वाराणसी का भूगोल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varanasi vishay soochi

parichay    itihas    bhoogol    arthavyavastha    shiksha    snskriti    dharmik sthal    paryatan    chitravali    vistrit alekh

varanasi, bharat ki sanskritik evn dharmik nagari ke roop men vikhyat hai. isaki prachinata ki tulana vishv ke any prachinatam nagaron jerusalem, ethens tatha peiking (bijing) se ki jati hai.[1] varanasi gnga ke baen tat par arddhachndrakar men 250°18’ uttari akshansh evn 830° 1’ poorvi deshantar par sthit hai. prachin varanasi ki mool sthiti vidvanon ke madhy vivad ka vishay rahi hai. varanasi nagar ki rachana gnga ke kinare hai, jisaka vistar lagabhag 5 mil men hai. oonchaee par base hone ke karan adhikatar varanasi badh ki vibhishika se surakshit rahata hai, parntu varanasi ke madhy tatha dakshini bhag ke nichane ilake prabhavit hote hain. nagar ke akar ki dharmik manyataon ke adhar par vyakhya karane ke anek prayas kie gaye hain. in manyataon ki bhaugolik vyakhya ko kamovesh svikara gaya hai. aise samanyat: prachalit vishvason ki soochi is prakar banaee hai.

prachalit vishvason ki soochi

krit trishool

is trishool ke tin shool hain- uttar men onkareshvar, madhy men vishveshvar tatha dakshin men kedareshvar. yah tinon gnga tat par sthit hain. manyata hai ki yah nagari bhagavan shiv ko samarpit hai aur unake trishool par sthit hai.

tretayug chakr
chaurasi kos yatra ke tadanuroop hai aur madhyameshvar isaka kendr hai jo gnga ke nikat avasthit hai.
sooryast ka ek drishy, varanasi
dvapar rath

sat prakar ke shiv mndir, rath ka samaroop banate hain. ye hain- gokarneshvar, sulatanakeshvar, manikarneshvar, bharabhooteshvar, vishveshvar, madhyameshvar tatha onkareshvar. is akar men bhi gnga nadi ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai.

shnkhakar

yahan bhi mndiron ki sthiti ke samaroop akar mana gaya hai aur gnga nadi yah akar nirdharit karati hai. is akar ko banane vale mndir hain- uttar pashchim men vidhnaraj aur vinayak, uttar men shaileshvar, dakshin poorv men kedareshvar aur dakshin men lolark.

bhaugolik sthiti

dharatal ki snrachana

varanasi ke dharatal ki snrachana thos knkadon se huee hain. adhunik rajaghat ka chauras maidan jahan nadi-nalon ke katav nahin milate, shahar basane ke lie upayukt tha. varanasi shahar ke uttar men varuna aur dakshin men assi nala hai, uttar-pashchim ki or yadyapi aisa koee prakritik sadhan (pahadiyan, jhil, nadi ityadi) nahin hai jisase nagar ki suraksha ho sake, tathapi yah nishchit hai ki kashi ke samipavarti gahan van, jinaka ullekh jatakon, jain evn pauranik grnthon men aya hai, kashi ki suraksha men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada karate rahe honge.[2]

bhoo-sthapana

varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat

varanasi ki sthapana ka adhar sudoor prachin kal men dharmik n hokar arthik ya vyaparik tha. varanasi ki bhoo-sthapana ka karan yahan ki bhaugolik sthiti hai. yah shahar ardhachandrakar men gnga ki rachana kinare par avasthit hai. varanasi ki rachana ek oonche knkarili jagah par hai, jo gnga ke pashchimi kinare par avasthit hai, jahan badh ka khatara nahin rahata hai. yah adhunik rajaghat ka chauras maidan hain jahan nadi-nalon ka katav nahin milata, yah shahar basane ke lie upayukt tha. ek or "varana" nadi to doosari or gnga nagar ki prakritik khaee ka kam karati hai. yahan ke jngal bhi varanasi ke bachav ke lie apani bhoomika ada karate rahe hogen. varanasi ke bachav men adhunik mirzapur zile ki vindhyachal ki pahadiyan bhi mahattvapoorn thin. varanasi ke vyapari pashchim ki or gnga aur yamuna ke raste mathura pahunchate the tatha poorab ki or chnpa hote hue tamralipti ke bandaragah tak jate the. varanasi usi mahajanapad par avasthit thi jo takshashila se rajagrih ke bad pataliputr ko jata tha.[3]

