कुशीनगर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kushinagar
parinirvan mndir kushinagar
vivaran 'kushinagar' bhagavan buddh se sambndhit anek aitihasik sthalon ke lie prasiddh hai. yah sthan bauddh dharm ke anuyayiyon ka pramukh tirth sthal hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila kushinagar
sthapana kinvadnti ke anusar mana jata hai ki kushinagar ki sthapana shriram ke putr kush ne ki thi.
bhaugolik sthiti gorakhapur se 51 ki.mi. ki doori par sthit.
prasiddhi bauddh tirth sthan
havaee adda banaras
relave steshan devariya
snbndhit lekh kushinagar ka itihas, buddh, mall mahajanapad,
kshetraphal 2,873.5 ki.mi.2
adhikarik vebasait kushinagar
any janakari san 1861 ee. men jab janaral kaningham ne khoj dvara is nagar ka pata lagaya to yahan jngal hi jngal the. us samay is sthan ka nam 'matha kunvar ka kot' tha.

kushinagar athava kushinara (angrezi: Kushinagar) buddh ke mahaparinirvan ka sthan hai. yah uttar pradesh rajy ka ek prasiddh zila tatha chhota qasba hai. bhagavan buddh se sambndhit kee aitihasik sthanon ke lie kushinagar snsar bhar men prasiddh hai. zile ka mukhyalay kushinagar se lagabhag 15 ki.mi. door padarauna men sthit hai. kushinagar rashtriy rajamarg snkhya 28 par gorakhapur se 51 ki.mi. ki doori par poorab men sthit hai. mahatma buddh ka nirvan yahin hua tha. yahan mukhyat: vishv bhar ke bauddh tirthayatri bhraman ke liye ate hain. kushinagar se poorab ki or badhane par lagabhag 20 ki.mi. ke bad bihar rajy arambh ho jata hai.

itihas

kushinagar prachin bharat ke tatkalin mahajanapadon men se ek evn mall rajy ki rajadhani tha.[1] kaningham ne kushinagar ko vartaman devariya zile men sthit 'kasiya' se samikrit kiya hai.[2] apane samikaran ki pushti men unhonne 'parinirvan mndir' ke pichhe sthit stoop men mile tamrapatr ka ullekh kiya hai, jis par 'parinirvanachaity tamrapatr iti' ullikhit hai.[3] kaningham ke is samikaran se vinsent smith[4] aur parjitar prabhriti vidvanh sahamat nahin hain. unake anusar kasiya ke avasheshon evn chini yatri hvenasang ke yatra vivaranon men paryapt bhinnata hai. is bhinnata ko dhyan men rakhate hue smith ne kushinagar ko nepal men pahadiyon ki pahali shrinkhala ke par sthit hone ke mat ko uchit mana hai.[5]

rij devids ke anusar yadi ham chini yatriyon ke yatra vivaranon par vishvas karen to kushinagar ke mallon ka pradesh, shaky pradesh ke poorv men pahadi dhal par sthit hona chahie. kuchh any vidvanh unaka pradesh shakyon ke dakshin men evn vajjigan ke poorv men sthit batalate hain.[6]
bauddh bhikshu dhyan sthali, kushinagar
lekin bad ke (1906-1907) puratatvik utkhanan se prapt samagriyon ke adhar par kaningham ki samiksha ko uchit manate hue 'kasiya' aur 'kushinagar' ko ek hi manana uchit hoga. kaningham ko in bhagnavasheshon se ‘mahaparinirvan vihar’ namankit anek mrinmudraen aur stoop ke bhitar se kuchh tamrapatr bhi mile hain. inake atirikt in khndaharon se mahatma buddh ki vaisi hi vishal moorti prapt huee hai, jaisi ki hvenasang ne kushinagar men dekhi thi. 'tathagat' ki nirvan moorti bauddh shilpiyon ka priy vishay rahi hai, parntu kasiya jaisi patthar ki vishal pratima anyatr nahin milati. ye vibhinn tathy bhi kaningham ke samikaran ke auchity ki pushti karate hain.

kinvadnti

bauddh grnth 'mahavnsh'[7] men kushinagar ka nam isi karan 'kushavati' bhi kaha gaya hai. bauddh kal men yahi nam kushinagar ya pali men 'kusinara' ho gaya.

