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varanasi vishay soochi

parichay    itihas    bhoogol    arthavyavastha    shiksha    snskriti    dharmik sthal    paryatan    chitravali    vistrit alekh

varanasi alekh
varanasi ka drishy
vivaran varanasi, banaras ya kashi bhi kahalata hai. varanasi dakshin-poorvi uttar pradesh rajy, uttari-madhy bharat men gnga nadi ke baen tat par sthit hai aur hinduon ke sat pavitr nagaron men se ek hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila varanasi zila
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 25.282°, poorv- 82.9563°
marg sthiti varanasi, ilahabad se 125 kilomitar pashchim, lakhanoo se 281 kilomitar dakshin-poorv tatha dilli se lagabhag 780 kilomitar dakshin-poorv men hai.
kab jaen aktoobar se march
kaise pahunchen havaee jahaz, rel, bas, taiksi
havaee adda lal bahadur shastri havaee adda
relave steshan varanasi jnkshan, mugalasaray jnkshan
bas adda antarrajyiy bas adda ananh‍d vihar
yatayat aauto riksha, riksha, bas, mini bas, nav, stimar
kya dekhen vishvanath mndir, kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay, varanasi ki nadiyan, varanasi ke ghat
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi-grah
kya khayen pan, kachaudi-sabzi, chat, thndaee
kya khariden banarasi sadi
es.ti.di. kod 0542
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, varanasi havaee adda
snbndhit lekh gnga nadi, sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay, mahatma gandhi kashi vidyapith
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

varanasi, banaras ya kashi bhi kahalata hai. varanasi dakshin-poorvi uttar pradesh rajy, uttari-madhy bharat men gnga nadi ke baen tat par sthit hai aur hinduon ke sat pavitr nagaron men se ek hai. ise mandiron evn ghaton ka nagar bhi kaha jata hai. varanasi ka purana nam kashi hai. varanasi vishv ka prachinatam basa hua shahar hai. yah gnga nadi ke kinare basa hai aur hazaron sal se uttar bharat ka dharmik evn sanskritik kendr raha hai. do nadiyon varuna aur asi ke madhy basa hone ke karan isaka nam varanasi pada. banaras ya varanasi ka nam puranon, ramayan, mahabharat jaise anekanek granthon men milata hai. vedon men bhi kashi ka ullekh hai. snskrit padhane prachin kal se hi log varanasi aya karate the. varanasi ke gharanon ki hindustani sngit men apani hi shaili hai.

sthiti

varanasi bharatavarsh ki sanskritik evn dharmik nagari ke roop men vikhyat hai. isaki prachinata ki tulana vishv ke any prachinatam nagaron jerusalem, ethens tatha peiking (bijing) se ki jati hai.[1] varanasi gnga ke baen tat par arddhachndrakar men 250 18’ uttari akshansh evn 830 1’ poorvi deshantar par sthit hai. prachin varanasi ki mool sthiti vidvanon ke madhy vivad ka vishay rahi hai.

vidvanon ke matanusar

shering,[2] maradak,[3] gribj,[4] aur parakar[5] jaise vidvanon ke matanusar prachin varanasi vartaman nagar ke uttar men saranath ke samip sthit thi. kisi samay varanasi ki sthiti dakshin bhag men bhi rahi hogi. lekin vartaman nagar ki sthiti varanasi se poornataya bhinn hai, jisase yah pray: nishchit hai ki varanasi nagar ki prakriti yathasamay ek sthan se doosare sthan par visthapit hone ki rahi hai. yah visthapan mukhyataya dakshin ki or hua hai. par kisi pusht praman ke abhav men vidvanon ka ukt mat samichin nahin pratit hota hai.

gnga nadi, varanasi

gnga nadi ke tat par base is shahar ko hi bhagavan shiv ne prithvi par apana sh‍thayi nivas banaya tha. yah bhi mana jata hai ki varanasi ka nirman srishti rachana ke prarambhik charan men hi hua tha. yah shahar pratham jh‍yortiling ka bhi shahar hai. puranon men varanasi ko brahmand ka kendr bataya gaya hai tatha yah bhi kaha gaya hai yahan ke kan-kan men shiv nivas karate hain. varanasi ke logon ke anusar, kashi ke kan-kan men shivashnkar hain. inake kahane ka arth yah hai ki yahan ke prath‍yek path‍thar men shiv ka nivas hai. kahate hain ki kashi shnkar bhagavan ke trishool par tiki hai.

hevel ki drishti men

hevel ki drishti men varanasi nagar ki sthiti visthapan pradhan thi, apitu prachin kal men bhi varanasi ka vartaman svaroop surakshit tha.[6] hevel ke matanusar buddh poorv yug men adhunik saranath ek ghana jngal tha aur yah vibhinn dharmavalnbiyon ka ashray sthal bhi tha. bhaugolik dashaon ke pariprekshy men hevel ka mat yuktisngat pratit hota hai. vastav men varanasi nagar ka astitv buddh se bhi prachin hai tatha unake avirbhav ke sadiyon poorv se hi yah ek dharmik nagari ke roop men khyati prapt tha. saranath ka udbhav mahatma buddh ke pratham dharmachakr pravartan ke uparant hua. ramalochan sinh ne bhi kuchh snshodhanon ke sath hevel ke mat ka samarthan kiya hai. unake anusar nagar ki mool sthiti pray: uttari bhag men svikar karani chahie.[7] hal ke akatha ke utkhanan se is bat ki pushti hoti hai ki varanasi ki prachin sthiti uttar men thi jahan se 1300 eesa poorv ke avashesh prakash men aye hain.

namakaran

‘varanasi’ shabd ‘varuna’ aur ‘asi’ do nadivachak shabdon ke yog se bana hai. pauranik anushrutiyon ke anusar varuna aur asi nam ki nadiyon ke bich men basane ke karan hi is nagar ka nam varanasi pada.

  • 'padmapuran' ke ek ullekh ke anusar dakshinottar men ‘varana’ aur poorv men ‘asi’ ki sima se ghire hone ke karan is nagar ka nam varanasi pada.[8]
  • 'atharvaved'[9] men varanavati nadi ka ullekh hai. snbhavat: yah adhunik varuna ka hi samanarthak hai.
  • 'agnipuran' men nasi nadi ka ullekh milata hai.

pauranik ullekh

varanasi ke sndarbh men is tarah ke anek pauranik aur lokamithak prachalit hain. in mithakon ki vyakhya ka prayas vidvanon ne kiya hai. kaningham[10] ne ‘barana’ aur ‘asi’ ke madhy varanasi ki sthiti svikar ki hai. em. jooliyan mahoday ne kaningham ke mat par sndeh vyakt karate hue ‘barana’ nadi ka hi prachin nam ‘varanasi’ mana hai.[11] yadyapi ve apane mat ki pushti men koee praman nahin dete, parntu itana to nishchit hai ki vaidik pauranik ullekhon men ‘asi’ ka nadi ke roop men kahin bhi varnan nahin milata.

