चंद्रशेखर आज़ाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg chandrashekhar ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- chandrashekhar (bahuvikalpi)
chndrashekhar azad
Chandrashekhar-Azad.jpg
poora nam pndit chndrashekhar tivari
any nam azad
janm 23 julaee, 1906
janm bhoomi adivasi ganv bhavara, madhy pradesh
mrityu 27 faravari, 1931
mrityu sthan ilahabad
abhibhavak pndit sitaram tivari
nagarikata bharatiy
dharm hindoo
andolan bharatiy svatantrata sngram
vidyalay snskrit vidyapith
pramukh sngathan nauzavan bharat sabha, kirti kisan parti evn hindustan samajavadi ganatntr sngh

pndit chndrashekhar azad (angrezi: Pt. Chandrashekhar Azad, janm- 23 julaee, 1906; mrityu- 27 faravari, 1931) bharatiy svatntrata sngram ke prasiddh krantikari the. 17 varsh ke chndrashekhar azad krantikari dal ‘hindustan ripablikan esosieshan’ men sammilit ho ge. dal men unaka nam ‘kvik silvar’ (para) tay paya gaya. parti ki or se dhan ekatr karane ke lie jitane bhi kary hue, chndrashekhar un sabamen age rahe. sandars vadh, sentral asembali men bhagat sinh dvara bam phenkana, vaisaray ko tren bam se udane ki cheshta, sabake neta vahi the. isase poorv unhonne prasiddh ‘kakori kand’ men sakriy bhag liya aur pulis ki ankhon men dhool jhonkakar pharar ho ge. ek bar dal ke liye dhan prapt karane ke uddeshy se ve gajipur ke ek mahnt ke shishy bhi bane. irada tha ki mahnt ke marane ke bad maru ki sari snpatti dal ko de denge.

jivan parichay

pndit chndrashekhar azad ka janm ek adivasi gram bhavara men 23 julaee, 1906 ko hua tha. unake pita pndit sitaram tivari uttar pradesh ke unnav zile ke badar ganv ke rahane vale the. bhishan akal padane ke karan ve apane ek rishtedar ka sahara lekar 'alirajapur riyasat' ke gram bhavara men ja base the. is samay bhavara madhy pradesh ke jhabua zile ka ek ganv hai. chandrashekhar jab bade hue to vah apane mata–pita ko chhodakar bhag gaye aur banaras ja pahunche. unake phoopha ji pndit shivavinayak mishr banaras men hi rahate the. kuchh unaka sahara liya aur kuchh khud bhi jugad bithaya tatha 'snskrit vidyapith' men bharti hokar snskrit ka adhyayan karane lage. un dinon banaras men asahayog andolan ki lahar chal rahi thi. videshi mal n becha jae, isake lie log dukanon ke samane letakar dharana dete the. 1919 men hue jaliyanvala bag narasnhar ne unhen kafi vyathit kiya.

bachapan ka dridhanishchay

ek adivasi gram bhavara ke adhannge adivasi balak milakar dipavali ki khushiyan mana rahe the. kisi balak ke pas phulajhadiyan thin, kisi ke pas patakhe the aur kisi ke pas mehatab ki machis. balak chandrashekhar ke pas inamen se kuchh bhi nahin tha. vah khada–khada apane sathiyon ko khushiyan manate hue dekh raha tha. jis balak ke pas mehatab ki machis thi, vah usamen se ek tili nikalata aur usake chhor ko pakadakar darate–darate use machis se ragadata aur jab rngin raushani nikalati to darakar us tili ko zamin par phenk deta tha.
balak chandrashekhar se yah dekha nahin gaya, vah bole-
"tum dar ke mare ek tili jalakar bhi apane hath men pakade nahin rah sakate. main sari tiliyan ek sath jalakar unhen hath men pakade rah sakata hoon."
jis balak ke pas mehatab ki machis thi, usane vah chandrashekhar ke hath men de di aur kaha-
"jo kuchh bhi kaha hai, vah karake dikhao tab janoon."
balak chandrashekhar ne machis ki sari tiliyan nikalakar apane hath men le lin. ve tiliyan ulti–sidhi rakhi huee thin, arthath kuchh tiliyon ka rogan chandrashekhar ki hatheli ki taraf bhi tha. usane tiliyon ki gaddi machis se ragad di. bhakk karake sari tiliyan jal uthin. jin tiliyon ka rogan chandrashekhar ki hatheli ki or tha, ve bhi jalakar chandrashekhar ki hatheli ko jalane lagin. asahy jalan hone par bhi chandrashekhar ne tiliyon ko us samay tak nahin chhoda, jab tak ki unaki rngin raushani samapt nahin ho gee. jab unhonne tiliyan phenk din to sathiyon se bole-
"dekho hatheli jal jane par bhi mainne tiliyan nahin chhodin."
unake sathiyon ne dekha ki chandrashekhar ki hatheli kafi jal gee thi aur bade–bade phaphole uth ae the. kuchh ladake daudate hue unaki man ke pas ghatana ki khabar dene ke lie ja pahunche. unaki man ghar ke andar kuchh kam kar rahi thin. chandrashekhar ke pita pndit sitaram tivari bahar ke kamare men the. unhonne balakon se ghatana ka byora suna aur ve ghatanasthal ki or lapake. balak chandrashekhar ne apane pitaji ko ate hue dekha to vah jngal ki taraf bhag gaye. socha ki pitaji ab unaki pitaee karenge. tin din tak vah jngal men hi rahe. ek din khojati huee unaki man unhen ghar le aeen. unhonne yah ashvasan diya tha ki tere pitaji tere se kuchh bhi nahin kahenge.

