वाराणसी का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varanasi vishay soochi

parichay    itihas    bhoogol    arthavyavastha    shiksha    snskriti    dharmik sthal    paryatan    chitravali    vistrit alekh

varanasi vishv ke prachinatam satat avasiy shaharon men se ek hai. madhy gnga ghati men pahali ary basti yahan ka arambhik itihas hai. doosari sahasrabdi tak varanasi ary dharm evn darshan ka ek pramukh sthal raha. aitihasik alekhon se pramanit hota hai ki eesa poorv ki chhathi shatabdi men varanasi bharatavarsh ka bada hi samriddhashali aur mahattvapoorn rajy tha. madhy yug men yah kannauj rajy ka ang tha aur bad men bngal ke pal nareshon ka is par adhikar ho gaya tha. sanh 1194 men shahabuddin gori ne is nagar ko loota aur kshati pahunchayi. mugal kal men isaka nam badal kar muhammadabad rakha gaya. bad men ise avadh darabar ke pratyaksh niyntran men rakha gaya. balavnt sinh ne baksar ki ladaee men angrezon ka sath diya aur isake upalakshy men varanasi ko avadh darabar se svatntr karaya. sanh 1911 men angrezon ne maharaj prabhunarayan sinh ko varanasi ka raja bana diya. sanh 1950 men yah rajy svechchha se bharatiy ganarajy men shamil ho gaya. varanasi vibhinn mat-matantaron ki sngam sthali rahi hai. vidya ke is puratan aur shashvat nagar ne sadiyon se dharmik guruon, sudharakon aur pracharakon ko apani or akrisht kiya hai. bhagavan buddh aur shnkarachary ke alava ramanuj, vallabhachary, snt kabir, guru nanak, tulasidas, chaitany mahaprabhu, raidas adi anek snt is nagari men aye.

bharatiy svatntrata andolan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men bhi varanasi sadaiv agrani rahi hai. rashtriy andolan men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke chhatron ka yogadan smaraniy hai. is nagari ko krantikari sushil kumar lahidi, amar shahid chndrashekhar azad tatha jitedranath sanyal sarikhe vir sapooton ko janm dene ka gaurav prapt hai. mahamana pndit madanamohan malaviy jaise vilakshan mahapurush ke atirikt raja shiv prasad gupt, baboorav vishnu paradakar, shri prakash, daau. bhagavan das, lal bahadur shastri, daau. snpoornannd, kamaleshvar prasad, manmathanath gupt, mukutabihari lal jaise mahapurushon ka svatntrata sngram men yogadan itihas men svarnaksharon men ankit rahega.

vaidik sahity men varanasi

vishvanath mandir, varanasi
Vishwanath Temple, Varanasi

varanasi (kashi) ki prachinata ka itihas vaidik sahity men bhi upalabdh hota hai. vaidik sahity ke tinon staron (snhita, brahman evn upanishad) men varanasi ka vivaran milata hai.

  • vaidik sahity[1] men kaha hai ki aryon ka ek kaphila videdh mathav ke netritv men adhunik uttar pradesh ke madhy se sadanira athava gndak ke kinare ja pahuncha aur vahan koshal janapad ki ninv padi. jab aryon ne uttar bharat par adhikar kar liya to aryon ki ek jati kasis ne varanasi ke samip 1400 se 1000 ee. poo. ke madhy apane ko sthapit kiya.[2]
  • varanasi ka sarvapratham ullekh atharvaved ki paippalad shakha[3] men hua hai. ek mntr men mntrakar ek rogi se kahata hai ki usaka ‘takma’ (jvar) door ho jae aur jvar ka prasar kashi, koshal aur magadh janapadon men ho. isase spasht hai ki is kal men ye tinon janapad parshvavarti the.
  • shatapath brahman[4] ke ek uddharan ke anusar bharat ne satvat logon ke sath vyavahar kiya tha usi prakar satrajit ke putr shatanik ne kashivasiyon ke pavitr ygyiy ashv ko pakad liya tha. shatanik ne isi ashv dvara apana ashvamedh ygy poora kiya. is ghatana ke parinamasvaroop kashivasiyon ne agnikarm aur agnihotr karana hi chhod diya tha.[5]
  • motichndr[6] kashivasiyon men vaidik prakriyayon ke prati tiraskar ki bhavana hai. ve tisari sadi ee.poo. ke pahale varanasi ke dharmik mahattv ki bat svikar nahin karate.