Blockquote-open.gif varanasi vishv ka prachinatam basa hua shahar hai. do nadiyon varuna aur asi ke madhy basa hone ke karan isaka nam 'varanasi' pada. Blockquote-close.gif

mahabharat[12] men ullekh aya hai ki varana ka prachin nam varanasi tha aur isamen do nadiyon ke nam nikalane ki prakriya apekshakrit bad ki hai. padmapuran[13] men ‘varanasi’ ka ek nadi ke roop men ullekh hai. vibhinn puranon ke in prasngon se kisi nishchit nishkarsh par pahunchane men kathinaee hoti hai. motichndr ne varanasi men ‘varuna’ aur ‘asi’ ki sngati ki avadharana ko kalpanik prakriya mana hai. snbhav hai ki asi par basane ke karan is nagar ka nam varanasi pada ho. ‘varuna’ aur ‘asi’ ke madhy varanasi ke basane ki kalpana us samay huee jab nagar ki dharmik mahima badhi aur kalantar men yah kalpana sthir ho gee.[14] is tathy se pray: sabhi vidvan sahamat hain ki prachin varanasi adhunik rajaghat ke oonche maidan par basa tha, aur isaka prachin vistar [15] varana (varuna) ke us par [16] bhi tha. varana se asi ki or ka vistar paravarti hai. ullekhaniy hai ki prachin varanasi sadaiv varana par hi sthit nahin thi, balki gnga tak usaka prasar tha. kam se kam patnjali ke kal men (eesa poorv doosari shatabdi men) usaka basav gnga ke kinare-kinare tha jaisa ki ashtadhyayi ke ek sootr[17] par patnjali ke bhashy[18] se spasht hai.

vriksh ke nam ke adhar par

varanasi ke namakaran ke snbndh men ek doosari snbhavana bhi hai. varana shabd ek vriksh vishesh ka dyotak hai. prachin kal men vrikshon ke nam ke adhar par nagaron ka namakaran kiya gaya tha. kosnb se koshanbi, rohit se rohatak ityadi. at: bahut snbhav hai ki usi parampara men varanasi aur varanavati donon ka nam yahan par adhik utpann hone vale varana vriksh ke karan pada ho.

doosara nam ‘kashi’

varanasi ka doosara nam ‘kashi’ prachin kal men ek janapad ke roop men prakhyat tha aur varanasi usaki rajadhani thi. isaki pushti panchavin shatabdi men bharat ane vale chini yatri fahyan ke yatra vivaran se bhi hoti hai.[19] harivnshapuran men ullekh aya hai ki ‘kashi’ ko basane vale pururava ke vnshaj raja ‘kash’ the. at: unake vnshaj ‘kashi’ kahalae.[20] snbhav hai isake adhar par hi is janapad ka nam ‘kashi’ pada ho. kashi namakaran se snbaddh ek pauranik mithak bhi upalabdh hai. ullekh hai ki vishnu ne parvati ke muktamay kundal gir jane se is kshetr ko mukt kshetr ki sngya di aur isaki akathaniy param jyoti ke karan tirth ka namakaran kashi kiya.[21]

mahashh‍mashan

kashi ko 'mahashh‍mashan' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. ise prithvi ki sabase badi shamashan bhoomi mana jata tha. yahan ke manikarnika ghat tatha harishh‍chndr ghat ko sabase pavitr ghat mana jata hai. prachin kal men vishh‍vas kiya jata tha ki yahan jinaka kriya karm kiya jata hai unh‍hen moksh ki prapti hoti hai. varanasi ka ek anh‍y nam 'abhimukh‍ta' tha. mana jata hai ki is nagari ko bhagavan shiv apane trishool par uthae hue hain.

itihas

aitihasik alekhon se pramanit hota hai ki eesa poorv ki chhathi shatabdi men varanasi bharatavarsh ka bada hi samriddhashali aur mahattvapoorn rajy tha. madhy yug men yah kannauj rajy ka ang tha aur bad men bngal ke pal nareshon ka is par adhikar ho gaya tha. sanh 1194 men shahabuddin gori ne is nagar ko loota aur kshati pahunchayi. mugal kal men isaka nam badal kar muhammadabad rakha gaya. bad men ise avadh darabar ke pratyaksh niyntran men rakha gaya. balavnt sinh ne baksar ki ladaee men angrezon ka sath diya aur isake upalakshy men varanasi ko avadh darabar se svatntr karaya. sanh 1911 men angrezon ne maharaj prabhunarayan sinh ko varanasi ka raja bana diya. sanh 1950 men yah rajy svechchha se bharatiy ganarajy men shamil ho gaya. varanasi vibhinn mat-matantaron ki sngam sthali rahi hai. vidya ke is puratan aur shashvat nagar ne sadiyon se dharmik guruon, sudharakon aur pracharakon ko apani or akrisht kiya hai. bhagavan buddh aur shnkarachary ke alava ramanuj, vallabhachary, snt kabir, guru nanak, tulasidas, chaitany mahaprabhu, raidas adi anek snt is nagari men aye.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men bhi varanasi sadaiv agrani rahi hai. rashtriy andolan men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke chhatron ka yogadan smaraniy hai. is nagari ko krantikari sushil kumar lahidi, amar shahid chndrashekhar azad tatha jitedranath sanyal sarikhe vir sapooton ko janm dene ka gaurav prapt hai.

vaidik sahity men varanasi

varanasi (kashi) ki prachinata ka itihas vaidik sahity men bhi upalabdh hota hai. vaidik sahity ke tinon staron (snhita, brahman evn upanishad) men varanasi ka vivaran milata hai.

ved path karate brahman, varanasi
varsh- 1870

vaidik sahity[22] men kaha hai ki aryon ka ek qafila videdh mathav ke netritv men adhunik uttar pradesh ke madhy se sadanira athava gndak ke kinare ja pahuncha aur vahan koshal janapad ki ninv padi. jab aryon ne uttar bharat par adhikar kar liya to aryon ki ek jati kassi ne varanasi ke samip 1400 se 1000 ee. poo. ke madhy apane ko sthapit kiya.[23]

mahakavyon men varnit varanasi

mahakavyon men varanasi ke sndarbh men kee ullekh milate hain.

mahabharat

mahabharat men varanasi ka ullekh anek sthalon par hua hai. mahabharat se is tathy ki pushti hoti hai ki varana ka hi prachin nam varanasi tha.[24] adiparv men kashiraj ki putri sarvaseni ka vivah dushynt ke putr bharat ke sath hone ka vivaran milata hai.[25] ek any sthal par bhishm dvara kashiraj ki tin putriyon- anba, anbika aur ambalika ke svaynvar men jite jane ka ullekh hai.[26] kashi ke shasak pratardan tatha mithila ke shasak janak ke madhy yuddh ki charcha bhi mahabharat men milati hai.[27]

valmiki ramayan

valmiki ramayan men varanasi se snbndhit prakaran apekshakrit kam milate hain. uttarakand men kashiraj pururava ka nam aya hai.[28] isi kand men yah bhi aya hai ki yayati ka putr puru pratishthan ke sath hi varanasi ka bhi shasak tha.[29] ramayan ke ek any sthal par kashi-koshal janapad ka ek sath ullekh milata hai.[30]

bhaugolik sthiti

varanasi nagar ki rachana gnga ke kinare hai, jisaka vistar lagabhag 5 mil men hai. oonchaee par base hone ke karan adhikatar varanasi badh ki vibhishika se surakshit rahata hai, parntu varanasi ke madhy tatha dakshini bhag ke nichale ilaqe prabhavit hote hain.

nagar ka akar

nagar ke akar ki dharmik manyataon ke adhar par vyakhya karane ke anek prayas kie gaye hain. in manyataon ki bhaugolik vyakhya ko kamovesh svikara gaya hai. aise samanyat: prachalit vishvason ki soochi is prakar banaee hai-

krit trishool

is trishool ke tin shool hain- uttar men onkareshvar, madhy men vishveshvar tatha dakshin men kedareshvar. yah tinon gnga tat par sthit hain. mannyata hai ki yah nagari bhagavan shiv ko samarpit hai aur unake trishool par sthit hai.

