गोंडा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gonda bharat ke uttar pradesh rajy ka ek zila hai. sarayoo nadi ke pravah kshetr men sthit hone ke karan yah zila uttar pradesh ke sabase upajaoo mitti vale zilon men sammilit kiya jata hai. 15vin sadi men bisen rajapoot raja manasinh ne gonda ko sthapit kiya tha. yahan aitihasik mahattv ke kee avashesh ab bhi milate hain, jo gaddhon evn talon ke roop men phaile hain. raja ramadatt sinh ke shasan kal tak yah n keval prasiddh rajapoot gadh tha, apitu ek vyaparik snsthan bhi ho gaya tha. ram sharan sharma jaise itihasakaron ne is nagar ko gupt kal men nagaron ke patan aur samntavad ke uday se jodakar dekha hai.

itihas

prachin kal men gonda ke vartaman bhoo-bhag par shravasti ka adhikansh bhag aur koshal janapad phaila hua tha. gautam buddh ke samay ise ek nayi pahachan mili. yah us daur men itana adhik pragatishil evn samriddh tha ki mahatma buddh ne yahan 21 varsh tak pravas kiya. gonda janapad prasiddh uttarapath ke ek chhor par sthit hai. prachin bharat men yah himalay ke kshetron se ane vali vastuon ke agrasaran sthal ki tarah kam karata tha. 'bharatiy puratatv sarvekshan' ne apane vibhinn utkhananon men is zile ki prachinata par prakash dala hai.[1]

ved-puran ullekh

gonda evn baharaich ki sima par sthit 'sahet mahet' se prachin shravasti ki pahachan ki jati hai. jain grnthon men shravasti ko unake tisare tirthnkar sambhavanath aur athaven tirthnkar chndraprabhanath ki janm sthali bataya gaya hai. 'vayupuran' aur 'ramayan' ke 'uttarakand' ke anusar shravasti uttari koshal ki rajadhani thi, jabaki dakshini koshal ki rajadhani 'saket' hua karati thi. vastav men ek lambe samay tak shravasti ka itihas hi gonda ka itihas hai. samrat harshavardhan ke raj kavi banabhatt ne apane prashastiparak granth 'harshacharit' men shrut varma namak ek raja ka ullekh kiya hai, jo shravasti par shasan karata tha. dndi ke 'dashakumaracharit' men bhi shravasti ka varnan milata hai. shravasti ko is bat ka shrey bhi jata hai ki yahan se arnbhik kushan kal men bodhisatv ki moortiyon ke praman milate hain.

aisa pratit hota hai ki kushan kal ke pashchath is mahattvapoorn nagar ka patan hone laga tha. ram sharan sharma jaise itihasakaron ne ise gupt kal men nagaron ke patan aur samntavad ke uday se jodakar dekha hai. isake bavajood jetavan ka bihar lambe samay tak, lagabhag athavin evn nauvin shatabdiyon tak, astitv men bana raha. madhyakalin bharat men gonda ek mahatvapoorn sthan banaye rakhane men saphal raha tha. san 1033 men raja suheladev ne sayyas salar masood gazi se takkar li thi. yah bhi itihas ka ek rochak tathy hai ki donon hi shahar- gonda aur baharaich poore desh men samadrit hain. ek doosari ladaee masood ke bhatije hatila pir ke sath ashokanath mahadev mndir ke pas bhi huee thi, jisamen hatila pir mara gaya tha.[1]

bhaugolik dasha

gonda uttar pradesh ke sarayoo par kshetr men sthit apekshakrit vistrit janapad hai, jisaka kshetraphal 2,829 varg mil hai. is janapad ko tin pramukh prakritik khndon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. rapti par ka taraee kshetr, jo up-parvatiy talahati men sthit hone ke karan adhikatar nadi nalon tatha unake purane tyakt margon evn jhilon se poorn, dakshin men daladali kintu gadhi matiyar bhoomi ke karan dhan ke liye atynt upajaoo tatha uttar men vanon se dhaka hua hai.
  2. uparahar kshetr, jo uttar men rapti tatha ooparahar ke utthit balua kinare ke madhy uttar-pashchim se dakshin-poorv men vistrit utthapit maidan hai. nadi nalon dvara yah upajaoo ghatiyon men bnt gaya hai, nadiyon ke kinare jngal tatha baluee mitti milati hai. is kshetr men utaraula tahasil ka dakshini bhag, gonda paragane ka adhikansh kshetr tatha tarabagnj tahasil mahadeva evn navabagnj paragane ke kshetr padate hain.
  3. uparahar ke dakshini chhor se sarayoo (ghaghara) tak ka kshetr, jo nadi tak 15 phut nimnatar hota jata hai aur 'tarahar' kahalata hai. isamen sarayoo (ghaghara) tatha usaki sahayak tedhi nadiyon ki badh kabhi-kabhi bhaynkar ho jati hai. is kshetr men tarabagnj ka adhikansh tatha gonda tahasil ka pahadapur paragana padata hai. yahan mitti ki nichali paraten baluee hain, jin par vibhinn mutaee ki domat paraten jami huee hain. kahin-kahin balue dhoos milate hain, jinake niche gahari tatha upajaoo matiyar mitti milati hai.[1]

krishi

taraee kshetr men adhikanshat: gadhi matiyar, kintu kahin-kahin upajaoo domat; uparahar ke lagabhag do tihaee kshetr men domat, oopari tatha nadi tat vale bhagon men baluee, tarahar men halki tatha chhidr yukt domat, tatiy bhagon men baluee tatha keval gaddhon men matiyar mitti milati hai. taraee men dhan, uparahar men dhan, gehoon aur tilahan tatha tarahar men makka, gehoon aur jayad ki phasalen mukhy hain. upayukt bhoomi evn anukool jalavayu hone ke karan kul bhoomi ke 67.8 pratishat men krishi kary kiya jata hai. 5.7 pratishat vanachchhadit (adhikansh taraee ke uttari bhag men), 3.2 pratishat chaloo parati tatha 9.2 pratishat krishi ke liye aprapy hai, jisamen 5.2 pratishat jalashay hain. chaloo dharati ke atirikt 19.9 pratishat bhoomi krishy bnjar hai, jisaka keval 15 pratishat kheti ke liye samunnat kiya ja sakata hai. dhan, makee, ganna adi khariph tatha gehoon, jau, chana, tilahan pramukh rabi ki phasalen hain.

nadiyan

is zile men uttar-pashchim se dakshin-poorv ki or bahane vali nadiyan boodhi rapti, rapti, kuvana, visooti, manavar, tirahi, sarajoo (ghaghara) hain. rapti (keval varsha ritu men) tatha ghaghara nadi parivahaniy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 gonda (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 18 aprail, 2014.

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