राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ram prasad bismil vishay soochi
ram prasad bismil
ram prasad bismil
poora nam ram prasad bismil
janm 11 joon, 1897
janm bhoomi shahajahanpur, uttar pradesh
mrityu 19 disnbar, 1927
mrityu sthan gorakhapur (jel men)
abhibhavak pndit muralidhar aur shrimati moolamati
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi svatntrata senani, kavi, anuvadak, bahubhashavidh
dharm hindoo dharm
vishesh yogadan british samrajy ko dahala dene vale kakori kand ko ramaprasad bismil ne hi anjam diya tha.
any janakari ram prasad 'bismil ke likhe ‘sarafaroshi ki tamanna’ jaise amar git ne har bharatiy ke dil men jagah banaee aur angrezon se bharat ki azadi ke lie vo chingari chhedi jisane jvala ka roop lekar british shasan ke bhavan ko lakshagrih men parivartit kar diya.

ram prasad 'bismil' (angrezi: Ram Prasad Bismil, janm- 11 joon, 1897 shahajahanpur; mrityu- 19 disnbar, 1927 gorakhapur) bharat ke mahanh svatantrata senani hi nahin, balki uchch koti ke kavi, shayar, anuvadak, bahubhashavidh v sahityakar bhi the jinhonne bharat ki azadi ke liye apane pranon ki ahuti de di.

jivan parichay

pndit ramaprasad ‘bismil’ kisi parichay ke mohataj nahin. unake likhe ‘sarafaroshi ki tamanna’ jaise amar git ne har bharatiy ke dil men jagah banaee aur angrezon se bharat ki azadi ke lie vo chingari chhedi jisane jvala ka roop lekar british shasan ke bhavan ko lakshagrih men parivartit kar diya. british samrajy ko dahala dene vale kakori kand ko ramaprasad bismil ne hi anjam diya tha.

janm

jyeshth shukl 11 snvath 1954 san 1897 men pndit muralidhar ki dharmapatni ne dvitiy putr ko janm diya. is putr ka janm mainapuri men hua tha. sambhavat: vahan balak ka nanihal raha ho. is vishay men shri vyathit hriday ne likha hai- 'yahan yah bat bade ashchary ki maloom hoti hai ki bismil ke dada aur pita gvaliyar ke nivasi the. phir bhi unaka janm mainapuri men kyon hua? ho sakata hai ki mainapuri men bismil ji ka nanihal raha ho.' is putr se poorv ek putr ki mrityu ho jane se mata-pita ka isake prati chintit rahana svabhavik tha. at: balak ke jivan ki raksha ke lie jisane jo upay bataya, vahi kiya gaya. balak ko anek prakar ke gande tabij adi bhi lagaye ge. balak janm se hi durbal tha. janm ke ek-do mah bad itana durbal ho gaya ki usake bachane ki asha hi bahut kam rah gee thi. mata-pita isase atyant chintit hue. unhen laga ki kahin yah bachcha bhi pahale bachche ki tarah hi chal n base. is par logon ne kaha ki sambhavat: ghar men hi koee bachchon ka rog pravesh kar gaya hai. isake lie unhonne upay sujhaya. bataya gaya ki ek bilkul safed kharagosh balak ke charon or ghumakar chhod diya jae. yadi balak ko koee rog hoga to kharagosh turant mar jayega. mata-pita balak ki raksha ke lie kuchh bhi karane ko taiyar the, at: aisa hi kiya gaya. ashchary ki bat ki kharagosh turant mar gaya. isake bad bachche ka svasthy din par din sudharane laga. yahi balak age chalakar prasiddh krantikari amar shahid ramaprasad bismil ke nam se prasiddh hua.

shiksha

sat varsh ki avastha ho jane par balak ramaprasad ko pita pndit muralidhar ghar par hi hindi aksharon ka gyan karane lage. us samay urdoo ka bolabala tha. at: ghar men hindi shiksha ke sath hi balak ko urdoo padhane ke lie ek maulavi sahab ke pas makatab men bheja jata tha. pndit muralidhar putr ki shiksha par vishesh dhyan dete the. padhaee ke mamale men jara bhi laparavahi karane par balak ramaprasad ko pita ki mar bhi padati rahati thi. hindi aksharon ka gyan karate samay ek bar unhen bandook ke lohe ke gaj se itani mar padi thi ki gaj tedha ho gaya tha. apani is mar ka varnan karate hue unhonne likha hai-

'balyakal se pitaji meri shiksha ka adhik dhyan rakhate the aur jara si bhool karane par bahut pitate the. mujhe ab bhi bhali-bhanti smaran hai ki jab main nagari ke akshar likhana sikh raha tha to mujhe 'u' likhana n aya. mainne bahut prayatn kiya. par jab pitaji kachahari chale gaye to main bhi khelane chala gaya. pitaji ne kachahari se akar mujhase 'u' likhavaya, main n likh saka. unhen maloom ho gaya ki main khelane chala gaya tha. is par unhonne mujhe bandook ke lohe ke gaj se itana pita ki gaj tedha pad gaya. main bhagakar dadaji ke pas chala gaya, tab bacha.'