tretayug chakr
chaurasi kos yatra ke tadanuroop hai aur madhyameshvar isaka kendr hai jo gnga ke nikat avasthit hai.
sooryast ka ek drishy, varanasi
dvapar rath

sat prakar ke shiv mndir, rath ka samaroop banate hain. ye hain- gokarneshvar, sulatanakeshvar, manikarneshvar, bharabhooteshvar, vishveshvar, madhyameshvar tatha onkareshvar. is akar men bhi gnga nadi ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai.

shnkhakar

yahan bhi mndiron ki sthiti ke samaroop akar mana gaya hai aur gnga nadi yah akar nirdharit karati hai. is akar ko banane vale mndir hain- uttar pashchim men vidhnaraj aur vinayak, uttar men shaileshvar, dakshin poorv men kedareshvar aur dakshin men lolark.

dharatal ki snrachana

varanasi ke dharatal ki snrachana thos knkadon se huee hain. adhunik rajaghat ka chauras maidan jahan nadi-nalon ke katav nahin milate, shahar basane ke lie upayukt tha. varanasi shahar ke uttar men varuna aur dakshin men assi nala hai, uttar-pashchim ki or yadyapi aisa koee prakritik sadhan (pahadiyan, jhil, nadi ityadi) nahin hai jisase nagar ki suraksha ho sake, tathapi yah nishchit hai ki kashi ke samipavarti gahan van, jinaka ullekh jatakon, jain evn pauranik grnthon men aya hai, kashi ki suraksha men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada karate rahe honge.[31]

varanasi ki nadiyan

varanasi ka vistar gnga nadi ke do sngamon varuna aur asi nadi se sngam ke bich bataya jata hai. in sngamon ke bich ki doori lagabhag 2.5 mil hai. is doori ki parikrama hinduon men pnchakosi yatra ya pnchakosi parikrama kahalati hai. varanasi zile ki nadiyon ke vistar se adhyayan karane par yah gyat hota hai ki varanasi men to prasravak nadiyan hai lekin chndauli men nahin hai jisase us zile men jhilen aur daladal hain, adhik barasat hone par ganv pani se bhar jate hain tatha fasal ko kafi nuqasan pahunchata hai.

gnga

gnga nadi, varanasi

gnga ka varanasi ki prakritik rachana men mukhy sthan hai. gnga varanasi men gngapur ke betavar ganv se pahale ghusati hai. yahan par isase subaha nala a mila hai. varanasi ko vahan se pray: sat mil tak gnga mirzapur zile se alag karati hai aur isake bad varanasi zile men varanasi aur chandauli ko vibhajit karati hai. gnga ki dhara ardh-vrittakar roop men varsh bhar bahati hai. isake bahari bhag ke oopar karare padate hain aur bhitari bhag men baloo athava badh ki mitti milati hai. gnga ka rukh pahale uttar ki taraf hota hua ramanagar ke kuchh age tak dehat amanat ko ralhoopur se alag karata hai. yahan par kinara knkarila hai aur nadi usake thik niche bahati hai. yahan toofan men navon ko kafi khatara rahata hai. dehat amanat men gnga ka banya kinara mundadev tak chala gaya hai. isake niche ki or vah ret men parinat ho jata hai aur badh men pani se bhar jata hai. ramanagar chhodane ke bad gnga ki uttar-poorv ki or jhukati doosari kehuni (kaman, taraf) shuroo hoti hai. dhara yahan bayen kinare se lagakar bahati hai.

banagnga

ramagadh men banagnga ke tat par vairant namak sthal ke prachin khndaharon ki sthiti hai, jo mahattvapoorn hai. lok kathaon ke anusar yahan ek samay prachin varanasi basi thi. sabase pahale bairant ke khndaharon ki janch padatal karlaeel 2 ne ki. vairant ki sthiti gnga ke dakshin men saidapur se dakshin-poorv men aur varanasi ke uttar-poorv men qarib 16 mil aur gazipur ke dakshin-pashchim qarib 12 mil hai. vairant ke khndahar banagnga ke vartulakar dakshin-poorvi kinare par hain.

varanasi men gnga ke vibhinn drishy

gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi gnga nadi, varanasi

arthavyavastha

udyog aur vyapar

choodiyon ka drishy, varanasi

varanasi kala, hastashilp, sngit aur nrity ka bhi kendr hai. yah shahar resham, sone v chandi ke taron vale zari ke kam, lakadi ke khilaunon, kanch ki choodiyon, hathi dant aur pital ke kam ke lie prasiddh hai. yahan ke pramukh udyogon men rel injan nirman ikaee shamil hai.

Blockquote-open.gif kashi ko 'mahashh‍mashan' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. ise prithvi ki sabase badi shamashan bhoomi mana jata tha. yahan ke manikarnika ghat tatha harishh‍chndr ghat ko sabase pavitr ghat mana jata hai. Blockquote-close.gif

varanasi ke karigaron ke kala- kaushal ki khyati sudoor pradeshon tak men rahi hai. varanasi ane vala koee bhi yatri yahan ke reshami kimakhab tatha zari ke vastron se prabhavit hue bina nahin rah sakata. yahan ke bunakaron ki parnparagat kushalata aur kalatmakata ne in vastuon ko snsar bhar men prasiddhi aur manyata dilayi hai . videsh vyapar men isaki vishisht bhoomika hai . isake utpadan men badhottari aur vishishtata se videshi mudra arjit karane men badi saphalata mili hai . resham tatha zari ke udyog ke atirikt, yahan pital ke bartan tatha un par manohari kam aur snjarat (jhanjh majhira) udyog bhi apani kala aur saundary ke lie vikhyat hain . isake alava yahan ke lakadi ke khilaune bhi door- door tak prasiddh hain, jinhen kutir udyogon men mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hain .

vanijy aur vyapar ka pramukh kendr

varanasi nagar vanijy aur vyapar ka ek pramukh kendr tha. sthal tatha jal margon dvara yah nagar bharat ke any nagaron se juda hua tha. kashi se ek marg rajagrih ko jata tha.[32] kashi se vernja jane ke lie do raste the-

  1. soreyy hokar
  2. prayag men gnga par karake.

doosara marg banaras se vaishali ko chala jata tha.[33] varanasi ka ek sarthavah panch sau gadiyon ke sath pratynt desh gaya tha aur vahan se chndan laya tha.[34]

varanasi men udyog-vyapar ke vibhinn drishy

sabzi mandi ka ek drishy, varanasi varanasi men bazar ka ek drishy varanasi men bazar ka ek drishy sabzi mandi ka ek drishy, varanasi halavaee ki dukan, varanasi varanasi men bazar ka ek drishy phool vala, varanasi doodh vikreta, varanasi sabzi mandi ka ek drishy, varanasi varanasi men bazar ka ek drishy pan vala, varanasi sabzi mandi ka ek drishy, varanasi varanasi men bazar ka ek drishy

manornjan

filmen

bharatiy sinema men varanasi ki snskriti aur usaki prishthabhoomi par adharit kee filmon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan hai. jinamen se kuchh pramukh filmen nimnalikhit hain-

banaras – e mistik lav stori
banaras – e mistik lav stori
banaras – e mistik lav stori banaras shahar men bani ek hindi film hai. is film men banaras ki galiyon, ghaton aur mndiron ko ek prem kahani men piroya gaya hai. ath karod ki lagat vali is film men nasiruddin shah, dinpal kapadiya, urmila matondakar, asmit patel aur akash khurana ne pramukh bhoomikaen nibhaee hain.
joi baba phelunath
joi baba phelunath

joi baba phelunath (1979) bharat ratn sammanit nirdeshak satyajit re dvara nirdeshit ek bangla film hai. is film ke abhineta saumitr chatarji, sntosh datta, siddarth chatarji, utpal datt adi hain. yah film satyajit ray ke prasiddh upanyas feluda par adharit hai.

khee ke pan banaras vala
daaun (1978)