paraspar snbndhon par prakash

vaidik sahity men varanasi aur any janapadon ke paraspar snbndhon par bhi prakash padata hai. kaushitaki upanishad[7] men kashyon aur videhon ke nam ka ek sthan par ullekh hai. vrihadaranyak upanishadh[8] men ajatashatru[9] isako kashi athava videh ka shasak kaha gaya hai. isake atirikt shankhayan[10] aur baudhayan shrotasootr[11] men bhi kashi tatha videh ka pas-pas ullekh hua hai. svatntr rajyasatta nasht ho jane ke pashchath kashi ke koshal rajy men sammilit ho jane ka bhi ullekh milata hai. kashi, koshal ka sarvapratham ullekh gopath brahman[12] men aya hai. patnjali ke mahabhashy[13] men kashikoshaliya (kashi koshal snbndhi) udaharan ke roop men uddhrit hai.

varanasi ke snbndh men uparyukt ullekhon se yah suspasht hai ki vaidik sahity men isaka ullekh apekshakrit bad men milata hai. lekin ham yah nishchayapoorvak kah sakate hain ki varanasi ek prachin nagari hai kyonki atharvaved[14] men varanavati nadi ka uddharan hai aur isi ke nam par varanasi ka namakaran hua. vaidik sahity men ullekhit varanasi ka koshal aur videh se snbndh tatha kuru aur panchal se shatruta, snbhavat: rajanitik aur sanskritik donon antarvirodhon ka parinam tha.

mahakavyon men varnit varanasi

mahabharat

mahakavyon men varanasi ke sndarbh men kee ullekh milate hain. mahabharat men varanasi ka ullekh anek sthalon par hua hai. mahabharat se is tathy ki pushti hoti hai ki barana ka hi prachin nam varanasi tha.[15] adiparv men kashiraj ki putri sarvaseni ka vivah dushynt ke putr bharat ke sath hone ka vivaran milata hai.[16] ek any sthal par bhishm dvara kashiraj ki tin putriyon- anba, anbika aur ambalika ke svaynvar men jite jane ka ullekh hai.[17] kashi ke shasak pratardan tatha mithila ke shasak janak ke madhy yuddh ki charcha bhi mahabharat men milati hai.[18] vyas ki satasahastri snhita men kashi ka ullekh do prasngon men hua hai-

  1. tirth ke roop men.
  2. mahabharat ke yuddh men pandavon ki or se ladane ke prasng men.
varanasi men gnga nadi ke ghat

rochak hai ki varanasi ka tirtharoop men varnan sabase pahale mahabharat men hi hua hai. vanaparv men pandavon ke agyatavas ke avasar par unake kashi ane ka ullekh milata hai. isi parv men ullekhit hai ki us samay kashi men ‘kapilahad’ namak tirth bada prasiddh tha.[19] yahi tirth ajakal kapiladhara ke nam se vikhyat hai aur nagar ke bhitar n hokar pnchakroshi ke pradakshina marg men avasthit hai. mahabharat yuddh men kashiraj ka pandavon ki or ladane ka prasng ata hai. kashiraj ka yuddhakshetr men suvarny mal vibhooshit ghodon par chadhane ka[20] tatha pandav sena ke bich tin hazar rathon ke sath sthit rahane ka ullekh milata hai.[21] ullekhaniy hai ki yahan kashi ke raja ka ullekh ‘kashiraj’ athava ‘kashy’ shabdon se kiya gaya hai. parntu kashi ka kaun-sa raja mahabharat yuddh men ladane gaya tha, usake nam ka ullekh nahin milata. mahabharat men ek jagah krishn dvara varanasi ke jalae jane ka varnan hai.[22] jisaki pushti vishnupuran se bhi hoti hai.[23]