isake bad balak ramaprasad ne padhaee men kabhi asavadhani nahin ki. vah parishram se padhane lage. vah athavin kaksha tak sada apani kaksha men pratham ate the, kintu kusngati men pad jane ke karan urdoo midil pariksha men vah lagatar do varsh anuttirn ho ge. balak ki is avanati se ghar men sabhi ko bahat du:kh hua. do bar ek hi pariksha men anuttirn hone par balak ramaprasad ka man urdoo ki padhaee se uth gaya. unhonne angrezi padhane ki ichchha vyakt ki, kintu pita pndit muralidhar angrezi padhane ke paksh men nahin the. vah ramaprasad ko kisi vyavasay men lagana chahate the. antat: man ke kahane par unhen angrezi padhane bheja gaya. angrezi men athavin pas karane ke bad navin men hi vah ary samaj ke sampark men aye, jisase unake jivan ki dasha hi badal gee.

dada-dadi ki chhatrachhaya

bachchon ko ghar men apane mata-pita se bhi adhik sneh apane dada-dadi se hota hai. balak ramaprasad bhi isake apavad nahin the. pitaji atyant sakht anushasan vale vyakti the. at: pitaji ke gusse se bachane ka upay ramaprasad ke lie apane dada shri narayan lal hi the. dadaji sidhe-sadhe, saral svabhav ke prani the. mukhy roop se sikke bechana hi unaka vyavasay tha. unhen achchhi nasl ki dudharoo gayen palane ka bada shauq tha. door-door se dudharoo gayen kharidakar late the aur pote ko khoob doodh pilate the. gayen itani sidhi thin ki balak ramaprasad jab-tab unaka than munh men lekar doodh piya karate the. dadaji ramaprasad ke svasthy par sada dhyan dete the. isake sath hi dadaji dharmik svabhav ke purush the. ve sada sanyakal shiv mndir men jakar lagabhag do ghnte tak pooja-bhajan ityadi karate the, jisaka balak ramaprasad par gahara prabhav pada. dadaji ka dehavasan lagabhag pachapan varsh ki ayu men hua.

bhaee-bahan

pndit ramaprasad ke janm se poorv hi unake ek bhaee ki janm ke kuchh hi samay bad mrityu ho gee thi. ramaprasad ke bad unake ghar men panch bahanon tatha tin bhaiyon ka janm hua. inamen se do bhaee tatha do bahanen kuchh hi samay bad mrityu ko prapt ho ge. isake bad parivar men do bhaee tatha tin bahanen rahin. unake parivar men kanyaon ki hatya kar di jati thi. unaki man ke karan hi pahali bar is parivar men kanyaon ka palan-poshan hua. man ki hi prerana se tinon putriyon ko apane samaj ke anusar achchhi shiksha di gee tatha unaka vivah bhi badi dhoom-dham se kiya gaya. pndit ramaprasad bismil ke balidan ke samay unake chhote bhaee sushichndr ki avastha keval das varsh thi. bad men use tapedik ho gee thi, jo chikitsa ke abhav men kuchh hi samay bad duniya se chal basa tha. tin bahanon ka vivah ho gaya tha, jinamen se ek ki vivah ke bad mrityu ho gee thi. ek any bahan bade bhaee ramaprasad ki mrityu ka du:kh sahan nahin kar saki. usane vish khakar atmahatya kar li. keval ek bahan shastridevi hi shesh bachi. is karunakatha ka varnan shrimati shastridevi ne is prakar kiya hai-

do bahanen vivah ke bad mar gayin. ek chhoti bahan to jahar khakar mar gee. bhaee ko phansi ka hukm hua sunakar usane jahar kha liya. usaki shadi bhaee ne ek zamindar ke sath ki thi. vah ham se chh: mil ki doori par thi kuchela ke mauje men. chhota bhaee bimar ho gaya tapedik ho gee thi. pitaji aspatal men bharti kar aye. daktar ne kaha ki do sau rupaye do, ham thik kar sakate hain. pitaji ne kaha ki mere pas rupaye hote to yahan kyon ata. mujhe to gavarnament ne bhent diya. ladaka bhi gaya, paisa bhi gaya. ab to bahut din ho ge. ganesh shnkar vidyarthi pandrah rupaye masik dete hain, unase gujar karata hoon. ek hafta aspatal men raha, use khoon ke dast hue, chaubis ghnte men khatam ho gaya. dasavan darja pas tha. vah bhi bolane men bahut achchha tha. log kahate the ki yah bhi ramaprasad ki tarah kam karega. ab is samay mayake ke sare khanadan men main hi akeli abhagin rah gee hoon.