  • ek any bauddh kinvadnti ke anusar takshashila ke ikshvaku vnshi raja taleshvar ka putr takshashila se apani rajadhani hatakar kushinagar le aya tha. usaki vnsh parampara men barahaven raja sudinn ke samay tak yahan rajadhani rahi. inake bich men kush aur mahadarshan namak do pratapi raja hue, jinaka ullekh gautam buddh ne[8] kiya tha.

nagar ka vaibhav

shrilnka mandir, kushinagar
  • 'mahadarshanasutt' men kusinara (kushinagar) ke vaibhav ka varnan hai-'raja mahasudarshan ke samay men kushavati poorv se pashchim tak barah yojan aur uttar se dakshin tak sat yojan thi. kushavati rajadhani samriddh aur sab prakar se sukh-shanti se bharapoor thi. jaise devataon ki alakananda namak rajadhani samriddh hai, vaise hi kushavati thi. yahan din rat hathi, ghode, rath, bheri, mridng, git, jhanjh, tal, shnkh aur khao-pio-ke das shabd goonjate rahate the. nagari sat parakoton se ghiri thi. inamen char rngon ke bade-bade dvar the. charon or tal vrikshon ki sat paktiyan nagari ko ghere huee thin. is poorv buddhakalin vaibhav ki jhalak hamen kasiya men khode gaye kuon ke andar se pray: bis phut ki gaharaee par prapt hone vali bhittiyon ke avasheshon se milati hai.
  • 'mahaparinirvanasutt' se gyat hota hai ki kushinagar bahut samay tak samast jnbudvip ki rajadhani bhi rahi thi. buddh ke samay (chhathi shati ee. poo.) men kushinagar mall mahajanapad ki rajadhani thi. nagar ke uttari dvar se sal van tak ek rajamarg jata tha, jisake donon or sal vrikshon ki pnktiyan thin. sal van se nagar men pravesh karane ke lie poorv ki or jakar dakshin ki or mudana padata tha. sal van se nagar ke dakshin dvar tak bina nagar men pravesh kie hi ek sidhe marg se pahuncha ja sakata tha. poorv ki or hiranyavati nadi (rapti) bahati thi, jisake tat par mallon ki abhishekashala thi. ise 'mukutabndhan chaity' kahate the. nagar ke dakshin ki or bhi ek nadi thi, jahan kushinagar ka shmashan tha. buddh ne kushinagar ate samay iravati (achiravati, ajiravati ya rapti nadi) par ki thi.[9]
kushinagar sthit ek dukan

nagar men anek sundar sadaken thin. charon dishaon ke mukhy dvaron se ane vale rajapath nagar ke madhy men milate the. is chaurahe par mall ganarajy ka prasiddh snthagar tha, jisaki vishalata isi se jani ja sakati hai ki isamen ganarajy ke sabhi sadasy ek sath baith sakate the. snthagar ke sabhi sadasy raja kahalate the aur bari-bari se shasan karate the. shesh vyapar adi karyon men vyast rahate the. kushinagar men mallon ki ek susajjit sena rahati thi. is sena par mallon ko garv tha. isi ke bal par ve yuddh ke asthi-avasheshon ko lene ke lie any logon se ladane ke lie taiyar ho ge the. bhagavan buddh apane jivanakal men kee bar kushinagar ae the. ve sal van bihar men hi pray: thaharate the. unake samay men hi yahan ke nivasi bauddh ho ge the. inamen se anek bhikshu bhi ban ge the. dabbamall sthavir, ayushman sinh, yashadatt sthavir inamen prasiddh the. kosalaraj prasenajit ka senapati bndhulamall, dirghanarayan, rajamall, vajrapanimall aur virangana mallika yahin ke nivasi the.

buddh ke upadesh

bhagavan buddh ki mrityu 483 ee. men kusinara men huee thi.[10] apani shishy mndali ke sath chund ke yahan bhojan karane ke pashchath use upadesh dekar ve kushinagar ae the. unhonne sal van ke upavan men yugmashal vrikshon ke niche chir samadhi li thi.[11] nirvan ke poorv kushinagar pahunchane par tathagat kushinagar men kamalon se sushobhit ek tadag ke pas upavan men thahare the.[12] antim samay men buddh ne kusinara ko bauddhon ka mahatirth bataya tha. unhonne yah bhi kaha tha ki "pichhale janmon men chh: bar ve chakravarti raja hokar kushinagar men rahe the."