valmiki ramayan

valmiki ramayan men varanasi se snbndhit prakaran apekshakrit kam milate hain. uttarakand men kashiraj pururava ka nam aya hai.[24] isi kand men yah bhi aya hai ki yayati ka putr puru pratishthan ke sath hi varanasi ka bhi shasak tha.[25] ramayan ke ek any sthal par kashi-koshal janapad ka ek sath ullekh milata hai.[26] dasharath ne apane ashvamedh ygy men kashiraj ko bhi amntrit kiya tha.[27] ayodhyakand ke anusar kaikeyi ke krodh ko shant karane ke lie raja dasharath ne is desh (kashi rajy) se utpann hone vali vastuon ko bhi prapt karane ka adesh diya tha.[28] kishkindhakand ke anusar sugriv ne is desh men sita ko khojane ke lie vinat ko bheja tha.[29] valmiki ne yahan ki any ghatanaon ka bhi ullekh kiya hai.[30]

puranon men varanasi

puranon men varanasi ki dharmik samriddhi ki charcha hai. is nagar ko shivapuri ke nam se snbodhit kiya gaya hai[31] tatha isaki ganana bharat ki sat mokshadayini puriyon men ki gee hai[32]

shivapuran

shivapuran men varanasi ko bharatavarsh men sthit pramukh barah sthanon men ek bataya gaya hai. manyata thi ki jo vyakti pratidin prat:kal uthakar in barah namon ka path karata hai, vah sab papon se mukt ho jata hai, aur snpoorn siddhiyon ko prapt kar leta hai.[33]

sadhu, varanasi

brahmapuran

brahmapuran men shiv parvati se kahate hai ‘he sukhavallabhe, varuna aur asi in donon nadiyon ke bich men hi varanasi kshetr hai aur usase bahar kisi ko nahin basana chahie.’’[34] logon ka aisa vishvas tha ki shiv ke bhakton ke varanasi men rahane ke karan laukik evn paralaukik annd ki prapti hoti hai.[35] ullekhaniy hai ki hven tsang ne bhi yahan nivas karane vale shaiv samarthakon ka ullekh kiya hai, jo lnbe keshon ko dharan karate the tatha sharir par bhasm lagate the.[36]

puranon men anek sthalon par aisa varnan milata hai ki varanasi men jo nivas karata hai usake sabhi kasht door ho jate hain. padmapuran,[37] koormapuran[38] tatha ling puran[39] men is tathy ka spasht ullekh hai. varanasi men gnga nadi pashchimavahini ho jati hai,[40] snbhavat: isilie is nagar ki dharmik mahatta badh jati hai. varanasi nagar ki simaon ke vishay men bhi puranon men mahattvapoorn soochanaen milati hain.

agnipuran

agnipuran men 'varana' aur 'asi' nadiyon ke bich sthit varanasi ka vistar poorv se pashchim do yojan aur doosari jagah adha yojan diya hai.[41]

matsyapuran

matsyapuran men isaki lnbaee-chaudaee ka spasht vistar[42] men milata hai, jahan isaka vistar poorv se pashchim do yojan tatha dakshin se uttar arddhayojan kaha gaya hai. yahin isaka vistar varanasi nadi se lekar shukl nadi tak evn bhishmachndi se lekar parvateshvar tak vistrit tha.[43]

  • krityakalpataru[44] men varanasi ko 'varana' bataya gaya hai.
  • padmapuran ke ek any sthal par varanasi ke chaturdik simaon ka ullekh milata hai.
gnga nadi, varanasi
  • is nagar ki simaen uttar men varana nadi, dakshin men asi, poorv men gnga tatha pashchim men pashapaniganesh nishchit ki gee hain.[45]

isake atirikt puranon men us nagar ke shasakon ke vnshanukram ka bhi ullekh milata hai. is vnsh parnpara men divodas pratham, ashtarath, haryashv, sudev, divodas dvitiy evn pratardan ke nam ullekhaniy hain.[46] lekin puranon ki rachana aur snkalan ka nishchit tithikram nahin milata, jisase upayogi soochanaen bhi sndarbharahit ho jati hain. matsyapuran men alark raja ka ullekh milata hai. inhin ke nam ke adhar par varanasi ko alarkapuri kaha gaya hai.[47] varanasi ka dharmik mahattv paravarti kalon men aur badhata gaya aur yah nagar dan, jap, tap, adhyayan tatha adhyapan ki dharmik drishti se atynt mahattvapoorn samajha jane laga.[48] yahan par vaidik ygyon ka anushthan bhi hota tha. kashi ke ek abhilekh se vidit hota hai ki bharashiv nareshon ne das ashvemegh ygyon ka anushthan is nagar men kiya tha.[49]

jain sahity men varanasi

jain sahity men bhi varanasi ke snbndh men prachur vivaran milate hain.