mamatamayi man

pndit ramaprasad bismil ki man poornataya ek ashikshit gramin mahila thin. vivah ke samay unaki avastha keval gyarah varsh ki thi. gyarah varsh ki navavadhoo ko ghareloo kamon ki shiksha dene ke lie dadiji ne apani chhoti bahin ko bula liya tha. sambhavat: dadiji abhi tak kutaee-pisaee ka kam karati rahati thin, jisase bahoo ko kam sikhane ka samay nahin mil pata tha. kuchh hi dinon men unhonne ghar ka sara kam bhojan banana adi achchhi tarah se sikh liya tha. ramaprasad jab 6 - 7 varsh ke ho gaye to mataji ne bhi hindi sikhana shuroo kiya. unake man men padhane ki tivr ichchha thi. ghar ke kamon ko nibatane ke bad vah apani kisi shikshit padosin se likhana-padhana sikhane lagin. apani tivr lagan se vah kuchh hi samay men hindi ki pustaken padhana sikh gayin. apani sabhi putriyon ko bhi svayn unhonne hi hindi aksharon ka gyan karaya tha.

deshapremi mahila

balak ramaprasad ki dharm men bhi ruchi thi, jisamen unhen apani mataji ka poora sahayog milata tha. vah putr ko isake lie nity prat: char baje utha deti thin. isake sath hi jab ramaprasad ki abhiruchi deshaprem ki or huee to man unhen hathiyar kharidane ke lie yada-kada paise bhi deti rahati thin. vah sachche arthon men ek deshapremi mahila thin. bad men jab ramaprasad ary samaj ke sampark men aye to unake pitaji ne isaka bahut adhik virodh kiya, kintu man ne unaki is bhavana ka samman kiya. ary samaj ke siddhanton ka un par paryapt prabhav pada. pahale vah ek paramparik brahman mahila thin, kintu ab unake vicharon men kafi udarata a gee thi.

sahasi mahila

pndit ramaprasad ki mataji ek sahasi mahila thin. mahanatam vipatti men bhi dhairy n khona unake charitr ka ek sabase bada gun tha. vah kisi bhi vipatti men sada apane putr ka utsah badhati rahati thin. putr ke du:khi athava adhir hone par vah apani mamatamayi vani se sada unhen santvana deti thin. ramaprasad ke parivar men kanyaon ko janm lete hi mar dene ki ek kroor parampara rahi thi. is parampara ko unaki mataji ne hi toda tha. isake lie unhen apane parivar ke virodh ka bhi samana karana pada tha. dada aur dadi donon kanyaon ko mar dene ke paksh men the aur bar-bar apani putravadhoo ko kanyaon ko mar dene ki prerana dete the, kintu mataji ne isaka datakar virodh kiya aur apani putriyon ke pranon ki raksha ki. unhin ke karan is parivar men pahali bar kanyaon ka palan-poshan tatha vivah hua tha.

man ke vyaktitv ka prabhav

apani man ke vyaktitv ka ramaprasad bismil par gahara prabhav pada. apane jivan ki sabhi saphalataon ka shrey unhonne apani man ko hi diya hai. man ke prati apani shraddha vyakt karate hue unhonne likha hai- "yadi mujhe aisi mata n milati to main bhi atisadharan manushyon ki bhanti snsar chakr men phnsakar jivan nirvah karata. shikshadi ke atirikt krantikari jivan men bhi unhonne meri vaisi hi sahayata ki, jaisi mejini ki unaki mata ne ki thi. mataji ka mere lie sabase bada upadesh yahi tha ki kisi ki pran n lo. unaka kahana tha ki apane shatru ko bhi kabhi pran dand n dena. unake is adesh ki poorti karane ke lie mujhe majabooran ek-do bar apani pratigya bhng karani padi."

janm datri janani! is jivan men to tumhara rin parishodh karane ka prayatn karane ka bhi avasar n mila. is janm men to kya yadi anek janmon men bhi sare jivan prayatn karoon to bhi tumase urin nahin ho sakata. jis prem tatha dridhata ke sath tumane is tuchchh jivan ka sudhar kiya hai, vah avarnaniy hai. mujhe jivan ki pratyek ghatana ka smaran hai ki tumane kis prakar apani devavani ka upadesh karake mera sudhar kiya hai. tumhari daya se hi main desh seva men snlagn ho saka. dharmik jivan men bhi tumhare hi protsahan ne sahayata di. jo kuchh shiksha mainne grahan ki usaka bhi shrey tumhin ko hai. jis manohar roop se tum mujhe upadesh karati thin, usaka smaran kar tumhari mngalamayi moorti ka dhyan a jata hai aur mastak nat ho jata hai. tumhen yadi mujhe pratadana bhi deni huee, to bade sneh se har bat ko samajha diya. yadi mainne dhrishtatapoorvak uttar diya, tab tumane prem bhare shabdon men yahi kaha ki tumhen jo achchha lage, vah karo, kintu aisa karana thik nahin, isaka parinam achchha n hoga. jivanadatri! tumane is sharir ko janm dekar palan-poshan hi nahin kiya, kintu atmik, dharmik tatha samajik unnati men tumhin meri sadaiv sahayak rahin. janm-janmantar paramatma aisi hi mata de.