'azad'

1921 men jab mahath‍ma gandhi ke asahayog andolan prarnbh kiya to unhonne usame sakriy yogadan kiya. chandrashekhar bhi ek din dharana dete hue pakade gaye. unhen parasi majistret mi. khareghat ke adalat men pesh kiya gaya. mi. khareghat bahut kadi sajaen dete the. unhonne balak chandrashekhar se usaki vyaktigat janakariyon ke bare men poochhana shuroo kiya -

"tumhara nam kya hai?"
"mera nam azad hai."
"tumhare pita ka kya nam hai?"
"mere pita ka nam svadhin hai."
"tumhara ghar kahan par hai?"
"mera ghar jelakhana hai."

majistret mi. khareghat in uttaron se chidh ge. unhonne chandrashekhar ko pandrah benton ki saza suna di. us samay chandrashekhar ki umr keval chaudah varsh ki thi. jallad ne apani poori shakti ke sath balak chandrashekhar ki nirvasan deh par benton ke prahar kie. pratyek bent ke sath kuchh khal udhadakar bahar a jati thi. pida sahan kar lene ka abhyas chandrashekhar ko bachapan se hi tha. vah har bent ke sath "mahatma gandhi ki jay" ya "bharat mata ki jay" bolate jate tha. jab poore bent lagae ja chuke to jel ke niyamanusar jelar ne usaki hatheli par tin ane paise rakh die. balak chandrashekhar ne ve paise jelar ke munh par de mare aur bhagakar jel ke bahar ho gaya. is pahali agni pariksha men sammanarahit uttirn hone ke phalasvaroop balak chandrashekhar ka banaras ke gyanavapi mohalle men nagarik abhinandan kiya gaya. ab vah chandrashekhar azad kahalane laga. balak chandrashekhar azad ka man ab desh ko azad karane ke ahinsatmak upayon se hatakar sashastr kranti ki or mud gaya. us samay banaras krantikariyon ka gadh tha. vah manmathanath gupt aur pranavesh chatarji ke sampark men aye aur krantikari dal ke sadasy ban gaye. krantikariyon ka vah dal "hindustan prajatntr sngh" ke nam se jana jata tha.

kakori kand

kisi bade abhiyan men chandrashekhar azad sabase pahale "kakori daqaiti" men sammilit hue. is abhiyan ke neta ramaprasad bismil the. us samay chandrashekhar azad ki ayu kam thi aur unaka svabhav bhi bahut chnchal tha. isalie ramaprasad bismil use kvik silvar (para) kahakar pukarate the. 9 agast, 1925 ko krantikariyon ne lakhanoo ke nikat kakori namak sthan par saharanapur - lakhanoo savari gadi ko rokakar usamen rakha angezi khazana loot liya. bad men ek–ek karake sabhi krantikari pakade ge; par chandrashekhar azad kabhi bhi pulis ke hath men nahin ae. yadyapi ve jhansi men pulis thane par jakar pulis valon se gapashap ladate the, par pulis valon ko kabhi bhi un par sndeh nahin hua ki vah vyakti mahanh krantikari chandrashekhar azad ho sakata hai. kakori kand ke bad unhonne dal ka naye sire se sngathan kiya. ab usaka nam ‘hindustan soshalist ripablikan esosieshan end armi’ rakha gaya. chndrashekhar is naye dal ke kamandar the. ve ghoom-ghoom kar gupt roop se dal ka kary badhate rahe. pharari ke dinon men jhansi ke pas ek nadi ke kinare sadhu ke roop men bhi unhonne kuchh samay bitaya.

