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bulnd daravaza, fatehapur sikari, agara
Buland Darwaja, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra

fatehapur sikari agara se 22 mil dakshin men, mugal samrat akabar ka basaya hua bhavy nagar jisake khndahar aj bhi apane prachin vaibhav ki jhanki prastut karate hain. akabar se poorv yahan fatehapur aur sikari nam ke do ganv base hue the jo ab bhi hain. inhen angrezi shasak old vilejes ke nam se pukarate the. sanh 1527 ee. men chittaud-naresh rana sngramasinh aur babar ne yahan se lagabhag das mil door kanavaha namak sthan par bhari yuddh hua tha jisaki smriti men babar ne is ganv ka nam fatehapur kar diya tha. tabhi se yah sthan fatehapur sikari kahalata hai. kaha jata hai ki is gram ke nivasi shekh salim chishti ke ashirvad se akabar ke ghar salim (jahangir) ka janm hua tha. jahangir ki mata mariyam-uzh-zamani (amer naresh biharimal ki putri) aur akabar, shekh salim ke kahane se yahan 6 mas tak thahare the jisake prasadasvaroop unhen putr ka mukh dekhane ka saubhagy prapt hua tha.

itihas

pragaitihasik kal se hi fatehapur sikari manav basti ke nam se jani jati hai. vikram snvat 1010-1067 eesavi ke ek shilalekh men is jagah ka nam "sekriky" milata hai. sanh 1527 men babar khanava ke yuddh men fatah ke bad yahan aya aur apane snsmaran men is jagah ko sikari kaha hai. usake dvara yahan ek jalamahal aur bavali ke nirman ka bhi ullekh hai. akabar ki kee raniyan aur begam thin, kintu unamen se kisi se bhi putr nahin hua tha. akabar piron evn fakiron se putr prapti ke lie duaen mangata phirata tha. shekh salim chishti ne akabar ko dua di. fakir ne akabar se kaha,
"bachcha too hamara intazam kar de, teri murad poori hogi."
daivayog se akabar ki badi rani jo kachhavaha raja biharimal ki putri aur bhagavanadas ki bahin thi, garbhavati ho gee, aur usane putr ko janm diya. kaha jata hai ki akabar ne mariyam-uzh-zamani ko zachchagari ke lie mayake bhejane ke badale sikari ke salim chishti ke pas hi bhijava diya.[1] usaka nam shekh ke nam par salim rakha gaya jo bad men jahangir ke nam se akabar ka uttaradhikari hua. akabar shekh se bahut prabhavit tha. usane apani rajadhani sikari men hi rakhane ka nishchay kiya. sikari men jahan salim chishti rahate the usi ke pas akabar ne sanh 1571 men ek qila banavana shuroo kiya. akabar ne nishchay kar liya tha ki jahan balak paida hua vahan ek sundar nagar basayenge jisaka nam fatehabad rakha gaya, jise aj ham fatehapur sikari ke nam se janate hain. mugal shasanakal ka yah pratham yojanabaddh tarike se basaya gaya ek vaibhavashali nagar mana jata hai. yahin rahate rahate hi sabhi dharmon ke achchhi achchhi baton ko mila jula kar akabar ne apani "din-e-ilahi" namak ne dharm ki sthapana bhi ki thi parantu is ne dharm ko svikar karane ke lie kisi ko badhy nahin kiya. birabal sahit kee kulin darabariyon ne hi akabar ka sath diya tha.

rajadhani ka sthanantaran

san 1571 men rajadhani ka sthanantaran kiya gaya. usi sal akabar ne gujarat ko fatah kiya. is karan nee rajadhani ka nam fatehapur sikari rakha gaya. 1572 se lekar 1585 tak akabar vahin raha. sanh 1584 tak lagabhag 14 varsh tak fatehapur sikari hi mugal samrajy ki rajadhani rahi. akabar ne anek nirman kary karaye, jisase vah agara ke saman badi nagari ban gee thi. akabar ne ek vishal haram ka nirman karaya. jisamen vibhinn raj gharanon se upahar svaroop prapt raj kanyayen aur vibhinn deshon ki sundar striyon ka abhootapoorv sngrah tha. isake bad shahar men pani ki qillat tatha kuchh any rajanitik karanon se akabar ne lahaur ko apani rajadhani bana li thi. sanh 1584 men ek angrez vyapari akabar ki rajadhani aya, usane likha hai− 'agara aur fatehapur donon bade shahar hain. unamen se har ek lndan se bada aur adhik janasnkul hai. sare bharat aur eeran ke vyapari yahan reshami tatha doosare kapade, bahumooly ratn, lal, hira aur moti bechane ke lie late hain.' sanh 1600 ke bad shahar viran hota chala gaya halanki kuchh ne nirman bhi yahan hue the.[1] fatehapur sikari samast desh ki prashasanik gatividhiyon ka pramukh kendr thi.