uddand svabhav

ramaprasad bismil apane bachapan men bahut shararati tatha uddand svabhav ke the. doosaron ke bagon ke phal todane tatha any shararaten karane men unhen bada anand ata tha. is par unhen apane pitaji ke krodh ka bhi samana karana padata tha. vah buri tarah pitate the, kintu isaka bhi un par koee prabhav nahin padata tha. ek bar kisi ke ped se adoo todane par unhen itani mar padi thi ki vah do din tak bistar se nahin uth sake the. apani atmakatha men is ghatana ka varnan karate hue unhonne likha hai-

'chhotepan men main bahut hi uddand tha. pitaji ke paryapt shasan rakhane par bhi bahut uddandata karata tha. ek bar kisi ke bag men jakar adoo ke vrikshon se sab adoo tod dale. mali pichhe dauda, kintu usake hath n aya. mali ne sab adoo pitaji ke samane la rakhe. us din pitaji ne mujhe itana pita ki main do din tak uth n saka. isi prakar khoob pitata tha, kintu uddandata avashy karata tha. shayad us bachapan ki mar se hi yah sharir bahut kathor tatha sahanashil ban gaya tha.'

kishor avastha men buri adaten

yah ek katu saty hai ki abhibhavakon ki har achchhi-buri adaton ka prabhav bachchon par avashy hi padata hai. bhale hi abodh bachche apane badon ki buri adaton ka virodh nahin kar pate; parantu isase unake achetan man men ek virodh ki bhavana ghar kar jati hai. kabhi-kabhi bachche svayn bhi un buri adaton ki or akrisht ho jate hain, kyonki unaka svabhav hi jigyasu hota hai. isake sath hi bachche ke sath mar-pit aur kathor vyavahar use jiddi bana deta hai. kadachith apane pita ki nashe ki adat tatha kathor vyavahar ka balak ram prasad par bhi dushprabhav pade bina rahin rah saka. pandit muralidhar ke ek mitr chatarji, jo ek kaimist the; unaki angrezi davaon ki dukan thi. chatarji mahashay anek prakar ke nashon ke adi the. ek bar men adhi chhatank charas pi jana unak lie samany si bat thi. bad men unhen sharab ki bhi lat pad gee thi. antat: ye nashe unhen le doobe. unhen bimari ne jakad liya aur vah duniya se chal base. inhin chatarji mahashay se pandit muralidhar ka parichay dhire-dhire pragadh prem men parivartit ho gaya. phalat: mitr ke sabhi durgun unamen bhi a ge. muralidhar bhi charas pine lage, jisase unake svasthy ki bhaynkar hani huee. unaka sundar balavan sharir sookhakar kanta ho gaya. unake mitron tatha gharavalon ko isase badi chinta huee. sabhi ne unhen tarah-tarah se samajhaya. tab kahin jakar bahut dinon ke bad unaki charas pine ki adat chhoot paee.

chori aur sigaret

chaudah varsh ki avastha men ram prasad urdoo ki chauthi kaksha men uttirn hokar panchavin kaksha men pahunche. apani is kishor avastha men unamen anek durgun a ge. vah ghar se paison ki chori karana sikh ge. in paison se vah upanyas kharidate. upanyas padhana unaka priy shauq ban gaya. isake sath hi shrringarik sahity tatha urdoo ki gazalon ka bhi unhen chaska lag gaya. vah sigaret pina bhi sikh ge. yahi nahin bhang ka bhi svad liya jane laga. inhin buri adaton ke karan vah urdoo midil pariksha men do sal anuttirn ho ge. balak ram prasad buri adaton ke daladal men phnsate chale ge. isase bach pana unake lie kathin ho gaya. vah jis pustak vikreta se upanyas adi kharidate the, vah pandit muralidhar ka parichit tha. ram prasad ka adh:patan dekhakar use du:kh hua. at: usane isaki shikayat ram prasad ke pita se kar di. pita ji savadhan rahane lage. balak ram prasad bhi savadhan the. unhonne usaki dukan se upanyas kharidana hi band kar diya. sambhavat: bhagavan ko ram prasad ka yah patan svikar nahin tha. ek bar vah bhang ke nashe men doobe hue pitaji ke sandook men hath saf kar rahe the. itane men asavadhani se sandook ki kundi zor se khatak padi. ise unaki mataji ne sun liya, aur vah rnge hathon pakade ge. unhonne pitaji ke sandook ki doosari chabi banava li thi. is par unake apane sandook men dekha gaya. usamen anek upanyas, gazalon ki kitaben tatha rupaye bhi rakhe mile. sabhi pustaken phadakar jala di geen. isake bad unaki sabhi gatividhiyon par vishesh dhyan diya jane laga. pitaji ne apane sandook ka tala hi badal diya. ram prasad buri adaton ke shikar ho chuke the. adaton ka chhootana itana asan nahin tha. yadyapi vah sudharane ka poora prayatn karate, kintu sigaret chhod pana unake lie bada kathin ho gaya tha. jab bhi unhen mauka milata, vah apani man ke paison par hath saf karane se bhi nahin chookate. parantu man ke pas itane paise nahin rahate the ki unake pahale ki tarah sabhi shauq poore ho saken. ab svat: apani buraee ka abhas hone laga ki aisa karana achchha nahin tha.