parshvanath ke janm ke anusar

jain tirthnkar parshvanath ka janm (eesa poorv 8vin shatabdi) varanasi men mahavir se 250 varsh poorv hua tha. jain anushruti ke anusar inake pita ashvasen banaras ke raja the.[50] parshvanath ko jain sahity men purisadaniy[51] aur pali sahity men purisajaniy[52] kaha gaya hai. snbhavat: in shabdon ka prayog asadharan vyaktitv ke nimitt kiya gaya hai.

mahakavi ashvaghosh ke anusar

arati, gnga nadi, varanasi

mahakavi ashvaghosh ne buddhacharit men ‘varanasi’ aur ‘kashi’ ko ek hi nagar mana hai.[53] ek sthan par ullekhit[54] hai ki buddh vanara ke pas ek vriksh ki chhaya men pahunche. snbhavat: ashvaghosh dvara varnit vanara adhunik barana nadi he. isase yah vidit hota hai ki kam se kam pahali shatabdi men varanasi aur kashi samanarthak the. jain sahity se hamen pata chalata hai ki ee. poo. ki shatabdiyon men yahan yaksh pooja bahut prachalit thi aur uttar bharat ke pramukh nagaron men yakshon ke chaity hote the. varanasi men gndi-tidung nam ke yaksh ka ullekh milata hai.[55] ye yaksh logon ki raksha karate the.[56] ullekhaniy hai ki saranath ke samip 'akatha' namak purasthal se dvitiy shatabdi eesa poorv ki ek yaksh prastar pratima mili thi jo ab saranath sngrahalay men surakshit hai.

bhagavatisootr men ullekh

  • jain grnth bhagavatisootr[57] men solah janapadon ki soochi men varanasi ka bhi nam milata hai. us samay bharat ki mukhy rajadhaniyon men varanasi ek thi.[58] prachin jain sootron men kashi aur koshal men attharah ganarajyon ka ullekh hai. motichndr ke anusar yah attharah uparajy the, jo kashi-koshal ke raja prasenajit ke adhin the. jab tirthnkar mahavir ki mrityu huee thi, tab kashi aur koshal ke 10 snyukt rajaon ne lichchhaviyon aur mallon ke sath prakash kiya tha.[59]

bauddh sahity men varanasi

bauddh grnthon men varanasi ka ullekh kashi janapad ki rajadhani ke roop men hua hai.[60] buddh poorv kal men kashi ek samriddh evn svatntr rajy tha. isaka sakshy dete hue svayn buddh ne isaki prashnsa ki hai.[61] varanasi ko varuna nadi par sthit batalaya gaya hai.[62] yah nagar vistrit, samriddh aur janakirn tha. [63] mahaparinibbanasutt [64] men tatkalin chh: prasiddh nagaron men varanasi ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. bauddh sahity se pata chalata hai ki buddh is nagar men kee bar thahare the. rishipatan mrigadav (adhunik saranath) ka bhi ullekh bauddh sahity men aya hai. jatakon men ise migachir kaha gaya hai.[65] jise malalasekar ne isipatan migaday ka prachin nam mana hai.[66] bodh gaya men gyan prapt karane ke pashchath buddh ne apana pahala upadesh isipatan migaday (mrigadav) men hi diya tha. is sthan ka rishipatan mrigadav nam snbhavat: rishiyon ke vayu marg se utarane ke karan pada tha aur isilie ise rishipatan bhi kaha jata tha.[67] mrigon ke svachchhndata se ghoomane ke karan ise mrigadav kaha jane laga.[68]

buddh ke kal men varanasi uttari bharat men shiksha ke ek pramukh kendr ke roop men vikhyat tha.[69] banaras ki kuchh shiksha snsthaen takshashiksha se bhi purani thin.[70] takshashiksh ke shnkh namak ek brahman ne apane putr susim ko shiksha ke lie banaras bheja tha.[71] yah uttar bharat ke un chh: mahanagaron men ek tha jinhen annd ne bhagavanh buddh ki antim yatra ke yogy chuna tha.[72]