jhansi pravas

kakori kand ke kee krantikariyon ko phansi ke dnd aur kee ko lambe–lambe karavas ki sazaen milin. chandrashekhar azad ne khisakakar jhansi men apana adda jama liya. jhansi men chandrashekhar azad ko ek krantikari sathi mastar rudranarayan sinh ka achchha snrakshan mila. jhansi men hi sadashiv rav malakapurakar, bhagavanadas mahaur aur vishvanath vaishnpayan ke roop men unhen achchhe sathi mil ge. jhansi ki 'bundelakhand motar kampani' men kuchh din unhonne motar maikenik ke roop men kam kiya, motar chalana sikha aur pulis adhikshak ki kar chalakar unase motar chalane ka laisens bhi le ae. bundelakhand motar kampani ke ek draivar ramanand ne chandrashekhar azad ke rahane ke lie apane hi mohalle men ek kothari kirae par dila di. sab kam thik–thik chal raha tha; par kabhi–kabhi kuchh ghatanaen mohalle ki shanti bhng kar deti thin. azad ki kothari ke pas ramadayal nam ka ek any draivar saparivar rahata tha. vaise to ramadayal bhala adami tha, par rat ko jab vah sharab pikar pahunchata to bahut hngama karata aur apani patni ko bahut pitata tha. us mahila ka rudan sunakar mohalle valon ko bahut hi bura lagata tha; par ve kisi ke ghareloo mamale men dakhal dena uchit nahin samajhate the. ek din subah–subah chandrashekhar azad karakhane jane ke lie apani kothari se bahar nikale to ramadayal se unaki bhent ho gee. ramadayal ne hi bat chhedi-

"kyon harishnkar ji ! (azad ne apana nam harishnkar ghoshit kar rakha tha) ajakal ap bahut rat jagakar kuchh thonka–piti kiya karate hain. apaki thuk–thuk se hamari nind haram ho jati hai.
vaise to azad sthiti ko tal dena chahate the, par ramadayal ne jis dhng se bat kahi thi, vah uttar dene ke lie bahut achchhi lagi aur azad ne eent ka javab patthar se diya -
"ramadayal bhaee! main to kal–purazon ki hi thonka–piti karata hoon, par tum to sharab ke nashe men apani goo jaisi patni ki hi thonka–piti karake mohalle bhar ki nind haram karate rahate ho."
yah uttar ramadayal ko bahut hi tikha laga. use is bat ka bura laga ki koee usake ghareloo mamale men kyon hastakshep kare. usaka manushyatv tirohit ho gaya aur pashutv oopar a gaya. krodh se bhanabhanata hua vah ubal pada
"kyon be! meri patni ka too kaun hota hai, jo too usaka is tarah se paksh le raha hai? main use maroonga aur khoob maroonga. dekhata hoon, kaun sala use bachata hai."
azad ne shant bhav se use uttar diya -
"jab tumane mujhe sala kaha hai, to tumane yah svikar kar hi liya hai ki main tumhari patni ka bhaee hoon. ek bhaee apani bahan ko pitate hue nahin dekh sakata hai. ab kabhi sharab ke nashe men rat ko mara to thik nahin hoga."
ramadayal ko chunauti asahy ho gee. vah apa khokar chilla utha -
"aisi ki taisi rat ki aur nashe ki. main bina nasha kie hi use din ke ujale men sadak par lakar marata hoon. dekhen, kaun sala age ata hai use bachane ko."