buraiyon se mukti

apani in buri adaton ke karan ram prasad midil kaksha men do varsh anuttirn ho ge. unaki ichchha par unhen angrezi skool men pravesh dilava diya gaya. unake ghar ke pas hi ek mandir tha. inhin dinon is mandir men ek naye pujari ji a ge; jo bade hi udar aur charitravan vyakti the. ram prasad apane dada ji ke sath pahale se hi mandir men jane lage the. naye pujariji se bhi ram prasad prabhavit hue. vah nity mandir men ane-jane lage. pujari ji ke sampark men vah pooja-path adi bhi sikhane lage. pujari ji pooja-path ke sath hi unhen snyam-sadachar, brahmachary adi ka bhi upadesh dete the. in sabaka ram prasad par gahara prabhav pada. vah samay ka sadupayog karane lage. unaka adhikatar samay padhane tatha eeshvar ki upasana men hi bitane laga. unhen is kary men anand ane laga. isake sath hi vah vyayam bhi niyamit roop se karane lage. unaki sabhi buri adaten chhoot geen, kintu sigaret chhodana kathin lag raha tha. is samay vah pratidin lagabhag pachas-sath sigaret pi jate the. is buraee ko n chhod pane ka unhen du:kh tha. vah samajhate the, sambhavat: unaki yah buri adat kabhi nahin chhoot payegi. urdoo skool chhodakar unhonne mishan skool ki panchavin kaksha men nam likha liya. yahan unaka apane sahapathi sushilachandr sen se vishesh prem ho gaya. apane isi sahapathi ke sampark men ane par unaki sigaret pine ki adat bhi chhoot gee.

naya vishvas-naya jivan

jin dinon ram prasad apane ghar ke pas vale mandir men eeshvar ki aradhana karate the, tabhi unaka parichay munshi indrajit se hua, jo ary samaji vicharadhara ke the. unaka mandir ke pas hi rahane vale kisi sajjan ke ghar ana jana tha. ram prasad ki dharm men abhiruchi dekhakar munshi indrajit ne unhen sndhya upasana karane ka paramarsh diya. ram prasad ne sndhya vishay men unase vistar se poochha. munshi ji ne sndhya ka mahatv tatha upasana ki vidhi unhen samajhaee. isake bad unhonne ram prasad ko ary samaj ke siddhanton ke bare men bhi bataya aur padhane ke lie satyarth prakash diya. satyarth prakash padhane par ram prasad ke vichar men ek abhootapoorv parivartan aya. unhen vaidik dharm ko janane ka suavasar prapt hua. isase unake jivan men naye vicharon aur vishvason ka janm hua. unhen ek naya jivan mila. unhen saty, snyam, brahmachary ka mahatv adi samajh men aya. unhonne akhand brahmachary vrat ka pran kiya. isake lie unhonne apani poori jivanacharya hi badal dali.

kumar sabha ki sadasyata

ary samaj se prabhavit yuvakon ne ary samaj mandir men kumar sabha ki sthapana ki thi. pratyek shukravar ko kumar sabha ki ek baithak hoti thi. yah sabha dharmik pustakon par bahas, nibandh lekhan, vad-vivad adi ka ayojan karati thi. ram prasad bhi isake sadasy the. yahin se unhonne sarvajanik roop men bolana prarambh kiya. kumar sabha ke sadasy shahar tatha as-pas lagane vale melon men ary samaj ke siddhanton ka prachar karate the tatha bazaron men bhi is vishay men vyakhyan dete the. is prakar ka prachar kary musalamanon ko sahan nahin hua. sampradayik vaimanasy badhane ka khatara dikhaee dene laga. at: bazaron men vyakhyan dene par pratibandh laga diya gaya. ary samaj ke bade-bade neta log kumar sabha ke sadasyon ko apane snketon par nachana chahate the, parantu yuvak unaka niyntran svikar karane ko kisi prakar taiyar n the. at: kumar sabha ke lie ary samaj men tala laga diya gaya. unhen mandir men sabha n karane ke lie badhy kar diya gaya. sath hi chetavani di gee ki unhonne mandir men sabha ki to unhen pulis dvara bahar nikalava diya jayega. isase yuvakon ko badi nirasha huee, unhen aisi asha nahin thi. phir bhi ve do-tin mahinon tak maidan men hi apani saptahik baithak karate rahe. sada aisa karana sambhav nahin tha. at: kumar sabha samapt ho gee. bujurg ary samajiyon ne apani netagiri dikhane ke lie yuvakon ki bhavanaon ki hatya kar di.