jatakon men varnit varanasi

jatakon men varanasi nagar ke sndarbh men vishad vivaran milata hai. is nagar ko sudarshan,[73] suruddhan,[74] brahmavarddhan,[75] rammanagar (ramyanagar),[76] tatha molini[77] jaise any upanamon se samikrit kiya gaya hai. varanasi ke vibhinn namon ke snbndh men yah kahana kathin hai ki ye is nagar ke alag-alag upanagaron ke nam the, athava poore varanasi nagar ke bhinn-bhinn nam the. snbhav hai ki log nagaron ki sundarata tatha arthik samriddhi se akarshik hokar use bhinn-bhinn namon se pukarate rahe honge. buddh poorv mahajanapad yug men varanasi kashi ki rajadhani thi. kashi janapad ke vistar ke sndarbh men jatakon men anek sthalon par atishayoktipoorn vivaran milate hain. tndunali jatak ke anusar varanasi ka parakota 12 yojan lnba tha[78] aur usaka antarik aur bahm vistar tin sau yojan tha. [79] kashi janapad ke uttar men koshal, poorv men magadh aur pashchim men vats janapad tha.[80] jatakon ke adhar par altekar ne kashi janapad ka vistar baliya se kanapur tak mana hai.[81] par aisi snbhavana hai ki adhunik gorakhapur kamishnari tak hi prachin kashi janapad simit raha hoga. snbhavat: adhunik gorakhapur kamishnari tak hi prachin kashi janapad simit raha hoga. snbhavat: adhunik gorakhapur kamishnari tak hi prachin kashi janapad simit raha hoga. snbhavat: adhunik gorakhapur kamishnari ka bhi kuchh bhag kashi janapad men sammilit tha. nagar ke chaturdik prakar[82] evn parikha[83] ke vivaran bhi jatakon men milate hain, jisase isake samriddh hone tatha suraksha ki uttam vyavastha ka gyan hota hai.

chini yatriyon ka itivrit

hven tsang
Xuanzang

chini yatri fahyan ne ek janapad ke roop men kashi ka ullekh kiya hai, jabaki hven tsang ne varanasi ka ullekh kiya hai. fahyan ne is nagar ke sndarbh men snkshipt vivaran diya he. vah svayn pataliputr men 22 yojan pashchim chalakar varanasi nagar men pahuncha tha. usane nagar ke uttar-poorv 10 litarh men rishiyon ke ‘mrig-udyan’ (saranath) ke pas viharon ko dekha tha.[84] satavin shatabdi ke arnbh men banaras ki dharmik aur samajik sthiti par chini yatri hven tsang ke varnan se paryapt prakash padata hai. kushinagar se 500 li (100 mil) dakshin-pashchim chalakar yah chini yatri varanasi janapad pahuncha tha.[85] isake anusar banaras 4000 li (667 mil) ki paridhi men vistrit tha. nagar (rajadhani) ke pashchimi kinare par gnga nadi bahati thi. nagar 18 ya 19 li lnba aur 5 ya 6 li chauda tha. [86] yahan ki abadi ghani thi. log hut dhanavan the aur unake gharon men bahumooly vastuon ka sngrah tha. yahan ki jalavayu sookhakar thi aur fasalen achchhi hoti thi. yahan 30 sngharam the, jinamen sammitiy nikay ke 3000 bhikshu nivas karate the. nagar men 100 se adhik devamndir the jinamen inake dharmi ke anuyayiyon ki snkhya 1000 se oopar thi. inamen shaivon ki snkhya adhik thi. mukhy rajadhani men 20 dev-mndir the. in mndiron men maheshvaradev ki kanse ki bani sau phut oonchi evn moorti sthapit thi, jo apani sajivata aur prabhavapoorn kanti se sajiv-si pratit hoti thi.[87]