yah kahata hua ramadayal avesh ke sath apane makan men ghusa aur apani patni ki choti pakadakar ghasitata hua use bahar le aya aur marane ke lie hath uthaya. vah apani patni par hath ka prahar kar bhi nahin paya tha ki azad ne usaka hath tham liya aur jhataka dekar use apani or khincha. is jhatake ke karan usake hath se patni ke bal chhoot ge aur vah mukt ho gee. ab azad ne ek bharapoor hath usake gal par de mara. ramadayal ke gal par itane zor ka tamacha pada ki usaki ankhon ke samane andhera chha gaya aur vah apane donon hathon se apana sir thamakar baith gaya. is bich asapas ke log daude aur kuchh log azad ko samajhate hue use kothari ke andar le ge. is ghatana ke bad kuchh din tak azad aur ramadayal ki bolachal band ho gee, par azad ne svayn hi pahal karake usase apane sambandh madhur bana lie tatha ab use "jija ji" kahakar pukarane lage. ramadayal ne apani patni ko phir kabhi nahin pita. azad ki dhak poore mohalle men jam gee. isi se milati–julati ek any ghatana bhi thode hi antaral se ho gee. jisane poore jhansi men azad ki dhak jama di.

orachha pravas

jab jhansi men pulis ki halachal badhane lagi to chandrashekhar azad orachha rajy men khisak ge aur satar nadi ke kinare ek kutiya banakar brahmachari ke roop men rahane lage. azad ke n pakade jane ka ek rahasy yah bhi tha ki snkat ke samay ve shahar chhodakar ganvon ki or khisak jate the aur svayn ko surakshit kar lete the.

hindustan samajavadi prajatntr sena

kranti sootron ko jodakar chandrashekhar azad ne ab ek sudridh krantikari sngathan bana dala. ab unaki parti ka nam "hindustan samajavadi prajatntr sena" tha. unake sathiyon ne unako hi is sena ka "kamandar aph chiph" banaya. ab bhagatasinh jaisa krantikari bhi unaka sathi tha. uttar pradesh aur pnjab tak is parti ka karyakshetr badh gaya.

saiman kamishan ka virodh

un dinon bharatavarsh ko kuchh rajanitik adhikar dene ki pushti se angrezi hukoomat ne sar jaaun saiman ke netritv men ek ayog ki niyukti ki, jo "saiman kamishan" kahalaya. samast bharat men sainaman kamishan ka zoradar virodh hua aur sthan–sthan par use kale jhande dikhae ge. jab lahaur men saiman kamishan ka virodh kiya gaya to pulis ne pradarshanakariyon par berahami se lathiyan barasaeen. pnjab ke lokapriy neta lala lajapataray ko itani lathiyan lagin ki kuchh din ke bad hi unaki mrityu ho gee. chandrashekhar azad, bhagatasinh aur parti ke any sadasyon ne lala ji par lathiyan chalane vale pulis adhikshak sandars ko mrityudand dene ka nishchay kar liya.

lala lajapataray ka badala

17 disambar, 1928 ko chandrashekhar azad, bhagatasinh aur rajaguru ne sndhya ke samay lahaur men pulis adhikshak ke daftar ko ja ghera. jyon hi je. pi. sandars apane angarakshak ke sath motar saikil par baithakar nikala, pahali goli rajaguru ne dag di, jo sadnrs ke mastak par lagi aur vah motar saikil se niche gir pada. bhagatasinh ne age badhakar char–chhah goliyan aur dagakar use bilkul thnda kar diya. jab sandars ke angarakshak ne pichha kiya to chandrashekhar azad ne apani goli se use bhi samapt kar diya. lahaur nagar men jagah–jagah parache chipaka die ge ki lala lajapataray ki mrityu ka badala le liya gaya. samast bharat men krantikariyon ke is qadam ko saraha gaya.

kendriy asenbali men bam

chandrashekhar azad ke hi saphal netritv men bhagatasinh aur batukeshvar datt ne 8 aprail, 1929 ko dilli ki kendriy asenbali men bam visphot kiya. yah visphot kisi ko bhi nukasan pahunchane ke uddeshy se nahin kiya gaya tha. visphot angrez sarakar dvara banae ge kale qanoonon ke virodh men kiya gaya tha. is kand ke phalasvaroop bhi krantikari bahut janapriy ho ge. kendriy asenbali men bam visphot karane ke pashchath bhagatisinh aur batukeshvar datt ne svayn ko giraphtar kara liya. ve nyayalay ko apana prachar–mnch banana chahate the.