akhil bharatiy kumar sabha ka sammelan

kumar sabha ke toot jane par bhi usaka shahar ki janata par achchha prabhav pad chuka tha. lakhanoo men sampann hone vale kangres ke adhiveshan ke sath hi ‘akhil bharatiy kumar sabha’ ka bhi varshik sammelan hone vala tha. ram prasad isamen bhag lene ke ichchhuk the. isamen bhag lene par kangres ka adhiveshan dekhane ka bhi avasar mil jata. unhonne apani yah ichchha apane ghar valon ke samane rakhi, kintu unake pitaji tatha dadaji isase sahamat nahin hue. donon ne isaka prabal virodh kiya, keval unaki mataji ne hi unhe vahan bhejane ka samarthan kiya. unhonne putr ko vahan jane ke lie kharcha bhi diya, jisake karan unhen pati ki dant-phatakar ka bhi samana karana pada. ram prasad lakhanoo ge tatha akhil bharatiy kumar sammelan men bhag liya. is sammelan men lahaur tatha shahajahanpur ki kumar sabhaon ko hi sabase adhik puraskar prapt hue. desh ke sabhi pramukh samachar patron ne is samachar ko prakashit kiya tha.

astr-shastron se lagav

pandit ram prasad bismil jin dinon mishan skool men vidyarthi the, tatha kumar sabha ki baithakon men bhag lete the, unhin dinon mishan skool ke ek any vidyarthi se unaka parichay hua. vah vidyarthi bhi kumar sabha ki baithakon men ata tha. ram prasad bismil ke bhashanon ka us par prabhav pada. donon ka parichay dhire-dhire gahari mitrata men badal gaya. vah bhi ram prasad bismil ke pados men hi rahata tha aur pas ke hi kisi ganv ka rahane vala tha. vah jis ganv ka rahane vala tha, us ganv men pratyek ghar men bina laisens ke hathiyar rahate the. isi prakar ke bandooq, tamnche adi ganv men hi banate the. sabhi hathiyar topidar hote the. is mitr ke pas bhi ganv men hi bana ek nali ka ek chhota-sa pistaul tha, jise vah apane pas hi rakhata tha. usane vah pistaul, ram prasad bismil ko rakhane ke lie de diya. ram prasad bismil ke man men bhi hathiyar rakhane ki tivr ichchha thi. unake pita pandit muralidhar ki kee logon se shatruta thi, jisake karan unake shatruon ne un par kee bar lathiyon se prahar kiya tha. kishor ram prasad isaka badala lena chahate the. is pistaul ke mil jane par unhen badi prasannata huee. unhonne use chalakar dekha, kintu vah kisi kam ka bhi n tha. at: unhonne use yon hi dhar ke kisi kone men phenk diya. is mitr se ram prasad bismil ka prem atyant badh gaya. donon sath-sath uthate-baithate aur khana khate. sham ko ram prasad apane ghar se khana lekar usi ke pas pahunch jate. ek din us mitr ke pitaji ganv se usase milane ae. unhen in donon ki itani gahari mitrata pasand nahin aee. unhonne ram prasad ko vahan n ane ki chetavani di aur kaha ki yadi vah n mane to unako ganv se gunde bulavakar buri tarah pitava diya jayega. phalat: isake bad ram prasad bismil ne us mitr ke pas jana chhod diya, parantu vah unake ghar barabar ata raha.

hathiyar kharidane ki ichchha

hathiyar kharidane ki unaki ichchha din-pratidin badhati hi gee. vah hathiyar kharidane ke lie nirantar prayatn karate rahe, kintu koee saphalata nahin mili. isi bich unhen apani bahin ke vivah par gvaliyar jane ka avasar mila. unhonne suna tha ki gvaliyar rajy men hathiyar saralata se mil jate hain. isake lie unhonne apani man se paise mange. man ne unhen lagabhag 125 rupaye die. ram prasad bismil hathiyaron ki khoj men chal die. vah is avasar ko hath se jane dena nahin chahate the. hathiyaron ki khoj men vah kee jagahon par ghoome. topi vale pistaul tatha bandooqen to bahut mil jati thi, kintu karatoosi hathiyar nahin dikhaee dete the. vastut: unhen hathiyaron ki pahachan bhi nahin thi. ant men unaki mulakat ek vyakti se huee, jisane unhen asali rivalvar dene ka vayada kiya. ram prasad bismil us vyakti ke sath gaye. usane unhen panch goliyon vala rivalvar diya aur usaki qimat 75 rupaye lagaee. ram prasad bismil ne yah rivalvar kharid liya. isase vah bade prasann the. yah rivalvar bhi topi se chalata tha. isamen barood bhari jati thi. us vyakti ne rivalvar ke sath thodi-si barood aur kuchh topiyan bhi di thin. rivalvar lekar ram prasad bismil shahajahanpur ae. rivalvar kitane kam ka hai, yah dekhane ke lie unhonne usaka parikshan karana chaha. barood uttam shreni ki nahin thi. pahali bar usamen barood bharakar unhonne fayar kiya, kintu goli keval 15-20 gaj ki doori par hi giri. unhen isase badi nirasha huee. spasht tha ki vah thag liye ge the. gvaliyar se lautane par mataji ne poochha, ‘kya laye ho?’ to ram prasad bismil ko apani asaphalata se sab batane ka sahas nahin hua, at: unhonne bat tal di aur shesh paise man ko lauta die.

