एम. ए. अय्यंगार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

em. e. ayyngar
em. e. ayyngar
poora nam madabhooshi anantashayanamh ayyngar
janm 4 faravari, 1891
janm bhoomi tirupati, andhr pradesh
mrityu 19 march, 1978
nagarikata bharatiy
parti bharatiy rashtriy kangres
pad lokasabha adhyaksh aur bihar ke rajyapal
shiksha kala snatak, vakalat (madras laau kalej)
lokasabha adhyaksh karyakal 8 march, 1956 - 16 apral, 1962
any janakari ek telugoo saptahik patrika 'shri venkatesh patrika' ke niyamit sampadan ke alava ayyngar ne bharatiy snsad par "avar parliyament" namak pustak bhi likhi.

madabhooshi anantashayanamh ayyngar (angrezi: Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar, janm: 4 faravari, 1891, mrityu: 19 march, 1978) bharat ke doosare lokasabha adhyaksh the. lokasabha ke pratham adhyaksh ji.vi. mavalnkar ke akasmik nidhan se paida huee riktata ko bharane ke lie adhyaksh pad ka dayitv grahan karake madabhooshi anantashayanamh ayyngar ne svatntrata ki upalabdhiyon tatha nav ganatntr men svasth snsadiy snskriti ko vikasit karane ke adhoore kary ko age badhane ke lie apane apako sarvopayukt siddh kiya. ayyngar ne chhah dashak ke apane sarvajanik jivan men, ek vakil, samajik karyakartta tatha svatntrata senani ke roop men, utkrisht sansad tatha lok sabha adhyaksh aur ek pratishthit vidvanh ke roop men, jivan men jis bhi karyakshetr ko chuna usamen apane vyaktitv ki amit chhap chhodi. ye bihar ke rajyapal bhi rahe.

jivan parichay

madabhooshi anantashayanamh ayyngar ka janm 4 faravari, 1891 ko andhr pradesh ki adhyatmik nagari tirupati ke nikat tiruchanur men hua tha. devasthanam haee skool, tiroopati men apani prarnbhik shiksha poori karane ke pashchath ayyngar uchch shiksha ke lie madras chale ge. pachayappaj kaaulej, madras se kala snatak ki upadhi prapt karane ke bad unhonne 1913 men 'madras laau kaaulej' se qanoon men digri prapt ki.

arnbhik jivan

ayyngar ne apana jivan ganit ke adhyapak ke roop men 1912 men arnbh kiya. 1915 men ve qanoon ke peshe men a ge. kuchh hi samay men vah ek peshevar vakil ke roop men sthapit ho ge kyonki unamen nyayik nirnayon ko yad rakhane ki adbhut kshamata thi aur jaldi hi ve "nirnayajany vidhi ke chalate-phirate sarasngrah" ke roop men prakhyat ho ge. ayyngar is vyavasay ko matr jivikoparjan ka sadhan nahin manate the. unaki is bat men gahari ruchi thi ki bharat ki nyayik vyavastha men bharatiy janata ki avashyakataon ke anuroop sudhar kie jaen, aur yah matr angrezi nyayik pranali ki ek shakha ban kar n rah jae. atah unhonne nyayapalika ki svatntrata ki jamakar vakalat ki tatha bharat sarakar se phedaral nyayalay ke star ko badhakar ise uchchatam nyayalay ka darja dene ki mang ki. bharatiy nyayik pranali men antim apil ka pradhikar inglaind ki privi kaunsil men nihit hone ke karan bharatiyon ko jo kathinaiyan pesh ati thin aur jis prakar tiraskar sahana padata tha, usake bare men vah bahut chintit the. ayyngar ek sakriy vakil the aur apane grih nagar chittoor ki 'bar esosieshan' ke adhyaksh bhi the.

svatntrata andolan

ayyngar bahut chhoti umr men hi svatntrata andolan men kood pade the. ve angrezi shasan ke viruddh rashtriy andolan ka netritv kar rahi bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke apane grih rajy ke pramukh netaon men se ek the. gandhi ji dvara angrezi ke prati "asahayog" ke lie kie ge ahvan ke pratyuttar men ayyngar ne 1921-22 ke dauran ek varsh ke lie apana qanooni abhyas bhi bnd kar diya.