nirvan mndir men buddh ki pratima

buddh ke sharir ka dahakarm

buddh ke sharir ka dahakarm mukutabndhan chaity, vartaman ramadhar men kiya gaya tha aur unaki asthiyan nagar ke snthagar men rakkhi gee thin[13]. bad men uttar bharat ke ath rajaon ne inhen apas men bant liya tha. mallon ne mukutabndhan chaity ke sthan par ek mahanh stoop banavaya tha. buddh ke pashchath kushinagar ko magadh-naresh ajatashatru ne jitakar magadh men sammilit kar liya aur vahan ka ganarajy sada ke lie samapt ho gaya kintu bahut dinon tak yahan anek stoop aur vihar adi bane rahe aur door-door se bauddh yatriyon ko akarshit karate rahe.

rajaon dvara nirman

bauddh anushruti ke anusar maury samrat ashok[14] ne kushinagar ki yatra ki thi aur ek lakh mudra vyay karake yahan ke chaity ka punarnirman karavaya tha. yuvanachvang ke anusar ashok ne yahan tin stoop aur do stnbh banavae the. tatpashchath kanishk (120 ee.) ne kushinagar men kee viharon ka nirman karavaya. gupt kal men yahan anek bauddh viharon ka nirman hua tatha purane bhavanon ka jirnoddhar bhi kiya gaya. gupt-rajaon ki dharmik udarata ke karan bauddh sngh ko koee kasht n hua. kumar gupt (5vin shati ee. ka prarambh kal) ke samay men haribal namak ek shreshthi ne parinirvan mandir men buddh ki bis phut oonchi pratima ki pratishthapana ki. chhathi v satavin ee. se kushinagar ujad hona prarambh ho gaya. harsh (606-647 ee.) ke shasanakal men kushinagar nasht prayah ho gaya tha yadyapi yahan bhikshon ki snkhya paryapt thi. yuvanachvang ke yatra-vritt se soochit hota hai ki kushinara, saranath se uttar-poorv 116 mil door tha. yuvan ke paravarti doosare chini yatri itsing ke varnan se gyat hota hai ki usake samay men kushinagar men sarvastivadi bhikshuon ka adhipaty tha. haihayavnshiy rajaon ke samay unaka sthan mahayan ke anuyayi bhikshuon ne le liya jo tantrik the. 16 vin shati men musalamanon ke akraman ke sath hi kushinagar ka itihas andhakar ke gart men lupt sa ho jata hai. snbhavat: 13 vin shati men musalamanon ne yahan ke sabhi viharon tatha anyany bhavanon ko tod-phod dala tha.

utkhanan kary

kushinagar se sambndhit abhilekh
  • san 1861 ee. men jab janaral kaningham ne khoj dvara is nagar ka pata lagaya to yahan jngal hi jngal the. us samay is sthan ka nam 'matha kunvar ka kot' tha. kaningham ne isi sthan ko parinirvan-bhoomisiddh kiya. unhonne 'anurudhava' gram ko prachin kusinara aur 'ramadhar' ko mukutabndhan chaity bataya.
  • 1876 ee. ki khudaee men yahan prachin kal men hone vale ek bhayanak agnikadn ke chihn mile hain, jisase spasht hai ki musalamanon ke akraman ke samay yahan ke sab viharon adi ko bhasm kar diya gaya tha. 'tibbat ka itihas' lekhak taranath likhate hain ki is akraman ke samay mare jane se bache hue bhikshu bhag kar nepal, tibbat tatha any deshon men chale ge the. parivarti kal men kushinagar ke astitv tak ka pata nahin milata.
  • varsh 1876 ee. men hi is sthan ko svachchh kiya gaya. purane tilon ki khudaee men mahaparinirvan stoop ke avashesh bhi prapt hue. tatpashchath kee guptakalin vihar tatha mandir bhi prakash men lae ge. kalachuri nareshon ke samay 12vin shati ka ek vihar bhi yahan se prapt hua tha.
  • kushinagar ka sabase adhik prasiddh smarak buddh ki vishal pratima hai, jo shayanavastha men pradarshit hai.[15] isake oopar dhatu ki chadar jadi hai. yahin buddh ki sadhe das phut oonchi doosari moorti hai, jise 'mathakunvar' kahate hain. isaki chauki par ek brahmi lekh ankit hai. mahaparinirvan stoop men se ek tamrapatt nikala tha, jis par brahmi lekh ankit hai- '(parini) varn chaity pamrapatt iti'. is lekh se tatha haribal dvara pratishthapit moorti par ke abhilekh deyadharmoyn mahavihare snamino haribalasy pratima cheyn ghatita dinen mathuren se kasiya ka kushinagar se abhigyan pramanit hota hai.
  • pahale vinsent smith ka mat tha ki kushinagar nepal men achiravati (rapti) aur hiranyavati (gndak ?) ke tat par basa hua tha.
  • majoomadar-shastri kasiya ko bethadip manate hain, jisaka varnan bauddh sahity men hai,[16] kintu ab kasiya ka kushinagar se abhigyan poornaroopen siddh ho chuka hai.