shahar ki ninv

snt shekh salim chishh‍ti ke samh‍man men samrat akabar ne is shahar ki ninv rakhi. kuchh varshon ke andar suyojanabaddh prashasanik, avasiy aur dharmik bhavan astith‍v men ae. is qile ke bhitar pnchamahal hai jo ek panch mnzila imarat hai aur bauddh vihar shaili men bani hai. isaki panchavi mnzil se milon door tak ka drishy dikhayi deta hai. jama masjid snbhavatah pahala bhavan tha, jo nirmit kiya gaya. bulnd daravaza lagabhag 5 varsh bad joda gaya. anh‍y mahath‍vapoorn bhavanon men shekh salim chishh‍ti ki daragah, naubat-ur-nakh‍karakhana, takasal, karakhana, khazana, hakim ka ghar, divan-e-am, mariyam ka nivas, jise sunahara makan bhi kahate hain, jodhabaee ka mahal, birabal ka nivas adi shamil hain.

bhakti men akabar ne bina vichare hi sikari ko rajadhani bana diya tha. is sthan men pani ki badi kami thi, jisako poora karane ke lie pahadi par bandh bana kar ek jhil banaee gee thi. usi ka pani rajadhani men ata tha. agast 1582 men bandh toot gaya, jisase paryapt hani huee. 14 varsh tak sikari men rajadhani rakhane par akabar ne anubhav kiya ki yah sthan upuyakt nahin hai, at: sanh 1584 men pun: rajadhani agara banaee gee. rajadhani ke hatate hi fatehapur sikari ka hras hone laga ajakal vah ek chhota sa qasba rah gaya hai.

fatehapur sikari
fatehapur sikari ka vihngam drishy

bulnd daravaza aur daragah

fatehapur sikari, agara
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra

fatehapur sikari men akabar ke samay ke anek bhavanon, prasadon tatha rajasabha ke bhavy avashesh aj bhi vartaman hain. yahan ki sarvochch imarat bulnd daravaza hai, jisaki oonchaee bhoomi se 280 phut hai. 52 sidhiyon ke pashchath darshak daravaze ke andar pahunchata hai. daravaze men purane jamane ke vishal kivad jyon ke tyon lage hue hain. shekh salim ki manyata ke lie anek yatriyon dvara kivadon par lagavaee huee ghode ki nalen dikhaee deti hain. bulnd daravaze ko, 1602 ee. men akabar ne apani gujarat-vijay ke smarak ke roop men banavaya tha. isi daravaze se hokar shekh ki daragah men pravesh karana hota hai. baeen or jama masjid hai aur samane shekh ka mazar. mazar ya samadhi ke pas unake snbndhiyon ki qabren hain. masjid aur mazar ke samip ek ghane vriksh ki chhaya men ek chhota sngamaramar ka sarovar hai. masjid men ek sthan par ek vichitr prakar ka patthar laga hai jisakon thapathapane se nagade ki dhvani si hoti hai. masjid par sundar naqqashi hai. shekh salim ki samadhi sngamaramar ki bani hai. isake chaturdik patthar ke bahut barik kam ki sundar jali lagi hai jo anek akar prakar ki badi hi manamohak dikhaee padati hai. yah jali kuchh door se dekhane par jalidar shvet reshami vastr ki bhanti dikhaee deti hai. samadhi ke oopar moolyavan sip, sing tatha chndan ka adbhut shilp hai jo 400 varsh prachin hote hue bhi sarvatha naya sa jan padata hai. shvet pattharon men khudi vividh rngonvali phoolapattiyan naqqashi ki kala ke sarvotkrisht udaharanon men se hain. samadhi men ek chndan ka aur ek sip ka katahara hai. inhen dhaka ke soobedar aur shekh salim ke pautr navab islamakhan ne banavaya tha. jahangir ne samadhi ki shobha badhane ke lie use shvet sngamaramar ka banava diya tha yadyapi akabar ke samay men yah lal patthar ki thi. jahangir ne samadhi ki divar par chitrakari bhi karavaee. samadhi ke katahare ka lagabhag dedh gaz khnbha vikrit ho jane par 1905 men laaurd karzan ne 12 sahastr roope ki lagat se pun: banavaya tha. samadhi ke kivad abanoos ke bane hai.