rajadhani ke poorvotar barana nadi ke pashchimi tat par ashok nirmit 100 phut ooncha stoop tha. usake samane ek palisadar stnbh tha.[88] barana nadi ke 10 li uttarapoorv sngharam the.[89] isamen ath bhag the, jo ek oonchi chaharadivari se avrith the.[90] is vihar men sammitiy nikay ke 1500 bhikshu rahate the. is chaharadivari ke andar 200 phut ooncha ek vihar tha. jisaki chhat svarg mndit amr phalon se dhaki thi. mndir ki ninv aur sidhiyan patthar ki bani thin. eenton ke bane gavakshon (alon) men buddh ki suvarnamndit pratimaen sthapit thin. vihar ke madhy men kanse ki dharmachakr pravartan mudra men buddh ki ek pratima thi.[91]

vihar ke dakshin-pashchim bhag men ashok nirmit ek patthar ka stoop tha. is stoop ke upar ka lagabhag sau phut ooncha bhag, us samay bhi shesh tha. isake sammukh thik us jagah, jahan buddh ne dharmachakr pravartan kiya tha, 70 phut ooncha ek prastar stnbh tha.[92]

is prastar stnbh ke samip hi ek stoop tha. jo agyat kaudiny aur unake char shishyon ke tapasya ke upalakshy men bana tha. yah stoop usi jagah nirmit tha, jahan 500 pratyek buddh ek hi samay men nirvan ko prapt hue the. isake atirikt tin vigat buddhon ke baithane aur ghoomane ke sthanon par bhi tin stoop bane the. hven tsang ne tin talabon ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. isamen ek to vihar ke pashchim men, doosara usake pashchim men aur tisara doosare ke uttar men tha.[93] mrigadav sthit bauddh vihar ke dakshin-pashchim do ya tin li par ek stoop tha jo 300 phut ooncha tha is stoop ke pas hi ek doosara stoop tha jo us ghatana ki yad dilata tha, jab agyat kaudiny ne buddh ka anadar karane ka apana poorv nishchay tyag diya tha.[94] hven tsang ne yah bhi likha hai ki banaras men devamndir badi snkhya men the jinamen shaivon ki snkhya adhik thi.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shatapath brahman, 1/4/1/10-17: motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 19
  2. ee.bi.haivel, banaras, di sekred siti, (kalakatta punarmudit, 1968 ee.),prishth 2
  3. shatapath brahman, 5/12/14
  4. shatanik: samattasu, medhyn satrajito hayamh. ayat ygyn kashinan, bharat: satvatamiv॥ - shatapath brahman, 13/5/4/21
  5. satrajit eeje kashyasyashvamaday tato haitadarvakh kashayoagninnadadhath. atsomapotha: sm iti vadnt:. dekhen, shatapath brahman, 13/5/4/19
  6. kashi ka itihas, prishth 20
  7. kaushitaki upanishad, 4/1
  8. vrihadaranyak upanishad, 3/8/2: motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 21
  9. ullekhaniy hai ki yah ajatashatru suprasiddh aitihasik magadh naresh nahin tha.
  10. shankhayan shrotasootr 16/9/5
  11. baudhayan shrotasootr 21/13
  12. gopath brahman (poorv bhag), 1, 29
  13. ashtadhyayi, 4/8/45: kilaharn, 2/280
  14. atharvaved, 4/7/71
  15. mahabharat, 6/10/30
  16. tatrev, adiparv, adhyay 95
  17. tatrev, udyogaparv, 72/74
  18. tatraiv, 12/99/1-2
  19. avimuktn samasady, tirthasevi kurudah. darshanath devadevasyamuchyate ahmahatyaya.
    tato varanasi gatva devakaryay vrishadhvajamh. kapila-hridamupasprishy, rajasooy phaln labheth॥
  20. mahabharat, dronaparv, 22/38
  21. tatraiv, bhishmaparv, adhyay 50
  22. tatraiv, udyogaparv, 47/40
  23. vishnupuran, 5/34: dekhen, motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 25
  24. valmiki ramayan, uttarakand 56/25
  25. tatraiv, 59/19