1934 men jab kangres ne kaunsilon ke bahishkar ki apani niti vapas li aur 'sentral lejisletiv asembali' ke chunav ladane ka nirnay liya to ayyngar bhari bahumat se asembali ke sadasy nirvachit hue. chunav ladane ke pichhe kangres ka uddeshy yahi tha ki sarakar men rahakar sarakar se sngharsh kiya jae. tathyon aur ankadon ke poorn janakar aur svabhavik roop se vad-vivad men nipun hone ke karan ayyngar ne jald hi kendriy vidhan sabha men ek sashakt vad-vivadakarta sadasy ke roop men apani chhavi bana li. ve pichhali katar se agali katar men a ge aur phir ek samay aisa bhi aya ki aisa koee din nahin hota tha jab ve sabha men sarakar ke viruddh kangres aur rashtriy andolan ke hit men koee jabaradast bat n kahate hon. sabha men ayyngar ki is ullekhaniy karyashaili se prabhavit hokar ek yooropiy lekhak ne unaka zikr "sabha ke emden" ke roop men kiya tha.[1]

bharat chhodo andolan

1940 aur 1944 ke bich, ayyngar ko pahale "vyaktigat satyagrah andolan" men aur bad men 1942 ke "bharat chhodo andolan" men bhag lene ke lie lagabhag tin varsh ke lie karavas ki saja bhogani padi. ayyngar ne desh ke rajanitik svatntrata andolan men sakriy bhag lene ke alava samaj ke dalit vargon ke samajik svatntry ke lie kie ge kee any kriyakalapon men yogadan diya. asprishyata jaisi samajik buraiyon se ladane ke lie gandhi ji ke rachanatmak karyakramon se prerit hokar ayyngar mndir men harijanon ka pravesh aur apane grih rajy men asprishyata ka unmoolan sunishchit karane ke lie arnbh kie ge is tarah ke andolanon men sabase age rahe. ayyngar ne bad men, 'harijan sevak sngh' ke adhyaksh ki haisiyat se harijanon ke arthik evn samajik utthan ke lie kee karyakram shuroo kie.

rajanitik parichay

ayyngar, andhr pradesh men kangres parti ke agrani netaon men se the aur svatntrata se poorv unhonne kee mahattvapoorn padon ko sushobhit kiya. ve zila kangres kameti, chittoor ke adhyaksh rahe. bad men, unhen andhr prantiy kangres kameti aur akhil bharatiy kangres kameti ke lie nirvachit kiya gaya. 1946-47 ke dauran, ve snsad men kangres parti ke sachiv bhi rahe.

snvidhan sabha ke sadasy

ayyngar ne snvidhan sabha ke sadasy ke roop men bhi kary kiya. snvidhan sabha ke snvidhan nirman snbndhi krity ko isake vidhayi krity se alag karane ke nirnay ke parinamasvaroop aur bad men ji. vi. mavalnkar ke snvidhan sabha (vidhayi) ke adhyaksh ke roop men nirvachit kie jane par, ayyngar ko isake upadhyaksh pad ke lie nirvachit kiya gaya, ve snvidhan sabha ki snchalan samiti ke bhi sadasy rahe. 1950-52 ke dauran ayyngar antarim snsad ke upadhyaksh bane rahe. jab antarim snsad dvara 1950 men pahali bar 'prakkalan samiti' ka gathan kiya gaya to, ayyngar isake sabhapati nirvachit kie ge. unhonne dakshata se isaki baithakon ka snchalan kiya aur is samiti ke lie nam kamaya.

pratham lokasabha upadhyaksh

1952 men jab pahali lok sabha ka gathan hua to ayyngar isake upadhyaksh pad ke lie sarvasammati se nirvachit hue. upadhyaksh ke roop men apane karttavyon ka nirvahan karate hue, ayyngar ne do varshon ke lie lok sabha ki prakkalan samiti ke sabhapati aur agale do varshon ke lie rel abhisamay samiti ke sabhapati pad ka atirikt dayitv bhi snbhala.

lokasabha adhyaksh

lokasabha upadhyaksh ka dayitv unhonne tab tak snbhala jab tak ki vah adhyaksh mavalnkar ke achanak nidhan ke pashchath 8 march, 1956 ko sarvasammati se lok sabha ke adhyaksh nirvachit nahin kie ge. lok sabha ke adhyaksh ka sarvochch pad dharan karana unake us vidhayi jivan ka charamotkarsh tha jo 1934 men kendriy vidhan sabha se shuroo hua tha. us samay tak ayyngar pahale hi apane apako lambe anubhav aur snsadiy snsthaon ke karyakaran aur unaki prakriya aur kary snchalan ke gyan se ek mukhar aur prabhavashali sansad siddh kar chuke the. vah snsadiy moolyon ko banae rakhane ke lie pratibaddh the. ve atyadhik vinodi svabhav ke the aur vinodapriyata se ve n keval snsadiy karyavahi ko jivnt bana dete the, apitu unaka yah svabhav kee bar unhen apani bat aur adhik prabhavashali aur rochak dhng se snsad men rakhane men madad karata tha. jab 1957 men doosari lok sabha ka gathan hua tab ek bar punah ayyngar agale panch varshon ke lie adhyaksh pad ke lie sabha ki sarvasammat pasnd bane. adhyaksh ke roop men ayyngar ne jo asnkhy vinirnay aur tippaniyan din, ve spasht roop se unake rajanitik darshan, vidhik-kushagrata, snsadiy prakriyaon men unaki nipunata aur unake prati samman ki bhavana, prashasan ki gatishil shaktiyon ki samajh aur desh ki badi-badi samasyaon aur hiton ki pahachan ko darshati hai. unake samane jo prashn uthae ge, un par unhonne snkshipt aur spasht vinirnay die. unhen aise anek vinirnayon aur nideshon ka shrey jata hai, jinake dvara bharatiy ganatntr ke shaishav-kal ke varshon men anek jatil snsadiy muddon ko sulajhaya gaya.