1978 ki suparahit hindi film daaun ka gana khee ke pan banaras vala amitabh bachchan ke sath banarasi pan ki prashnsa men gaya gaya tha aur bahut lokapriy hua tha.

khanapan

pan vala, varanasi

varanasi men bahut se bhojanalay hain jahan par svadisht bhojan milata hai.

jayapuriya hotal

jayapuriya hotal varanasi men godauliya chauk ke pas sthit hai. is hotal men bahut sh‍vadishh‍t bhojan milata hai. yahan par khas thali milati hai. isamen tin sabh‍ji, dal, kadhi, roti, chaval, salad tatha papad hota hai. is bhojanalay ki khas bat hai ki yahan bhojan lakadi ke ag par banaya jata hai. is bhojan ko banane men ph‍yaj aur lahasun ka bhi upayog nahin hota hai.

kachaudi-sabh‍ji

varanasi ke log nashh‍te men bahudha kachaudi-sabh‍ji khana pasnd karate hain. yahan ke log kachaudi-sabh‍ji ke sath jalebi khate hain.

vishh‍vanath sahab hotal

vishh‍vanath sahab hotal godauliya chauk ke pas sthit hai. yahan deshi ghi ki kachaudi-sabh‍ji prasiddh hai. is hotal ke pas 'kashi chat bhndar' hai. kashi chat bhndar ki chat bahut sh‍vadishh‍t hoti hai.

banarasi pan

banarasi pan duniya bhar men mashahoor hai. banarasi pan chabana nahin padata. yah munh men jakar dhire-dhire ghulata hai aur man ko bhi suvasit kar deta hai. varanasi ane valon men pan khane ka shauq rakhane vale ko banarasi pan zarur khana chahie. hindi ki suparahit film daaun ka gana khee ke pan banaras vala jo amitabh bachchan par chitrankit kiya gaya tha, banarasi pan ki prashnsa men gaya gaya tha aur bahut lokapriy hua tha.

banarasi sadi

  • banarasi sadiyon duniyabhar men prasiddh hain. lal, hari aur any gahare rngon ki ye sadiyan hindoo parivaron men kisi bhi shubh avasar ke lie avashyak mani jati hain.
  • uttar bharat men adhikansh betiyan banarasi sadi men hi vida ki jati hain.
  • banarasi sadiyon ki karigari sadiyon purani hai.

krishi aur khanij

kapas chunati yuvati

kapas ki kheti

varanasi nagar ko vanijy ke kshetr men bhi khyati prapt tha. jatakon se bhi vidit hota hai ki varanasi ke bahumooly, rngin, sugndhit, suvasit, patale evn chikane kapade vikray ke lie sudoor deshon men bheje jate the. kashi men bane vastron ko ‘kashi kuttam,[35] aur ‘kasiy’[36] bhi kahate the. snbhavat: in shabdon ka prayog gunavachak sndarbh men kiya gaya hai. aisa samajha jata hai ki ek samay varanasi ke asapas kapas ki achchhi kheti hoti thi. tundil jatak men[37] varanasi ke asapas kapas ke kheton ka varnan milata hai. ek jatak men vairagy lene vale pati ke man ko akarshit karane ke lie usaki patni chndan se suvasit banarasi reshami sadi pahanane ki pratigya karati hai.[38] mahahns jatak men kashiraj ke ghar men vidyaman bahumooly samagriyon men ratn, sona, chandi, moti, billaur, mani, shnkh, vastr, hathidant, bartan aur tanba ityadi pramukh the.

yatayat aur parivahan

kisi nagar ke vikas ka ek mukhy karan yatayat ke sadhan hain. bahut prachin kal se varanasi men yatayat ki achchhi suvidha rahi hai. yatriyon ke aram par banarasavasiyon ka kafi dhyan tha. banarasavasi sadakon par janavaron ke lie pani ka bhi prabndh karate the. jatakon men (ja. 175) ek jagah kaha gaya hai ki kashi janapad ke rajamarg par ek gahara kuan tha jisake pani tak pahunchane ke lie koee sadhan n tha.
lal bahadur shastri havaee adda, varanasi
us raste se jo log jate the ve puny ke lie pani khinchakar ek droni bhar dete the jisase janavar pani pi saken.

varanasi havaee, rel tatha sadak marg dvara desh ke anh‍y bhagon se juda hua hai.

havaee marg

varanasi ka sabase nazadiki havaee adda babatapur men hai. yah varanasi se 22 kilomitar tatha saranath se 30 kilomitar door hai. dilli, agara, khajuraho, kolakata, munbee, lakhanoo, bhuvaneshh‍var tatha kathamandoo se yahan ke lie sidhi havaee seva hai.

rel marg
varanasi relave steshan

varanasi kaint tatha mugalasaray (varanasi ke mukhh‍y relave sh‍teshan se 16 kilomitar door) yahan ka mukhh‍y rel jnkh‍shan hai. ye donon jnkh‍shan varanasi ko desh ke anh‍y pramukh nagaron se jodate hain.

sadak marg

varanasi sadak marg dvara desh ke anh‍y nagaron se juda hua hai. dilli se varanasi ke lie sidhi bas seva hai. yahan ke aee.es.bi.ti. tatha ananh‍d vihar bas adde se varanasi ke lie basen chalati hain. lakhanoo tatha ilahabad se bhi varanasi ke lie sidhi bas seva hai.

sarvajanik yatayat

varanasi shahar ke sthaniy prachalit yatayat sadhan aauto riksha evn saikil riksha hain. bahari kshetron men nagar-bas seva men mini-basen chalati hain. chhoti naven aur chhote stimar gnga nadi par karane hetu upalabdh rahate hain.

jal marg
varanasi ke dharmik aur vyaparik prabhav ka mukhy karan isaki gnga par sthiti hona hai. gnga men bahut prachin kal se naven chalati thin jinase kafi vyapar hota tha. varanasi se kaushanbi tak jalamarg se doori 30 yojan di huee hai. varanasi se samudr yatra bhi hoti thi.
bazar ka ek drishy, varanasi
ek jatak [40] men kaha gaya hai ki varanasi ke kuchh vyapariyon ne disakak lekar samudr yatra ki. yah disha kak samudr yatra ke samay kinare ka pata lagane ke lie chhoda jata tha. kabhi-kabhi kashi ke raja bhi navon ke bedon men yatra karate the.[41]

alabarooni ke samay men [42] bari [43] se ek sadak gnga ke poorvi kinare ayodhya pahunchati thi. bari se ayodhya 25 pharasng tatha vahan se varanasi 20 pharasng tha. yahan se gorakhapur, patana, munger hoti huee yah sadak gngasagar ko chali jati thi. ek yahi vaishali vali prachin sadak hai aur isaka upayog saltanat yug men bahut hota tha.

graind trnk rod

bazar ka drishy, varanasi

sadak-e-ajam jise ham graind trnk rod kahate hain, bahut prachin sadak hai jo maury kal men pushpakalavati se pataliputr hoti huee tamralipti tak jati thi. sherashah ne is sadak ka pun: uddhar kiya, is par saray banavaeen aur dak ka prabndh kiya. kahate hain ki yah sadak-e-ajam bngal men sonaraganv se sindh tak jati thi aur isaki lambaee 1500 kos thi. yah sadak varanasi se hokar jati thi. is sadak ki akabar ke samay men kafi unnati huee aur shayad usi kal men mirzamurat aur saiyadaraj men sarayen bani. agara se patana tak is sadak ka varnan pitar mnti ne 1632 een. men kiya hai. ek sadak dilli- muradabad, banaras hokar patana jati thi aur doosari agara - ilahabad hokar varanasi ati thi. in badi sadakon ke atirikt bahut se chhote-mote raste varanasi ko jaunapur, gazipur aur mirzapur se milate the.