  26. mahikal mahi chapi shail kanan shobhitamh. brahmamalanvidehashch malavan kashi koshalanh॥ balmikiramayan, kishkindhakand, 20,22
  27. tatraiv, balakand, 2/13/23
  28. tatraiv, 2/10/37-38
  29. tatraiv, kishkindhakand, 40/22
  30. vadh bhavan ch kashey. puri varanasi vraj ramaniya tvaya gupt, suprakaran sutoranamh॥
    radhaven kritanugy: kasheyo hayakutobhay:. varanasi yarya toorn radhaven visarjit:॥ valmiki ramayan, 7/38/17, 29
  31. ‘‘yatr narayano devo mahadevi divishvar:.’’ vayu puran, adhyay 34, pnkti 100
  32. ‘‘ayodhya mathura maya kashi kanchi avntika. puri dvaravati chaiv sapaite mokshadayika:.’’ padmapuran, adhyay 33, pnkti 102
  33. ‘‘saurashtre somanath ch shrishaile mallikarjunamh.
    ujjayinyan mahakalamokare parameshvaramh॥
    kedar himavatprishthe dakinya bhimashnkaramh.
    varanasya ch vishveshn tramvyakn gautamitate॥
    vaidyanath chitabhoomau nageshn darukavane.
    setubndhe ch rameshn ghushmeshn tu shivalaye॥
    dvadashaitani namani pratarutthan y: patheth.
    sarvapapaiviniryukt: sarvasiddhiphaln labheth. shivapuran, koti rudrasnhita, snkhya 1/21-24
  34. motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 5
  35. ‘‘madbhaktastatr gachchhanti mameb pravishanti ch’’ padmapuran, adhyay 33, pnkti 102
  36. vatars, bhag 2, prishth 47
  37. yadi papi yadi shatho yadi vadharmino nar:. varanasin samasady punati sakaln bhuvamh॥ - adhyay 33, prishth 38
  38. koormapuran, adhyay 31, prishth 321
  39. kutva papasahastrani pishachatvn varn nrinamh. jaigishavy: paran siddhin gato yatr mahatapa:॥ lingapuran, adhyay 92, prishth 53
  40. ‘‘varanasyan visheshen gngavipathagamini’’ padmapuran, adhyay 33, pnkti 69
  41. dviyojan tu parv syadyojanarddh tadanyatha. varuna ch nadi chasi madhye varanasi tayo॥ agnipuran, adhyay 11, prishth 6
  42. matsyapuranadviyojanamh tu tatkshetrn poorvapashchimat: smritam:.
    arddhayojan vistirn tatkshetrn dakshinottaramh॥
    varanasi tadiya ch yavatachhulkanaditu vai॥
    bhishmachandikamarabhy parvateshvar matrike॥ matsyapuran, 183/61-62
  43. snbhavat: varanasi nadi adhunik varana hai. shukl nadi gnga hai aur bhishmachndi adhunik bhimachndi hai jo pnchakroshi ke raste par padata hai. parvateshvar ki nishchit janakari nahin ho paee hai lekin yah snbhavat: rajaghat ke asapas kahin raha hoga.
  44. krityakalpataru, prishth 39
  45. dakshinott raryon dhau varanasishch poorvat:. jahnavi pashchime chapi pashapanirganeshvar:॥ padmapuran uddhrit, tristhali setu, prishth 100
  46. eph. ee. parjitar, ainshyent indiyan histarikal tredishan, prishth 155
  47. matsyapuran 180/68
  48. daptn japtn hutn cheshtn tapastaptn kritn ch yath. dhyanamadhyayann gyasn sarvatrakshayn bhaveth॥ padmapuran, adhyay 26, prishth 16
  49. ‘dashashvameghavabhrithasnatakanan bhi girathyamamalajabhoorddhabhishiktanan bharashivanamh. (snbhavat: dash ashvamedh ygy hone ke karan yahan ke ek ghat dashashvamedh ka nam pada.) epigraphiya indika 8, 269
  50. kalpasootr, 6/149-169: motichndr, kashi ka itihas, prishth 38
  51. kalpasootr, 6/149
  52. anguttaranikay, jild 1, prishth 290
  53. varanasi pravishyath bhasa snbhasayanjin:. chakar kashideshiyanh kautukakrantachetas:. buddhacharit, 15/101
  54. haraman jaikobi, sekred buk aauf di eest, jild 49, bhag 1, prishth 169
  55. uttaradhyayan, 16/16
  56. jagadishachndr jain, laiph in ainshyent indiya, prishth 220-221
  57. bhagavati sootr, prishth 15
  58. sthanangasootr 10, 717 nishirath sootr 9, 19