alfred park ki ghatana

alfred park men chandrashekhar azad ki pratima
chandrashekhar azad dvara prayog ki gee pistaul

chandrashekhar azad ghoom–ghoomakar kranti prayason ko gati dene men lage hue the. akhir vah din bhi a gaya, jab kisi mukhabir ne pulis ko yah soochana di ki chandrashekhar azad 'alfred park' men apane ek sathi ke sath baithe hue hain. vah 27 faravari, 1931 ka din tha. chandrashekhar azad apane sathi sukhadev raj ke sath baithakar vichar–vimarsh kar rahe the. mukhabir ki soochana par pulis adhikshak 'natababar' ne azad ko ilahabad ke alfred park men gher liya. "tum kaun ho" kahane ke sath hi uttar ki pratiksha kie bina natababar ne apani goli azad par chhod di. natababar ki goli chandrashekhar azad ki jangh men ja lagi. azad ne ghisatakar ek jamun ke vriksh ki ot lekar apani goli doosare vriksh ki ot men chhipe hue natababar ke oopar dag di. azad ka nishana sahi laga aur unaki goli ne natababar ki kalaee tod di. ek ghani jhadi ke pichhe si.aee.di. inspektar vishveshvar sinh chhipa hua tha, usane svayn ko surakshit samajhakar azad ko ek gali de di. gali ko sunakar azad ko krodh aya. jis disha se gali ki avaz aee thi, us disha men azad ne apani goli chhod di. nishana itana sahi laga ki azad ki goli ne vishveshvarasinh ka jabada tod diya. inhen bhi dekhen: alfred park

shahadat

bahut der tak azad ne jamakar akele hi muqabala kiya. unhonne apane sathi sukhadevaraj ko pahale hi bhaga diya tha. akhir pulis ki kee goliyan azad ke sharir men sama geen. unake mauzar men keval ek akhiri goli bachi thi. unhonne socha ki yadi main yah goli bhi chala doonga to jivit giraphtar hone ka bhay hai. apani kanapati se mauzar ki nali lagakar unhonne akhiri goli svayn par hi chala di. goli ghatak siddh huee aur unaka pranant ho gaya. is ghatana men chndrashekhar azad ki mrityu ho gee aur unhen postamartam ke lie le jaya gaya. unaki postamartam riport ke anusar unhen tin ya char goliyan lagi thin. chndrashekhar azad ke shahid hone ka samachar javaharalal neharoo ki patni kamala neharoo ko prapt hua. unhonne hi kangresi netaon aur deshabhakton ko yah samachar bataya. shmashan ghat se azad ki asthiyan lekar ek juloos nikala. ilahabad ki mukhy sadaken avaruddh ho gayin, aisa lag raha tha mano sara desh apane is sapoot ko antim vidaee dene ke lie umad pada hai. jaloos ke bad ek sabha huee. sabha ko shachindranath sanyal ki patni ne sanbodhit karate hue kaha-

jaise bngal men khudiram bos ki shahadat ke bad unaki rakh ko logon ne ghar men rakhakar sammanit kiya vaise hi azad ko bhi samman milega.

sabha ko javaharalal neharoo ne bhi sambodhit kiya.

vyaktigat jivan

  • chndrashekhar azad ko vesh badalana bahut achchhi tarah ata tha.
  • vah roosi krantikari ki kahaniyon se bahut prabhavit the. unake pas hindi men lenin ki likhi pustak bhi thi. kintu unako svayn padhane se adhik doosaron ko padhakar sunane men adhik annd ata tha.
  • chndrashekhar azad sadaiv saty bolate the.
  • chndrashekhar azad ne sahas ki nee kahani likhi. unake balidan se svatntrata ke lie andolan tez ho gaya. hazaron yuvak sh‍vatntrata andolan men kood pade.
  • azad ke shahid hone ke solah varshon ke bad 15 agast sanh 1947 ko bharat ki azadi ka unaka sapana poora hua.

shraddhanjali

27 faravari, 1931 ko chandrashekhar azad ke roop men desh ka ek mahanh krantikari yoddha desh ki azadi ke lie apana balidan de gaya, shahid ho gaya. unako shraddhanjali dete hue kuchh mahanh vyaktitv ke kathan nimn hain-

  • chndrashekhar ki mrityu se main ahat hoon. aise vyakti yug men ek bar hi janm lete hain. phir bhi hamen ahinsak roop se hi virodh k‍rana chahiye. - mahatma gandhi
  • chndrashekhar azad ki shahadat se poore desh men azadi ke andolan ka naye roop men shnkhanad hoga. azad ki shahadat ko hindostan hamesha yad rakhega. - pndit javaharalal neharoo
  • desh ne ek sachcha sipahi khoya. - muhammad ali jinna
  • pndit ji ki mrityu meri niji kshati hai. main isase kabhi ubar nahin sakata. - pndit madan mohan malaviy


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