chaurahon par sabhaen

yatriyon ke vishram ke liye aksar chaurahon par sabhaen banavayi jati thin. inamen sone ke lie asndi aur pani ke ghade rakhe hote the. inake charon or divaren hoti thi aur ek or phatak. bhitar zamin par baloo bichhi hoti thi aur tad vrikshon ki qataren lagi hoti thi.

shikshan snsthan

varanasi poorv se hi vidya aur shiksha ke kshetr men ek aham pracharak aur kendriy snstha ke roop men sthapit tha. madhyakal ke dauran uttar pradesh men udar parampara ka snchalan tha. varanasi 'hindoo shiksha kendr' ke roop men vishvavyapak hua. varanasi ke uchchatar madhyamik vidyalay 'indiyan sartiphiket aauf saikendari ejukeshan' [44], 'kendriy madhyamik shiksha bord' [45] ya 'uttar pradesh madhyamik shiksha parishad' [46] se sahabaddh hain. prachin kal se hi log yahan darshan shastr, snskrit, khagol shastr, samajik gyan evn dharmik shiksha adi ke gyan ke liye ate rahe hain. bharatiy parnpara men prayah varanasi ko sarvavidya ki rajadhani kaha gaya hai. varanasi men ek jamiya salafiya bhi hai, jo salafi islami shiksha ka kendr hai.

kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay

kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ya banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay varanasi men sthit ek kendriy vishvavidyalay hai. is vishvavidyalay ki sthapana [47] ke antargat huee thi. pandit madanamohan malaviy ne kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ki sthapana ka prarambh 1904 ee. men kiya, jab kashi naresh 'maharaj prabhunarayan sinh' ki adhyakshata men snsthapakon ki pratham baithak huee. 1905 ee. men vishvavidyalay ka pratham pathyakram prakashit hua.

sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay

sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay ki sthapana 1791 ee. men bharat ke gavarnar janaral laaurd kaaurnavalis ne ki thi. varanasi ka yah pratham mahavidyalay tha. je myor, aee.si.es is mahavidyalay ke pratham pradhanachary, snskrit pradhyapak the.

mahatma gandhi kashi vidyapith

varanasi ka yah ek manit rajapatrit vishvavidyalay hai. is vidyapith ka nam bharat ke rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ke nam par hai. is vidyapith men gandhi ji ke siddhanton ka palan kiya jata hai.

kendriy uchch tibbati shiksha snsthan

yah instityoot saranath men sthit hai. yahan par parnparagat tibbati pathan-pathan ko adhunik shiksha ke sath variyata di jati hai. 'uday pratap mahavidyalay' ek svayatt mahavidyalay hai jahan adhunik banaras ke upanagariy chhatron hetu krida evn vigyan ka kendr hai. varanasi men bahut se niji evn sarvajanik snsthan hai, jahan hindoo dharmik shiksha ki vyavastha hai. in vishvavidyalayon ke alava shahar men kee snatakottar evn snatak mahavidyalay bhi hain, jaise - agrasen digri kaaulej, harishachndr digri kaaulej, ary mahila digri kaaulej evn skool aauf mainejament.

kala

sngit

  • varanasi gayan evn vady donon hi vidyaon ka kendr raha hai.
  • sumadhur thumari bharatiy knth sngit ko varanasi ki vishesh den hai.
vady bajate hue kalakar, varanasi
  • isamen dhirendr baboo, badi moti, chhoti moti, sidhdeshvar devi, rasoolan baee, kashi baee, anavari begam, shanta devi tatha is samay girija devi adi ka nam samast bharat men bade gaurav evn samman ke sath liya jata hai.

sahity

varanasi snskrit sahity ka kendr to rahi hi hai, lekin isake sath hi is nagar ne hindi tatha urdoo men anek sahityakaron ko bhi janm diya hai, jinhonne sahity seva ki tatha desh men gaurav poorn sthan prapt kiya. inamen bharatendu harishchndr, ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh', jayashnkar prasad, premachnd, shyamasundar das, ray krishnadas, achary ramachandr shukl, ramachndr varma, pandey bechan sharma 'ugr', vinodashnkar vyas, krishnadev prasad gaud tatha daau. snpoornannd ullekhaniy hain. inake atirikt urdoo sahity men bhi yahan anek jane- mane lekhak evn shayar hue hain. jinamen mukhyatah shri vishvanath prasad shad, maulavi mahesh prasad, maharaj chetasinh, shekhali haji, aga hashr kashmiri, hukum chndr naiyar, pro. haphij banarasi, shri haq banarasi tatha nazir banarasi ka nam ata hai.

utsavapriyata

varanasi ke nivasiyon ki utsavapriyata ka ullekh jatakon men savistar milata hai. mahajanapad yug men dipavali ka ullekh mukhy tyoharon men hua hai. ek jatak men ullekhit hai ki kashi ki dipamalika kartik mas men manayi jati thi. is avasar par sthiyan keshariya rng ke vastr pahanakar nikalati thin.[48]

hastimngalotsav

hastimngalotsav bhi varanasi ka ek pramukh utsav tha,[49] jisaka ullekh jatakon evn bauddh sahity men milata hai. isake atirikt mndirotsav bhi manaya jata tha, jisamen surapan kiya jata tha.[50] ek jatak men ullekh aya hai ki kashiraj ne ek bar is avasar par tapasviyon ko khoob surapan karaya tha.[51]

varanasi ke mandir

varanasi men kee pramukh mndir sthit hain. varanasi kee pramukh mndiron ka nagar hai. varanasi men lagabhag har ek chaurahe par ek mndir sthit hai. dainik sthaniy archana ke liye aise chhote mndir sahayak hote hain. in chhote mndiron ke sath hi varanasi men dheron bade mndir bhi hain, jo samay-samay par varanasi ke itihas men banavaye gaye the. varanasi men sthit in mndiron men kashi vishvanath mndir, annapoorna mndir, dhundhiraj ganesh, kal bhairav, durga ji ka mndir, snkatamochan, tulasi manas mndir, naya vishvanath mndir, bharatamata mndir, snkatha devi mndir v vishalakshi mndir pramukh hain.

kashi vishh‍vanath mndir

mool kashi vishh‍vanath mndir bahut chhota tha. 18vin shatabh‍di men indaur ki rani ahilh‍yabaee holh‍kar ne ise bhavh‍y roop pradan kiya. pnjab ke shasak raja rnjit sinh ne 1835 ee. men is mndir ke shikhar ko sone se madhavaya tha. is karan is mndir ka ek anh‍y nam golh‍den temh‍pal bhi pada. yah mndir kee bar dhh‍vash‍t kiya gaya. vartaman men jo mndir hai usaka nirman chauthi bar men hua hai. qutubuddin aibak ne sarvapratham ise 1194 ee. men dhh‍vash‍t kiya tha. raziya sultan (1236-1240) ne isake dhh‍vnsavashesh par raziya masjid ka nirman karavaya tha. isake bad is mndir ka nirman abhimukh‍teshh‍var mndir ke nazadik banavaya gaya. bad men is mndir ko jaunapur ke sharki rajaon ne tudava diya. 1490 ee. men is mndir ko sikandar lodi ne dhh‍vns karavaya tha. 1585 ee. men banaras ke ek prasiddh vh‍yapari todaramal ne is mndir ka nirman karavaya. 1669 ee. men is mndir ko aurngazeb ne pun: tudava diya. aurngazeb ne bhi is mndir ke dhh‍vnsavashesh par ek masjid ka nirman karavaya tha.