  59. haraman jaikobi, sekred buk aauf di eest, jild 22, prishth 266 aur 271
  60. sumngalavilasini, jild 2, prishth 383
  61. ‘‘bhootapubbn bhikkhave brahmadatte nam kashiraja ahosi addho mahaddhano mahabbalo, mahabahano, mahavijito, paripunnakosakotthamaro.’’
    mahabaggo (vinayapitak), dutiyo bhago, prishth 262
  62. mahavastu, bhag 3, prishth 402
  63. divyavadan, prishth 73 : dekhen, vimalacharan laha, prachin bharat ka aitihasik bhoogol
  64. dighanikay, bhag. (salakkhndhasutt), prishth 84 (hindi
  65. jatak, jild panchavin prishth 64, 476, 536
  66. malalasekar, dikshanari aauf pali prapar nems, bhag do, prishth 626
  67. papnchasoodani, jild doosari, prishth 188
  68. tatraiv, prishth 65: dekhen, lalitavistar, prishth 19
  69. e.es. altekar, ejookeshan in ainshyent indiya, (1934), prishth 257
  70. khuddakapath, atthakatha, prishth 198
  71. dhammapad atthakatha, 3/445
  72. dighanikay, bhag do, prishth 146
  73. jatak, (bhadnt annd kausalyayan snskaran), jild panchavin, prishth 177 (sutasom jatak
  74. 111- tatraiv, jild chauthi, prishth 104 (uday jatak
  75. 112- tatraiv, jild chauthi, prishth 119 (sonadnd jatak
  76. tatraiv, jild chauthi, prishth 119 (yuvnjay jatak
  77. tatraiv, jild chauthi, prishth 15 (shnkh jatak
  78. dvadashayojanikn sakal varanasi nagarn. tatraiv, khnd 5, prishth 209
  79. jatak, bhag 1, (tndunali jatak), prishth 208 (yah vivaran atishayoktipoorn lagata hai. jatak, khnd 3, prishth 454 (bhadnt annd kausalyayan snskaran
  80. kaimbrij histri aauf indiya, bhag 1, prishth 14
  81. e. ev. altekar, histri aauf banaras (banaras, 19337), prishth 12
  82. jatak, bhag 1, snkhya 5, prishth 162
  83. jatak, bhag 4, snkhya 458, prishth 308: ullekhaniy hai ki rajaghat ke utkhanan se prachiron, prakaron, evn parikhaon ke avasheshon ka pata chala hai, jo sahity ki soochana ke spasht praman hain.
  84. jems legge, di trevels aauf fahyanh (oriyntal pablishars, nee dilli, dvitiy snskaran, 1972 ee.) prishth 94-96
  85. thamas varts, an yuvaaun chvangs trevels in indiya, (lndan, rayal eshiyatik sosayati, 1905 ee.), bhag 2, prishth 46
  86. e. kaningham, di ainshyenth jyographi aauf indiya (indolajikal buk haus, varanasi, 1963), prishth 367
  87. yatra vivaran ke mool ko ikattha karane vale phanchi ka kahana hai ki is dev mndir men 100 phit oonche shivaling ki pooja ki jati thi.
  88. ullekhaniy hai is stnbh par sngh men bhed paida karane valon ke viruddh rajagya ka ullekh tha.
  89. yah prachin kal men ‘mrigadav-vihar’ ke nam se jata tha. utkhananon se adhunik saranath se isaki samata men ab koee sndeh nahin rah jata.
  90. snbhavat: yah avritti-sthal ashtakoniy tha. jaisa ki dhamek stoop tha. dekhen- arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya, bhag 1, prishth 111
  91. thamas vatars, an, yuvan-chvangs trevels in indiya, bhag do, prishth 48 ullekhaniy hai utkhanan se bhi vihar evn dharmachakr pravartan mudra men moorti mili hai. dekhen, arkiyolajikal sarve aauf indiya, bhag 1, prishth 107 aur age.
  92. semual bil, chainij ekaunts aauf indiya, bhag 3, prishth 297 thamas vatars, anh yuvaaunh-chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag 2, prishth 50
  93. thamas vatars, anh yuvaaunh-chvangs traivels in indiya, bhag 2, prishth 53
  94. semual bil, chainij ekaunts aauf indiya, bhag 2 prishth 297

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