videshi rajy ke viruddh pratigya

lahaur shadayntr ke mamale men san 1915 men prasiddh krantikari bhaee paramannd ko phansi suna di gee. ramaprasad bismil bhaee paramannd ke vicharon se prabhavit the aur unake hriday men is mahanh deshabhakt ke lie apar shraddha thi. is phaisale ka samachar padhakar bismil ka deshanurag jag pada. unhonne usi samay angrezon ke atyacharon ko mitane tatha matribhoomi ki svatntrata ke lie satat prayatn karane ki pratigya li. yadyapi bhaee paramannd ki phansi ki saza ko bad men mahamana madanamohan malaviy tatha deshabndhu endryooj ke prayatnon se ajanm karavas men badal diya gaya, kintu ramaprasad bismil jivan paryant apani pratigya par atal rahe. is pratigya ke bad unaka ek naya jivan prarambh hua. pahale vah ek samany madhyamavargiy parivar ke putr the, isake bad vah aryasamaj se prabhavit hue aur ek sachche sattvik aryasamaji bane tatha is pratigya ke bad unaka jivan matribhoomi ke lie samarpit ho gaya. yah unake hriday men desh prem ke bij ka pratham ankuran tha.

krantikariyon se snpark

lakhanoo kangres adhiveshan men bhag lene ke lie jane par ramaprasad bismil kuchh krantikari vicharon vale yuvakon ke sampark men ae. in yuvakon ka mat tha ki desh ki tatkalin durdasha ke ekamatr karan angrez hi the. ramaprasad bhi in vicharon se prabhavit hue. at: desh ki svatntrata ke lie unake man kuchh vishesh kam karane ka vichar aya. yahin unhen yah bhi gyat hua ki krantikariyon ki ek gupt samiti bhi hai. is samiti ke mukhy uddeshy krantikari marg se desh ki svatntrata prapt karana tha. vah sab gyat hone par bismil ke man men bhi is samiti ka sadasy banane ki tivr ichchha huee. vah samiti ke karyon men sahayog dene lage. apane ek mitr ke madhyam se isake sadasy ban ge aur thode hi samay men vah samiti ki karyakarini ke sadasy bana liye ge. is samiti ke sadasy banane ke bad bismil phir apane ghar shahajahanpur a ge. samiti ke pas ay ka koee srot n hone se dhan ki bahut kami thi. at: isake lie kuchh dhan sngrah karane ke lie unake man men ek pustak prakashit karane ka vichar aya. pustak prakashit karane ke lie bhi rupayon ki avashyakata thi. at: unhonne ek chal chali. apani man se kaha ki vah kuchh kam karana chahate hain, isase avashy labh hoga, at: isake lie pahale kuchh rupayon ki avashyakata hai. man ne unhen do sau rupaye die. unhonne 'amerika ko svatntrata kaise mili' nam ki ek pustak pahale hi likh li thi. pustak ko prakashit karane ka prabndh kiya gaya. isake lie phir se do sau rupayon ki avashyakata padi. is bar bhi man se do sau rupaye aur lie. pustak prakashit huee. isaki kuchh pratiyan bik gee, jinase lagabhag chh: sau rupayon ki ay huee. pahale man se lie hue char sau rupaye lauta die ge. phir 'matridevi' samiti ki or se ek parcha prakashit kiya gaya, jisaka shirshak tha- 'deshavasiyon ke nam sndesh'. samiti ke sabhi sadasy aur bhi adhik utsah se kam karane lage. yah parcha snyukt prant ke anek zilon men chipakaya gaya aur vitarit kiya gaya. shighr hi sarakar chaukanni ho gee, at: snyukt prant ki sarakar ne is parche tatha poorv likhit pustak, donon ko jabt kar liya.

kakori kand

ram prasad bismil aur ashafaq ulla khan ke samman men jari dak tikat

ram prasad bismil ke netritv men 10 logon ne suniyojit karravaee ke tahat yah kary karane ki yojana banaee. 9 agast, 1925 ko lakhanoo ke kakori namak sthan par deshabhakton ne rel vibhag ki le jaee ja rahi sngrahit dhanarashi ko loota. unhonne tren ke gard ko bndook ki nonk par kaboo kar liya. gard ke dibbe men lohe ki tizori ko todakar akramanakari dal char hazar rupaye lekar pharar ho ge. is dakaiti men ashaphakulla, chandrashekhar azad, rajendr lahidi, sachindr sanyal, manmathanath gupt, ram prasad bismil adi shamil the. kakori shadyntr muqadame ne kafi logon ka dhyan khincha. isake karan desh ka rajanitik vatavaran aveshit ho gaya.