varanasi ke ghat

varanasi (kashi) men gnga tat par anek sundar ghat bane hain, ye sabhi ghat kisi n kisi pauranik ya dharmik katha se snbndhit hain. varanasi ke ghat gnga nadi ke dhanush ki akriti hone ke karan manohari lagate hain. sabhi ghaton ke poorvarbhimukh hone se sooryoday ke samay ghaton par pahali kiran dastak deti hai. uttar disha men rajaghat se prarambh hokar dakshin men assi ghat tak sau se adhik ghat hain. varanasi men ash‍sighat se lekar varuna ghat tak sabhi ki kramavar soochi nimn hai:-

varanasi ke ghat
ghat ka nam nirmata
navala ghat nagar nigam
asi ghat maharaja, banaras
lala mishr ghat maharaja rivan
tulasi ghat mahnt svaminath
bhadaini ghat nagar nigam
janaki ghat asharphi sinh
akroor ghat ray shiv prasad
mata anndamayi ghat lala bachchharaj
bachchharaj ghat baboo shekhar chnd
jain ghat nagar nigam
nishad raj ghat nagar nigam
prabhughat nirmal kumar
shivala ghat pn. baijanath mishr
chetasinh ghat pnchakot ke raja
nirnjani ghat pnchakot ke raja
dndi ghat lalloo ji agraval
gulariya ghat lalloo ji agraval
hanuman ghat mahnt harihar ji
maisoor ghat maisoor rajy
harishchnd nagar nigam
lalli ghat maharaja banaras
vijayanagaram ghat maharaja vijayanagaram
kedar ghat kumar svami
chauki ghat nagar nigam
narava ghat nagar nigam
someshvar ghat kumar svami
manasarovar ghat nagar nigam
raja ghat madhorav peshava
narad ghat dattatrey svami
ghat ka nam nirmata
khori ghat kavindr narayan sinh
gngamahal ghat mathura pande
pande ghat babua pande
dhobiya ghat kumar svami
digpatiya ghat digpatiya stet (bngal)
chausatthi ghat udayapur ke raja
rana ghat udayapur ke raja
munshi ghat shridhar munshi
darabhnga ghat maharaja, darabhnga
ahilyabaee ghat maharaja, indaur
shitala ghat nagar nigam
dashashvamedh ghat nagar nigam
prayag ghat rani hemand kumari devi
ghoda ghat nagar nigam
rajendr prasad ghat nagar nigam
man mndir ghat maharaja, jayapur
tripura bhairavi ghat maharaja, banaras
mir ghat mir rustam ali
phoota ghat svami, maheshvarannd
nepali ghat nanahi baboo
lalita ghat nepal naresh
amarohagiri bavali (ghat) baboo keshav das
jalasaee ghat nagar nigam
khiraki ghat maharaja, indaur
manikarnika ghat maharaja, indaur
bajirav ghat maharaja, indaur
sindhinya ghat maharaja, gvaliyar
snkata ghat maharaj badauda
ghat ka nam nirmata
snkata ghat, gngamahal maharaja gvaliyar
bhonsala ghat maharaja nagapur
naya ghat nagar nigam
ganesh ghat madhorav peshava
agnishvar ghat madhorav peshava
mehata ghat madhorav peshava
ramaghat madhorav peshava
babhaji ya mngalagauri ghat madhorav peshava
pnchagnga ghat nagar nigam
benimadhav ghat nagar nigam
durgaghat narayan dikshit
brahmaghat narayan dikshit
shitala ghat maharaja, boondi
lal ghat nagar nigam
gayaghat nagar nigam
balabaee ghat nagar nigam
trilochan ghat narayan dikshit
gola ghat nagar nigam
nndoo ghat nagar nigam
pakka ghat nagar nigam
teliyanala ghat nagar nigam
naya ghat nagar nigam
prahlad ghat nagar nigam
rajaghat nagar nigam
varuna sngam ghat nagar nigam

rajaghat utkhanan

rajaghat ki prachinata aur usaka satat itihas kisi puratatvik utkhanan se 1940 ee. tak nishchit nahin tha. isaki prachin sthiti vartaman kashi steshan ke uttar-poorvi men gnga aur varuna ke madhy thi, jise 'rajaghat tile' ke nam se jana jata hai. isaki akasmik khoj 1939 ee. men vartaman kashi steshan ke vistar ke samay relave thekedaron dvara khudaee karate samay huee.[52] khudaee men in thekedaron ko bahut-si prachin vastuen milin jinamen mitti ki muharen evn mudrayen bhi thin. in vastuon ko ab 'bharat kala bhavan' aur 'ilahabad myoonisipal myooziyam' men rakha gaya hai. in mudraon men mukhyat: yoonani devi-devataon ki akritiyan tatha kuchh yoonani rajaon ke sir ka ankan hai. yahan se mili vastuon se akrisht hokar shri krishnadev ke netritv men bharatiy puratattv vibhag ke ek dal ne yahan utkhanan prarnbh kiya. is dal ne oopari jamav se 20 phut niche tak khudaee ki.

varanasi ke ghaton ke vibhinn drishy

varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat prayag ghat, varanasi varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat kedar ghat, varanasi varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat harishchndr ghat, varanasi varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat ahilyabaee ghat, varanasi vijayanagar ghat, varanasi

paryatan

varanasi, paryatakon ke lie akarshan ka kendr hai. yahan anek dharmik, aitihasik evn sundar darshaniy sthal hain, jinhen dekhane ke lie desh ke hi nahin, snsar bhar se paryatak ate hain aur is nagari tatha yahan ki snskriti ki bhoori-bhoori prashnsa karate hain. kala, snskriti, sahity aur rajaniti ke vividh kshetron men apani alag pahachan banaye rakhane ke karan varanasi any nagaron ki apeksha apana vishisht sthan rakhati hai . desh ki rashtrabhasha hindi ki janani snskrit ki udbhav sthali kashi sanskritik ekata ka pratik hai.

bharat kala bhavan

bharat kala bhavan, varanasi

bharat kala bhavan, uttar pradesh rajy ke varanasi men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke prangan men sthit ek sngrahalay hai. bharat men prachalit lagabhag samast shailiyon ke chitron ka vishal sngrah is sngrahalay men hai. yahan ka chitr sngrah vishv men apana ek vishisht sthan rakhata hai. bharatiy chitrakala ke vishay men yadi koee bhi vidvan, shodhakarta ya kalavid gahan adhyayan karana chahe to yah bat nishchit roop se kahi ja sakati hai ki use varanasi men sthit 'bharat kala bhavan' ke chitr sngrah ka avalokan karana hi hoga.

