अक्षर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi jisaka kabhi nash n ho, avinashi, sthir, nity, paramatma, mahadev, vishnu, atma, akash, moksh, mool prakriti, avyakt, shvas ke ek aghat men uchcharit dhvani ikaee, svar ya svarasahit vynjan ya vynjanasahit svar, sthir, brahm, shiv.
-vyakaran    visheshan, pulling
-udaharan  
(shabd prayog)  
 devanagari men kul 52 akshar hain, jisamen 14 svar aur 38 vynjan hain.
-vishesh    akshar (lakshanik) lipi ke roop men bhi prayog hota hai. jaise-devanagari akshar, arabi akshar
-vilom  
-paryayavachi    ank, akhar, varn, harf
snskrit [a+kshar] akshar (vikramorvashiyamh), avinashi, anashvar-[1], [2], sthir, dridh

aksharah- shiv, vishnu akshar- (k) varnamala ka ek akshar-aksharanamakarasmi-[3] adi. (kh) koee ek dhvani-ekaksharn parn brahm-[4]. (g) ek ya anek varn, samashtirup se bhasha-pratishedhaksharaviklavabhiramamh-[5], dastavej, likhavat, avinashi atma, brahm, pani, akash, paramanand, moksh

any grnth
snbndhit shabd
snbndhit lekh
any bhashaon me
bhasha asamiya udiya urdoo kannad kashmiri konkani gujarati
shabd barn, akhar, akshar barn (akhyar) harf akshar achhur, harooph akshar, varn
bhasha dogari tamil telugu nepali pnjabi bangla bodo
shabd eluttu aksharamu akkhar varn (rn), akshar (kkh)
bhasha manipuri marathi malayalam maithili snthali sindhi angrezi
shabd svar, varn, shabd aksharn akharu

any shabdon ke arth ke lie dekhen shabd sndarbh kosh


akshar shabd ka arth hai arthath‌ jo n ghat sake, n nasht ho sake. isaka prayog pahale vani ya vakh‌ ke lie evn shabdansh ke lie hota tha. varn ke lie bhi akshar ka prayog kiya jata raha. yahi karan hai lipi snketon dvara vyakt varnon ke lie bhi aj akshar shabd ka prayog samany jan karate hain. bhasha ke vaigyanik adhyayan ne akshar ko angreji silebal ka arth pradan kar diya hai, jisamen svar, svar tatha vynjan, anusvar sahit svar ya vynjan dhvaniyan sammilit mani jati hain. ek hi aghat ya bal men boli jane vali dhvani ya dhvani samuday ki ikaee ko akshar kaha jata hai. ikaee ki prithakata ka adhar svar ya svararath‌ vokvaauyad) vynjan hota hai. vynjan dhvani kisi uchcharan men svar ka poorv ya par ang banakar hi ati hai. astu, akshar men svar hi merudnd hai. akshar se svar ko n to prithakh‌ hi kiya ja sakata hai aur n bina svar ya svararath‌ vynjan ke akshar ka nirman hi snbhav hai. uchcharan men yadi vynjan moti ki tarah hai to svar dhage ki tarah. yadi svar sashakt samrat hai to vynjan ashakt raja. isi adhar par pray akshar ko svar ka paryay man liya jata hai, kintu aisa hai nahin, phir bhi akshar nirman men svar ka atyadhik mahatv hota hai. katipay bhashaon men vynjan dhvaniyan bhi akshar nirman men sahayak siddh hoti hain. angreji bhasha men n, r, lh‌ jaisi vynjan dhvaniyan svararath‌ bhi uchcharit hoti hain evn svaradhvani ke saman akshar nirman men sahayak siddh hoti hain. angreji silebal ke lie hindi men akshar shabd ka prayog kiya jata hai. daau. ramavilas sharma ne silebal ke lie svarik shabd ka prayog kiya jata hai. (bhasha aur samaj, pri. 59). choonki akshar shabd ka bhasha aur vyakaran ke itihas men anek arthachchhaya ke lie prayog kiya gaya hai, isalie silebal ke arth men isake prayog se bhramasrijan ki ashnka rahati hai.

shabd ke uchcharan men jis dhvani par shikharata ya uchchata hoti hai vahi akshar ya silebal hota hai, jaise hath men a dhvani par. is shabd men ek akshar hai. akalpit shabd men tin akshar hain yatha a kalh‌ pith‌; ajadi men tin yatha a ja di; arthath‌ shabd men jahan jahan svar ke uchcharan ki prithakata paee jae vahan-vahan akshar ki prithakata hoti hai.

dhvani utpadan ki drishti se vichar karane par phuphphus snchalan ki ikaee ko akshar ya svarik (silebal) kahate hain, jisamen ek hi shirshadhvani hoti hai. sharir rachana ki drishti se akshar ya svarik ko phuphphus spndan bhi kah sakate hain, jisaka uchcharan dhvani tntr men avarodhan hota hai. jab dhvani khnd ya alpatam dhvani samooh ke uchcharan ke samay avayav snchalan akshar men uchchatam ho to vah dhvani aksharavath‌ hoti hai. svar dhvaniyan bahudha aksharavath‌ uchcharit hoti hai evn vynjan dhvaniyan kvachith‌. shabdagat uchcharan ki nitant prithakh‌ ikaee ko akshar kaha jata hai, yatha
(1) ek akshar ke shabd a,
(2) do akshar ke shabd bharatiy, urdoo,
(3) tin akshar ke shabd bolie, jamanat,
(4) char akshar ke shabd adhunatan, kathinaee,
(5) panch akshar ke shabd avyavaharikata, amanushikata.
kisi shabd men aksharon ki snkhya is bat par katee nirbhar nahin karati ki usamen kitani dhvaniyan hain, balki is bat par ki shabd ka uchcharan kitane aghat ya jhatake men hota hai arthath‌ shabd men kitani avyavahit dhvani ikaiyan hain. akshar men prayukt shirsh dhvani ke atirikt shesh dhvaniyon ko aksharang ya gahvar dhvani kaha jata hai. char men ek akshar (silebal) hai jisamen a shirsh dhvani tatha ch evn r gahvar dhvaniyan hain. [6]


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ku. 3/50
  2. bhagavadh-gita 15/16
  3. bhagavadh-gita 10/33 tryakshar
  4. manusmriti 2/83
  5. shakuntala natak 3/25
  6. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 69,70 |

snbndhit lekh

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