prakritik banavat

jab arnbhik yug men varanasi men manushy base to varanasi ki prakritik banavat ka kya roop tha par krityakalpataru, kashikhand aur 19vin sadi ke jan prinsep ke nakshe ke adhar par yah kahana sambhav hai ki gnga-varana sngam se lekar gnga assi sngam ke kuchh uttar tak ek knkarila karara hai, jo godauliya nale ke pas kat jati hai. zamin ki satah nadi ki satah se nichi pad jane par pani varana men chala jata tha. godauliya nale men misir pokhara, lakshmikund tha, beniya talab ka pani gnga men bah jata tha. machhodari rakabe ka pani varana men girata tha. machhodari ke poorab men kagar ke niche ek chauras maidan pad jata tha jisake uttar men nale bahate the.[3]

banaras ka ek drishy

nadi ke roop men ullekh

sthalapuranon men matsyodari ka kashi men ek nadi ke roop men ullekh ek paheli hai. lakshmidhar 1 ne tirth vivechan kand men [4] is nadi ka tin bar ullekh kiya hai. ek sthan par (prishth 34-35) shushk nadi yani assi ko pingala nadi, varuna ko ila nadi aur in donon ke bich matsyodari ko sushumna nadi mana hai. anyatr [5] gnga aur matsyodari ke sngam par snan mokshadayak mana gaya hai. tisare sthan par is nadi ke tir par devalok chhodakar devataon ke basane ki bat kahi gayi hai. mitr mishr dvara uddhrit kashikhand[6] men matsyodari ko bahirantashchar kaha gaya hai aur vah gnga ke pratikool dhara (snhar marg) se milati thi. solahavin sadi men pndit narayan ki vyutpatti ke anusar matsyakar kashi ke garbh men avasthit hone se isaka nam matsyodari pada.[3]

matsyodari tirth

uparyukt samagri ke avalokan se sabhi baten spasht ho jati hain. kashi khnd ke anusar shivaganon ne matsyodari tirth ke sannikat shailon se ghira hua durg banaya aur usake pas matsyodari ke jal se bhari parikha (mot) thi. at: ek to matsyodari jhil thi jisaka jal bhitar hi bhitar pravahit tha ya antashchar tha aur doosari matsyodari parikha thi jisaka jal bahakar varuna ko pichhe thelata tha. varsha kal men gnga men badh ati to gnga ka pani varuna ko pichhe thelata matsyodari parikha men pravisht hota aur antat: matsyodari tirth men a pahunchata. isi ko punit matsyodari yog kaha jata hai. is bahate hue gnga jal se kashi kshetr poornat: ghir jata aur usaka svaroop machhali sa ho jata hai.[3]

kavyamayi bhasha

ramanath mndir, banaras

isi sthiti ko tristhali setu ne kavyamayi bhasha men kaha hai ki aisa pratit hota hai ki gnga ne svayn matsyodari rup dharan kar liya hai. is punit sngam ka mahatmy batate hue likha hai ki samast tirth aur shivaling yahan prapt ho jate hain. gnga-varuna aur matsyodari ka yah sngam ankareshvar ke pas hota tha aur yahin bhairavarup bhagavanh shnkar ne snan kiya tha aur kapalamochan tirth ki srishti huee thi. varanasi men tin punyada nadiyon ki charcha krity-kalpataru ne ki hai- ye hain- pitamah-srotika (brahmanal), mandakini (madhyameshvar ke pas) aur matsyodari (onkareshvar ke pas) ye tinon varsha ke dinon men nadi ka roop dharan karati thi. pitamahasrotika nale se avimukteshvar kshetr ka jal gnga men girata tha. mandakini men vartaman daranagar, ausanagnj, kashipura, vishvesaragnj ka jal ekatr hota tha jo bulanala, saptasagar bhuletan, beniya, misirapokhara, godavari tirth (godauliya) hote hue shitalaghat ke pas gnga men girata tha. matsyodari parikha ka jal onkareshvar ke pas hote hue varuna men girata tha. badi badh men matsyodari ke bhar jane par jal shivatadag [7] ko bharata hua mndakini men milata, vahan se dashashvamegh ke pas gnga men milata. is prakar rajaghat se dashashvamegh tak ka samoocha kshetr pani se ghir jata tha ya varanasi kshetr hi matsyakar ho jata tha.[3]