vibhootiyan

varanasi men prachin kal se samay-samay par anek mahanh vibhootiyon ka pradurbhav ya vas hota raha hain. inamen se kuchh is prakar hain-

varanasi se snbndhit mahan vibhootiyan

ustad bismilla khan pndit ravishnkar madanamohan malaviy hajari prasad dvivedi kabiradas tulasidas bharatendu harishchndr jayashnkar prasad munshi premachnd ayodhyasinh upadhyay ramachandr shukl
varanasi se snbndhit mahan vibhootiyan
nam vivaran chitr
ustad bismilla khan
bharat ratn sammanit bismilla khan (janm- 21 march 1916 - mrityu- 21 agast, 2006 ) ek prakhyat shahanaee vadak the. 1969 men eshiyaee sngit sammelan ke rostam puraskar tatha anek any puraskaron se sammanit bismilla khan ne shahanaee ko bharat ke bahar ek pahachan pradan kiya hai. .... aur padhen
ustad bismilla khan
pndit ravishnkar
pndit ravishnkar (janm- 7 apral, 1920 banaras) vishv men bharatiy shastriy sngit ki utkrishtata ke sabase bade udaghoshak hain. ek sitar vadak ke roop men unhonne khyati arjit ki hai. ravi shnkar aur sitar manon ek-doosare ke lie hi bane hain. vah is sadi ke sabase mahan sngitgyon men gine jate hain. .... aur padhen
pndit ravishnkar
pndit madanamohan malaviy
pndit madan mohan malaviy (janm- 25 disambar, 1861, ilahabad; mrityu- 12 navambar, 1946) mahan svatntrata senani, rajanitigy aur shikshavid hi nahin, balki ek bade samaj sudharak bhi the. itihasakar visi sahoo ke anusar hindoo rashtravad ke samarthak madan mohan malaviy desh se jatigat bediyon ko todana chahate the. unhonne daliton ke mandiron men pravesh nishedh ki buraee ke khilaf deshabhar men andolan chalaya. .... aur padhen
pndit madanamohan malaviy
hajari prasad dvivedi
daau. hajari prasad dvivedi (janm- 19 agast, 1907 ee., ganv 'arat dube ka chhapara', baliya zila, bharat; mrityu- san 1978 ee.) hindi ke shirshasthaniy sahityakaron men se hain. ve uchchakoti ke nibandhakar, upanyas lekhak, alochak, chintak tatha shodhakarta hain. sahity ke in sabhi kshetron men dvivedi ji apani pratibha aur vishisht kartavy ke karan vishesh yash ke bhagi hue hain. dvivedi ji ka vyaktitv garimamay, chittavritti udar aur drishtikon vyapak hai. dvivedi ji ki pratyek rachana par unake is vyaktitv ki chhap dekhi ja sakati hai. .... aur padhen
hajari prasad dvivedi
kabir
mahatma kabiradas ke janm ke samay men bharat ki rajanitik, samajik, arthik evn dharmik dasha shochaniy thi. ek taraph musalaman shasakon ki dharmanndhata se janata pareshan thi aur doosari taraph hindoo dharm ke karmakand, vidhan aur pakhnd se dharm ka hras ho raha tha. janata men bhakti- bhavanaon ka sarvatha abhav tha. pnditon ke pakhndapoorn vachan samaj men phaile the. aise sngharsh ke samay men, kabiradas ka prardubhav hua. .... aur padhen
kabir
tulasidas
gosvami tulasidas 1497(1532?) - 1623 ek mahan kavi the. unaka janm rajapur, (vartaman banda zila) uttar pradesh men hua tha. tulasi ka bachapan bade kashton men bita. mata-pita donon chal base aur inhen bhikh mangakar apana pet palana pada tha. isi bich inaka parichay ram-bhakt sadhuon se hua aur inhen gyanarjan ka anupam avasar mil gaya. .... aur padhen
gosvami tulasidas
bharatendu harishchandr
bharatendu harishchandr ka janm kashi nagari ke prasiddh 'seth amichnd' ke vnsh men 9 sitambar san 1850 ko hua. inake pita 'baboo gopal chandr' bhi ek kavi the. inake gharane men vaibhav evn pratishtha thi. jab inaki avastha matr 5 varsh ki thi, inaki mata chal basi aur das varsh ki ayu men pita ji bhi chal base. bharatendu ji vilakshan pratibha ke vyakti the. inhonne apane paristhitiyon se gambhir prerana li. inake mitr mandali men bade-bade lekhak, kavi evn vicharak the, jinaki baton se ye prabhavit the. inake pas vipul dhanarashi thi, jise inhonne sahityakaron ki sahayata hetu mukt hast se dan kiya. .... aur padhen
bharatendu harishchandr
jayashnkar prasad
mahakavi jayashnkar prasad (janm- 30 janavari, 1889 ee.,varanasi, uttar pradesh, mrityu- 15 navambar, san 1937) hindi naty jagat aur katha sahity men ek vishisht sthan rakhate hain. katha sahity ke kshetr men bhi unaki den mahattvapoorn hai. bhavana-pradhan kahani likhane valon men jayashnkar prasad anupam the. .... aur padhen
jayashnkar prasad
premachnd
bharat ke upanyas samrat munshi premachnd (janm- 31 julaee, 1880 - mrityu- 8 aktoobar, 1936) ke yug ka vistar san 1880 se 1936 tak hai. yah kalakhand bharat ke itihas men bahut mahattv ka hai. is yug men bharat ka svatntrata-sngram nee mnzilon se guzara. .... aur padhen
premachnd
ayodhyasinh upadhyay
khadi boli ko kavy bhasha ke pad par pratishthit karane vale kaviyon men ayodhyasinh upadhyay 'hariaudh' (janm- 15 aprail, 1865, mrityu- 16 march, 1947) ka nam bahut adar se liya jata hai. unnisavin shatabdi ke antim dashak men 1890 ee. ke as-pas ayodhyasinh upadhyay ne sahity seva ke kshetr men padarpan kiya. .... aur padhen
ayodhyasinh upadhyay
ramachandr shukl
ramachandr shukl ji ka janm basti zile ke agona namak ganv men san 1884 ee. men hua tha. san 1888 ee. men ve apane pita ke sath rath hamirapur gaye tatha vahin par vidyadhyayan prarambh kiya. san 1892 ee. men unake pita ki niyukti mirzapur men sadar qanoonago ke roop men ho gee aur ve pita ke sath mirzapur a gaye. .... aur padhen
ramachandr shukl
rani lakshmibaee
jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee ka janm 19 navnbar, 1828 ko kashi ke puny v pavitr kshetr asighat, varanasi men hua tha. inake pita ka nam 'moropnt tanbe' aur mata ka nam 'bhagirathi baee' tha. inaka bachapan ka nam 'manikarnika' rakha gaya parantu pyar se manikarnika ko 'manu' pukara jata tha. manu ki avastha abhi char-panch varsh hi thi ki usaki man ka dehant ho gaya. .... aur padhen
rani lakshmibaee
adi shnkarachary
eesa ki satavi shatabdi men shnkar ke roop men svayn bhagavan shiv ka avatar hua tha. adi shnkarachary jinhen 'shnkar bhagavadpadachary' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai, vedant ke advait mat ke praneta the. avataravad ke anusar, eeshvar tab avatar leta hai, jab dharm ki hani hoti hai. dharm aur samaj ko vyavasthit karane ke lie hi ashutosh shiv ka agaman dakshin-bharat ke keral rajy ke kaladi़ gram men hua tha . .... aur padhen
adi shnkarachary

janasnkhya

2001 ki janaganana ke anusar nagar nigam kshetr ki janasnkhya 11,22,748 hai, chhavani kshetr ki janasnkhya 17,246 aur zile ki janasnkhya 31,3867 hai.[53]

varanasi par kavita

hindi ke prasiddh kavi shrikrishn saral ki chandrashekhar azad par likhi gee anupam kavita hain -

varanasi laharen

uchchhal gnga ka hillolit antar hai,
bhavana pragati ki manon huee prakhar hai.
laharen hain, jo srkane ka nam n leti,
tataki banhon men ve vishram n leti.

badhate jane ki unamen hod lagi hai,
mntron men jaise adbhut shakti jagi hai.
har lahar, lahar ko age thel rahi hai,
har lahar, lahar ki gati ko jhel rahi hai.

badhana, badhate jana sakriy jivan hai,
tat se bndh kar rah jana ghutan-sadan hai.
jo kood pada laharon men, par hua hai,
jo joojh pada, sapana sakar hua hai.

jo lik puratanata ki chhod n paya,
jisaka bal yug-dhara ko mod n paya.
vah manav kya, jo bandhan tod n paya,
jo anyayon ke ghat ko phod n paya.