darshaniy sthal

kushinagar ke prasiddh darshaniy sthal hain-

ramabhar tila

ramabhar tila, kushinagar

ramabhar tila ya stoop kushinagar-devariya marg par 'matha kunvar mndir' se 1.61 ki.mi. ki doori par sthit hai. is sthan par mallon ki abhishekashala thi aur vahin par buddh ka 'antim snskar' kiya gaya tha. ise us samay ‘mukut bndhan chaity’ ke nam se jana jata tha. pratham bar isaki khudaee ek rajakiy karmachari ne karaee thi. utkhanan ka dvitiy charan 1910 ee. men hirannd shastri ki adhyakshata men prarnbh hua, jisase isake vastavik svaroop ka pata chala. 115 phut vyas men isaki ninv thi aur oopar 112 phut vyas ka stoop bana tha.

parinirvan mandir

parinirvan mandir kushinagar ka prasiddh bauddh dharmik sthal hai. sarvapratham karlail ne 1876 ee. men is mandir aur parinirvan pratima ko khoj nikala tha. karlail ko oonchi divaren to mili thin, parntu chhat ke avashesh nahin mile the. isamen keval garbhagrih aur usake age ek pravesh kaksh tha. is tile ke garbhagrih men khudaee karate samay karlail ko ek oonche sinhasan par tathagat ki 20 phut (lagabhag 6.1 mitar) lnbi parinirvan mudra ki pratima mili thi. yah pratima chittidar balua patthar ki hai. isamen buddh ko pashchim ki taraph mukh karake lete hue dikhaya gaya hai. isaka sir uttarabhimukh hai, dahina hath sir ke niche aur bayan hath jnghe par sthit hai. pair ek-doosare ke oopar hain.

avagaman

havaeeadda - varanasi (banaras) yahan ka nikatatam pramukh havaeeadda hai. dilli, lakhanoo, kolakata aur patana adi shaharon se yahan ke lie niyamit udanen hain. isake atirikt lakhanoo aur gorakhapur bhi vayuyan se akar yahan aya ja sakata hai.
rel marg - devariya kushinagar ka nikatatam relave steshan hai, jo yahan se 35 ki.mi. ki doori par hai. kushinagar se 51 ki.mi. door sthit gorakhapur yahan ka pramukh relave steshan hai, jo desh ke anek pramukh shaharon se juda hua hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • aitihasik sthanavali | vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar
  1. anguttaranikay, bhag 1, pri. 213 tatraiv, bhag 4 pri. 252 mahavastu, bhag 1 pri. 34
  2. e. kaningham, di ainshyent jyographi aphh indiya, pri. 363
  3. arkiyolajikalh sarve aphh indiya, varshik riport, 1911-12, pri. 17
  4. vistrit, jarnalh af di rayal eshiyatik sosayati (1902), pri. 139 aur age smith arli histri af indiya (chaturth snskaran), pri. 167, padatippani-5 (smith ka yah mat sarvamany nahin hai, kyonki hvenasang ke vivaranon ke adhar par kuchh nishchit karana snbhav nahin hai. hvenasang ke agaman ke pashchath bhi is sthan par nirntar parivartan hote rahe. rochak hai, saranath men bhi, jisaki sthiti sndigdh nahin hai, aisi hi vishamata paee jati hai.
  5. jarnal af di rayal eshiyatik sosayati, 1913, pri. 152 tu., vimal charan laha, prachin bharat ka aitihasik bhoogol, pri. 171
  6. rij devids buddhist indiya, varanasi, indolajikal buk haus (1979) punarmudrit, pri. 26
  7. mahavnsh2,6
  8. mahadarshanasutt ke anusar
  9. buddh charit 25, 53
  10. buddh charit 25, 52
  11. buddh charit 25, 55
  12. buddh charit 25, 53
  13. mukutabndhan chaity men mallarajaon ka rajyabhishek hota tha. buddh charit 27, 70 ke anusar buddh ki mrityu ke pashchath 'nagadvar ke bahar akar mallon ne tathagat ke sharir ko lie hue hiranyavati nadi par ki aur mukut chaity ke niche chita banaee'
  14. mrityu 232 ee. poo.
  15. buddh ka nirvan dahini karavat par lete hue hua tha.
  16. de. enshent jyagrefi av indiya, pri. 714

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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