pauranik vyutpatti

varanasi ki pauranik vyutpatti ko svikar karane men bahut si kathinaiyan hai. pahali kathinaee to yah hai ki assi nadi n hokar bahut hi sadharan nala hai aur is bat ka bhi koee praman nahin hai ki prachin kal men isaka roop nadi ka tha. prachin varanasi ki sthiti bhi is mat ka samarthan nahin karati. pray: vidvan ek mat hai ki prachin varanasi adhunik rajaghat ke oonche maidan par basi thi aur isaka prachin vistar jaisa ki bhagnavasheshon se bhi pata chalata hai - varana ke us par bhi tha, par assi ki taraf to bahut hi kam prachin avashesh mile hain aur jo mile bhi hain ve paravarti arthat madhyakal ke hain. matsy puran men kaha gaya hai-

varanasyan nadi pu siddhagandharvasevita.
pravishta tripatha gnga tasminh kshetre mam priye..[8]

arthat- he priye, siddh gndharvon se sevit varanasi men jahan puny nadi tripathaga gnga ata hai vah kshetr mujhe priy hai. yahan assi ka ullekh nahin hai. varanasi kshetr ka vistar batate hue matsy puran men ek aur jagah kaha gaya hai-

varana ch nadi yavadyavachchhushkanadi tatha.
bhishmayndikamarambh parvateshvaramanti ke..[9]

arthat- poorv se pashchim do yojan ya dhaee yojan lambaee varana se asi tak hai, aur chaudaee arddhayojan bhishmachndi se parvateshvar tak hai.

varanasi ke basane ki kalpana

Blockquote-open.gif aitihasik alekhon se pramanit hota hai ki eesa poorv ki chhathi shatabdi men varanasi bharatavarsh ka bada hi samriddhashali aur mahattvapoorn rajy tha. Blockquote-close.gif

assi aur varana ke bich men varanasi ke basane ki kalpana us samay se uday huee jab nagar ki dharmik mahima badhi aur usake sath-sath nagar ke dakshin men abadi badhane se dakshin ka bhag bhi usaki sima men a gaya. lekin prachin varanasi sadaiv varana par hi sthit nahin thi, gnga tak usaka prasar hua tha. kam-se-kam patnjali ke samay men arthath eesa poorv doosari shatabdi men to yah gnga ke kinare-kinare basi thi, jaisi ki ashtadhyayi ke sootr "yasy aya:'[10] par patnjali ne bhashy "anugang' varanasi, anushonn pataliputrn [11] se vidit hai. maury aur shung yug men rajaghat par gnga ki or varanasi ke basane ka praman hamen puratattv ke sakshy se bhi lag chuka hai.[3]

varanasi ki nadiyan

varanasi ka vistar gnga nadi ke do sngamon varuna aur asi nadi se sngam ke bich bataya jata hai. in sngamon ke bich ki doori lagabhag 2.5 mil hai. is doori ki parikrama hinduon men pnchakosi yatra ya pnchakosi parikrama kahalati hai. varanasi zile ki nadiyon ke vistar se adhyayan karane par yah gyat hota hai ki varanasi men to prasravak nadiyan hai lekin chndauli men nahin hai jisase us zile men jhilen aur daladal hain, adhik barasat hone par ganv pani se bhar jate hain tatha fasal ko kafi nukasan pahunchata hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dayana el ik, banaras siti aauf lait (nyooyark, 1982), pratham snskaran, prishth 4
  2. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 2
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 kashi ki bhaugolik sthiti (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) kashivishvanath. abhigaman tithi: 28 apral, 2011.
  4. prishth 34, 58, 69
  5. prishth 58
  6. prishth 240
  7. haloogadaha jis par vishveshvar gnj ka bazar basa hai
  8. matsy puran pri.39
  9. matsy puran pri.39
  10. ashtadhyayi 2/1/16
  11. kilaharn 6,380

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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