fatehapur sikari
shekh salim chishti ki daragah (fatehapur sikari) ka vihngam drishy
Panoramic View Of Shekh Salim Chishti Shrine (Fatehpur Sikri)

rajamahal

akabar ke rajaprasad samadhi ke pichhe ki or oonche lnbe-chaude chabootaron par bana hain. inamen char-chaman aur khvabagah akabar ke mukhy rajamahal the. yahin usaka shayanakaksh aur vishram-grih the. char-chaman ke samane angan men anoop tal hai jahan tanasen dipak rag gaya karata tha. tal ke poorv men akabar ki turki begam rookaiya ka mahal hai. yah istnbool ki rahane vali thi. kuchh logon ke mat men is mahal men salima begam rahati thi. yah babar ki poti (akabar ki bahin)aur bairam khan ki vidhava thi. is mahal ki sajavat turki ke do shilpiyon ne ki thi. samudr ki laharen namak kalakriti bahut hi sundar evn vastavik jan padati hai. bhittiyon par pashupakshiyon ke atisundar tatha kalatmak chitr hain jinhen bad menaurngajeb ne nasht-bhrasht kar diya tha. bhavan ke jade hue kimati patthar bhi nikal lie ge hain.

divan-e-khas

rookaiya begam ke mahal ke dahini or akabar ka divan-e-khas hai jahan do begamon ke sath akabar nyay karata tha. badashah ke navaratn-mantri thoda hat kar niche baithate the. yahan samany janata tatha darshakon ke lie charon taraph baramade bane hain. bich ke bade maidan men hanan namak khooni hathi ke bandhane ke lie ek mota patthar gada hai. yah hathi mrityudnd prapt aparadhiyon ko rondane ke kam men laya jata tha. kahate hain ki yah hathi jise tin bar, padahat karake chhod deta tha use mukt kar diya jata tha. divan-e-khas ki yah visheshata hai ki vah ek padmakar prastar-stnbh ke oopar tika hua hai. isi par asin hokar akabar apane mantriyon ke sath gupt mantrana karata tha. divan-e-khas ke nikat hi ankhamichauni namak bhavan hai jo akabar ka niji mamalon ka daftar tha.

fatehapur sikari, agara
Fatehpur Sikri, Agra

pnchamahal

panch mnzila pnchamahal ya havamahal mariyam-uzh-zamani ke soory ko arghy dene ke lie banavaya gaya tha. yahin se akabar ki musalaman begamen eed ka chand dekhati thi. samip hi mugal rajakumariyon ka madarasa hai. mariyam-uzh-zamani ka mahal prachin gharon ke dhng ka banavaya gaya tha. isake banavane tatha sajane men akabar ne apane rani ki hindoo bhavanaon ka vishesh dhyan rakha tha. bhavan ke andar angan men tulasi ke birave ka thanvala hai aur samane dalan men ek mndir ke chihn hain. divaron men moortiyon ke lie ale bane hain. kahin-kahin divaron par krishnalila ke chitr hain jo bahut maddhim pad ge hai. mndir ke ghnton ke chihn pattharon par ankit hain. is tin mnzile ghar ke oopar ke kamaron ko grishmakalin aur shitakalin mahal kaha jata tha. grishmakalin mahal men patthar ki barik jaliyon men se thndi hava chhan-chhan kar ati thi.

any bhavan

is bhavan ke nikat hi birabal ka mahal hai jo 1582 ee. men bana tha. isake pichhe akabar ka niji astabal tha jisamen 150 ghode tatha anek oonton ke bandhane ke lie chhedadar patthar lagen hai. astabal ke samip hi abulaphazal aur phaizi ke nivasagrih ab nashtabhrasht dasha men hain. yahan se pashchim ki or prasiddh hiranaminar hai. kinvadnti hai ki is minar ke andar khooni hathi hanan ki samadhi hai. minar men oopar se niche tak age nikale hue hiran ke singon ki tarah patthar jade hai. minar ke pas maidan men akabar shikar khelata tha aur begamon ke ane ke lie akabar ne ek avaran-marg banavaya tha. fatehapur sikari se pray: 1 mil door akabar ke prasiddh mantri todaramal ka nivasasthan tha jo ab bhagn dasha men hai. prachin samay men nagar ki sima par moti jhil namak ek bada talab tha jisake chihn ab nahin milate. fatehapur sikari ke bhavanon ki kala unaki vishalata men hai, lnbe-chaude saral rekhakar nakshon par bane bhavan, vistrit prangan tatha oonchi chhaten, kul mila kar darshak ke man men vishalata tatha bhavyata ka gahara prabhav dalate hain. vastav men akabar ki is sthapaty-kalakriti men usaki apani vishalahridayata tatha udarata ke darshan hote hain.

akaviva, fadar ridanlfo

akaviva, fadar ridanlfo gova men dharmaprachar karane vala jesuit sampraday ka padari hai. sitambar, 1579 ee. men badashah akabar ki prarthana par usako aur padari monseret ko gova ki purtagali sarakar ne akabar ke darabar men fatehapur sikari bheja tha.

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 fatehapur sikari (hindi) vardapres. abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2010.

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