mahaprayan

sabhi prakar se mrityu dnd ko badalane ke lie ki gayi daya prarthanaon ke asvikrit ho jane ke bad bismil apane mahaprayan ki taiyari karane lage. apane jivan ke antim dinon men gorakhapur jel men unhonne apani atmakatha likhi. phansi ke takhte par jhoolane ke tin din pahale tak vah ise likhate rahe. is vishay men unhonne svayn likha hai-

'aj 16 disambar, 1927 ee. ko nimnalikhit pnktiyon ka ullekh kar raha hoon, jabaki 19 disambar, 1927 ee. somavar (paush krishn 11 snvat 1984) ko sadhe chh: baje prat: kal is sharir ko phansi par lataka dene ki tithi nishchit ho chuki hai. atev niyat sima par ihalila snvaran karani hogi.'

unhen in dinon gorakhapur jel ki nau phit lambi tatha itani hi chaudi ek kothari men rakha gaya tha. isamen keval chh: phit lamba, do phit chauda daravaza tha tatha do phit lambi, ek phit chaudi ek khidaki thi. isi kothari men bhojan, snan, sona, nity karm adi sabhi kuchh karana padata tha. mushkil se ratri men do char ghante nind a pati thi. mitti ke bartanon men khana, kambalon ka bistar, ekadam ekantik jivanacharya yahi unake antim din the. is sabaka unhonne apani atmakatha men bada hi marmik varnan kiya hai.

phansi se ek din poorv

phansi ke ek din poorv bismil ke pita antim mulakat ke lie gorakhapur aye. kadachith man ka hriday is aghat ko sahan n kar sake, aisa vichar kar vah bismil ki man ko sath nahin laye. bismil ke dal ke sathi shiv varma ko lekar antim bar putr se milane jel pahunche, kintu vahan pahunchane par unhen yah dekhakar ashcharyachakit rah jana pada ki man vahan pahale hi pahunchi thin. shiv varma ko kya kahakar andar le jaen, aisa kuchh soch pate, man ne shiv varma ko chup rahane ka snket kiya aur poochhane par bata diya. 'meri bahin ka ladaka hai.' sab log andar pahunche, man ko dekhate hi bismil ro pade. unaka matri sneh ankhon se umad pada, kintu vir janani man ne ek virangana ki tarah putr ko usake kartavy ka bodh karate hue oonche svar men kaha-

'main to samajhati thi ki mera beta bahadur hai, jisake nam se angrez sarakar bhi kanpati hai. mujhe nahin pata tha ki vah maut se darata hai. yadi tumhen rokar hi marana tha, to vyarth is kam men kyon ae.'

tab bismil ne kaha, 'ye maut ke dar ke ansoo nahin hain. yah man ka sneh hai. maut se main nahin darata man tum vishvas karo.' isake bad man ne shiv varma ka hath pakadakar age kar daya aur kaha ki parti ke lie jo bhi sndesh dena ho, inase kah do. man ke is vyavahar se jel ke adhikari bhi atyant prabhavit hue. isake bad unaki apane pita ji se baten hueen, phir sab laut pade.

phansi ka din

19 disambar, 1927 ki prat: bismil nity ki tarah char baje uthe. nityakarm, snan adi ke bad sndhya upasana ki. apani man ko patr likha aur phir mahaprayan bela ki pratigya karane lage. niyat samay par bulane vale a ge. 'vande mataram' tatha 'bharat mata ki jay' ka udghosh karate hue bismil unake sath chal pade aur bade manoyog se gane lage-

malik teri raja rahe aur too hi too rahe.
baki n main rahoon n meri arajoo rahe..
jab tak ki tan men jan ragon men lahoo rahe.
tera hi zikr ya teri hi justajoo rahe..

  phansi ke takhte ke pas pahunche. takhte par chadhane se pahale unhonne apani antim ichchha vyakt ki-

I Wish the downfall of British Empire

arthat 'main british samrajy ka nash chahata hoon'   isake bad unhonne paramatma ka smaran karate hue nimnalikhit vaidik mntron ka path kiya-

oon vishvani dev savitarduritani parasuv.
yadh bhadrn tann a suv..

'he paramatma! sabhi achchhaiyan hamen pradan karo aur buraiyon ko hamase door karo'   ityadi mntron ka path karate hue vah phansi ke phnde par jhool gaye.

antim snskar

jis samay ramaprasad bismil ko phansi lagi us samay jel ke bahar vishal janasamuday unake antim darshanon ki pratiksha kar raha tha. jel ke charon or pulis ka kada pahara tha. shav janata ko de diya gaya. janata ne bismil ki arthi ko samman ke sath shahar men ghumaya. logon ne us par sugandhit padarth, phool tatha paise barasaye. hazaron log unaki shavayatra men sammilit hue. unaka antim snskar vaidik mntron ke sath kiya gaya.


inhen bhi dekhen: kakori kand, bhagatasinh evn chandrashekhar azad


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • ramaprasad bismil lekhak:- daau. bhavanasinh rana prakashak:- dayamnd paket buks

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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