai) prakat hota hai ki badashah ke hriday men usane kitana sthan prapt kar liya tha aur donon men kitana ghana snbndh tha. birabal ki prashnsa aur svamibhakti ke shabdon ke age yah likha hua hai ki

shok ! sahastr shok !
ki is sharabakhane ki sharab men du:kh mila hua hai !
is mithe snsar ki mishri halahal mishrit hai.
snsar mrig-trishna ke saman pyason se kapat karata hai aur padav gaddhon aur tilon se bhara pada hai !
is majalis ka bhi sabera hona hai aur is pagalapan ka phal sir ki garmi hai !
kuchh rukavaten n a padatin to svayn jakar apani ankhon se birabal ka shav dekhata aur un kripaon aur aur dayaon (jo hamari us par thin) ko pradarshit karata."

sher ka arth

'"he hriday, aisi ghatana se mere kaleje men rakt tak nahin rah gaya aur he netr, kaleje ka rng bhi ab lal nahin rah gaya hai.'"

raja birabal dan dene men apane samay advitiy the aur puraskar dene men snsar-prasiddh the. gan vidya bhi achchhi janate the. unake kavitt aur dohe prasiddh hain. unake kahavaten aur latife sab men prachalit hain. unaka upanam brahm tha.[11] bade putr ka nam lala tha[12], jise yogy mansab mila tha. yah kusvabhav aur buri lat se vyay adhik karata tha jisase isaki ichchha badhi, par jab ay nahin badhi, tab isake sir par svatntrata se din vyatit karane ki sanak chadhi. isaliye isako 46 ven varsh men badashahi darabar chhodane ki agya mil gee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 pustak- 'mugal darabar ke saradar' bhag-1| lekhak: masirulh umara | prakashan: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi | prishth snkhya: 127-130
  2. darabari akabari men (pri. 295) upanam burhiya likha hai. badayoonni lo krit anu. pri. 161) men brahmadas hai. masirulhumara ke sampadakon ne barahan: (nnga) likha hai. yah sab farasi lipi ki maya matr hai. vastav men brahm hi thik hai. mishrabndhuvinod (sn. 77, bhag 1, pri. 296-8) men inaki kavita ka uddharan diya hua hai.
  3. pustak- bharat gyanakosh khnd-4 |prakashan- ensaiklopidiya britainika| prishth snkhya- 26
  4. (badayoonni, lo, pri. 164)
  5. (prashnsa bechane vale)
  6. jo peshavar ke uttar aur bajaur ke pashchim hai, chalis kos lamba aur panch se pndrah kos tak chauda hai aur jisamen chalis sahasr manushy us jati ke basate the
  7. akabaranama, ili. dau., ji. 5, prishth. 80-84 men vistrit vivaran diya hai.
  8. jubdatuttavarikh, ili. dau., ji. 5, pri. 191 men isi prakar yah ghatana likhi gee hai.
  9. yah ashchary ki bat hai ki akabar ka itana priy vyakti ko keval do hazari mansab mila hua tha jo itihasakaron ki samajh men nahin ata hai.
  10. raja birabal ki mrityu ke anntar unake jivit rahane ki jhoothi gappon ka varnan badayooni ne vistar se likha hai (dekhie munttakhabuttavarikh bib. indi. sn. pri. 357-58).
  11. darabari akabari men (pri. 295) upanam burhiya likha hai. badayoonni lo krit anu. pri. 161) men brahmadas hai. masirulhumara ke sampadakon ne barahan: (nnga) likha hai. yah sab farasi lipi ki maya matr hai. vastav men brahm hi thik hai. mishrabndhuvinod (sn. 77, bhag 1, pri. 296-8) men inaki kavita ka uddharan diya hua hai.
  12. doosare putr ka harihararay nam tha jisaka akabaranama ji. 3, prishth. 820 men is prakar ullekh hai ki vah dakshin se shahazada daniyal ka patr laya tha.

snbndhit lekh

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