ye laharen hain, ata hai inhen laharana
badhane ki dhun men bhata nahin thaharana.
tun kaun? yahan jo gumasum baithe tat par,
nishchal nishkriy, jivan ke is panaghat par.

dekho jaladhara par tirati naukaen,
jivan-dhara par tirati abhilashaen.
uthalen men kuchh gahare men naha rahe hain,
apane kalmash gnga men baha rahe hain.

kachhue kulabul kar rahe kamanaon se,
suchh dube hain avadamit vasanaon se.
kuchh dani unako dane chuga rahe hain,
pathey puny ke ankur uga rahe hain.

ghaton par jagrat jivan machal raha hai,
khamoshi ko kolahal nigal raha hai.
nar-nari balak-vriddh yuva ae hain,
ve apani vay ki sadh sath lae hain.

bachchen, bachapan ke khelon par lalachayen,
bachchon ke baba, puny kamane ae.
kya bat kahen unaki jinamen yauvan hai,
chhayavadi kavita-si har dhadakan hai.

yauvan ki sanson men hain suman mahakate,
yauvan sagar hai, shant nahin yah tat hai.
yauvan, abhilashaon ka vnshivat hai,
yauvan rngin umngon ka panaghat hai.

yauvan ata to jivan hi jivan hai,
yauvan ata, bebas ho jata man hai.
yauvan ke kshan sapanon ke hathon bikate,
yauvan ke panv nahin dharati par tikate.

tum kaun, ghat se tike hue baithe ho?
tun kisake hathon bike hue baithe ho?
bik chuka yahan nrip harishachandr-sa dani,
rohit-sa beta, tara jaisi rani.

to suno, chhalakate jivan ki main gagari,
dekho, main baba vishvanath ki nagari.
jo badabhagi, ve log yahan rahate hain,
parichay doon? varanasi mujhe kahate hain.

shiv ke trishool par baithi main ithalati,
main daihik, daivik, bhautik shool mitati.
jine valon ko divy gyan deti hoon,
marane valon ko moksh-dan deti hoon.

shnkar baba ki kaise kahoon `kahani',
un jaisa koee mila n avadhar dani.
tap ki vibhooti tan par shobhit hoti hai,
yash-gnga unake jata-joot dhoti hai.

hai tej-punj-sa unnat bhal damakata,
kahane vale kahate hain, chandr chamakata.
ve yug ka vish pine vale vishapayi,
apane bhakton ko ve sadaiv varadayi.

vishayon ke vishadhar unhen nahin dasate hain,
jan-mngal hi unake man men basate hain.
ve sunate anahad-vad vishv-bhay-hari,
isalie log kahate, nadiya savari.

ve vartaman ke man, bhoot hain vash men,
abhipret bhavishyat hain man ke tarknsh men.
jag ke vichitr gun-gan unake anuchar hain,
ve parvatiy-sushama-pati shiv-shnkar hain.

kya mrig-marichika koee use lubhae,
jo mrig-chhala ko asan svayn banae.
ve dhoorajati, dhun ki dhooni ramate hain,
vyavadhan viphal hote jab ve jamate hain.

mainne tumako shiv ka mahatmy bataya,
mainne gnga ki laharon ka gun gaya.
tum utho pathik, jhatako yah atm-udasi,
jag se joojho, tum bano nahin snnyasi.

gnga ki laharon se shitalata pao,
mandir men baba ke darshan kar ao.
tumako rahasy kuchh aur bataoongi main,
apane bete ka gaurav gaoongi main.[54]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

chitr vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dayana el ik, banaras siti aauf lait (nyooyark, 1982), pratham snskaran, prishth 4
  2. em. e. shering, di sekred sitij aauf di hindooj, (lndan, 1968) prishth 19-34
  3. je. maradak, kashi aur banaras (1894) prishth 5
  4. ee. gribj, kashi, ilahabad, 1909, prishth 3-4
  5. e. parakar, e haindabuk aauf banaras, prishth 2
  6. ee.vi. haivel, banaras di sekred siti prishth 41-50
  7. ramalochan sinh, banaras, ek siti in arban jyographi, prishth 31
  8. varanasiti yath khyatn tammann nigadamiv. dakshinatarayau nayau paranasishchapoornat:॥- padmapuran, kashi mahatmy 5/58
  9. atharvaved, 4/7/1
  10. ainshyent jyographi aauf indiya, (varanasi, 1963), prishth 367
  11. em. jooliyan, laiph end pilagrimej aauf yuvaaunh-chvang, 1/133,2/354
  12. mahabharat, 6/10/30
  13. shering, di sekred siti aauf banaras, (lndan, 1968), prishth 19
  14. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, (bnbee, pratham snskaran, 1962 ee.) prishth 4
  15. bhagnavashesho ke adhar par
  16. baen tat par
  17. yasy ayam:. 2/1/16, ashtadhyayi panini
  18. ‘‘anugngn varanasi anushonn pataliputrn’’ kilaharn, 1/380
  19. jems legge, trevels aauf fahyan, (dilli, 1972, dvitiy snskaran), prishth 94
  20. ‘‘kashasy kashayo rajanh putrodirghatapastatha.’’ – harivnshapuran, adhyay 29
  21. ‘‘kashate trayato jyotistadanakhyemaposhvar:. atonaparn chastukashiti prathitanvibho.’ ॥68॥ kashi khnd, adhyay 26
  22. shatapath brahman, 1/4/1/10-17: motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 19
  23. ee.bi.haivel, banaras, di sekred siti, (kalakatta punarmudit, 1968 ee.),prishth 2
  24. mahabharat, 6/10/30
  25. tatrev, adiparv, adhyay 95
  26. tatrev, udyogaparv, 72/74
  27. tatraiv, 12/99/1-2
  28. valmiki ramayan, uttarakand 56/25
  29. tatraiv, 59/19
  30. mahikal mahi chapi shail kanan shobhitamh. brahmamalanvidehashch malavan kashi koshalanh॥ balmikiramayan, kishkindhakand, 20,22
  31. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 2
  32. vinayapitak, jild 1, prishth 262
  33. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 49
  34. suttanipat, adhyay 2, prishth 523
  35. jatak, khnd 6 sn. 539 (mahajanak jatak
  36. tatraiv, khnd 6, snkhya 547 (mahavesatt jatak
  37. tatraiv bhag 3 prishth 286 motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 47
  38. jatak snkhya 457 dekhen, udayanarayan ray, prachin bharat men nagar tatha nagar jivan, prishth 126
  39. yn kinviratann atthi kasiraj nivesane.
    rajatn jataroopanchn mukta beluriya bahu.
    manayo snkhamuttany vatthakn harichndann.
    ajinn datt bhndany lohn, kalayann bahu॥ jatak, bhag 5 (sn. 534) prishth 462
  40. jatak 384
  41. jatak 3/326
  42. 11vin sadi ka arnbh
  43. agara ki ek tahasil
  44. aee.si.es.ee
  45. si.bi.es.ee
  46. yoo.pi.bord
  47. banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ekt, ekt kramank 16, sanh 1915
  48. jatak, bhag 2, prishth 145 (snkhya 147) motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 45
  49. jatak, bhag 2, snkhya 163, prishth 215
  50. jatak, bhag 2, snkhya 163, prishth 132
  51. 139- jatak, bhag 1, prishth 208
  52. vidya prakash evn ti.en. ray, buletin aauf d yoo.pi. histarikal sosaiti, snkhya 4 (saits end manuments aauf yoo.pi.) lakhanoo, 1965 prishth 33
  53. varanasi (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) varanasi ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 23 faravari, 2011.
  54. chandrashekhar azad (hindi) kavita kosh. abhigaman tithi: 30 march, 2011.

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