1962 men adhyaksh pad chhodane par ayyngar ki usi prakar prashnsa ki gayi jis prakar 1956 men shri dada saheb mavalnkar ki ki gayi thi. inhin donon pratishthit adhyakshon ke karan bharat men ek majaboot aur svasth snsadiy snskriti ki ninv dali ja saki. bharat ki lokatantrik snsthaen, snsadiy snsthaon ke prati unaki poori pratibaddhata, sabha ki garima ko banae rakhane men unaki satarkata, sadasyon ki pratishtha aur snsadiy lokatntr ke moolyon tatha svasth snsadiy prakriyaon aur paripatiyon ko vikasit karane men unake athak prayason ke lie unaki rini hain.

sansad ke roop men

ayyngar ek sakriy sansad rahe tatha ve bad ke varshon men sakriy rajanitik jivan se sannyas lene ke bad bhi kee samajik-sanskritik aur shaikshik sngathanon se jude rahe. in sngathanon men harijan sevak sngh, ram vilas sabha, drametik esosieshan aauph chittoor, d knstitayooshan klab tatha idiyan esosieshan aauph varld phedaral gavarnament shamil hain. 1962 ke am chunavon men ayyngar tisari bar lok sabha ke lie chune gaye. tathapi, unhonne bihar ke rajyapal ke roop men chune jane ke tatkal pashchath hi apani sadasyata se istipha de diya. is tarah unake lagabhag tin dashak lambe utkrisht snsadiy karyakal ka ant hua. nisndeh, is lambe seva kal ke madhyam se ek snstha ke roop men snsad aur samanyatah sampoorn desh ayyngar ke gyan, unaki snsadiy nipunata aur rajaniti, dharm aur rashtriy samasyon ke bare men unake vyapak drishtikon se atyadhik labhanvit hue.

bihar ke rajyapal

bihar ke rajyapal ke roop men, ek poore karyakal tak seva karane ke pashchath ayyngar ne sakriy rajanitik jivan se sannyas le liya aur apane jivan ke antim varsh bitane ke lie apane grihanagar tiroopati chale ge. is avastha men bhi ayyngar bahut sakriy rahe.

shiksha ke kshetr men amooly yogadan

snsadiy jivan ke bad ayyngar ka sabase bada yogadan shiksha ke kshetr men tha. ayyngar ek vidvanh manishi the jo bharat vidya (indolaauji) tulanatmak dharm, darshan, snskrit, snskrit sahity aur any vividh vishayon ke prakand pndit the. apane sampoorn jivan men unhonne snskrit aur bharatiy snskriti ke adhyayan aur prachar-prasar men bahut ruchi li. unhonne kuchh samay tak kendriy shiksha salahakar bord ke sadasy ke roop men kary kiya aur bad men ve rishikul vishvavidyalay, haridvar ke upakulapati rahe. shiksha ke kshetr men unake yogadan ko dekhate hue shri vaishnav thiyolaaujikal vishvavidyalay, vrindavan ne 1954 men unhen 'daauktaret aauph litarechar' (sahity vachaspati) ki manad upadhi se sammanit kiya. ek telugoo saptahik patrika 'shri venkatesh patrika' ke niyamit sampadan ke alava ayyngar ne bharatiy snsad par "avar parliyament" namak pustak bhi likhi thi.

dharmanirapeksh vyaktitv

ayyngar manav jati ki moolabhoot ekata men vishvas karate the aur dharmanirapekshata ke pakshadhar aur desh men dharmik ekata ke samarthak the. unhen dharmik unmad phailane aur rajanitik uddeshyon ke lie dharm ka durupayog karane valon se bahut pida hoti thi. unaka vishvas tha ki logon ko sapradayikata ke khataron ke bare men snvedanashil banane ka sarvottam tarika sabhi dharmon ke sahi saratatv ke bare men jan-jagriti lana hai. unaka vichar tha ki dharmon ka vikas mukhyatah vyakti aur vyakti ke bich ke matabhedon ko door karane men sahayata karane tatha vyakti men bhratritv ki bhavana antarnivisht karane aur usake dvara usaka utthan karane ke lie kiya gaya hai.

jati-vyavastha ki buraiyon ke viruddh

ayyngar un rashtriy netaon men se the, jinhonne svatntrata sngram ke dauran sabase pahale asprishyata aur jati-vyavastha ki buraiyon ke viruddh sngharsh men bhag liya tha. unaka vishvas tha ki aitihasik drishti se jati-vyavastha bharatiy samajik snrachana ka mool ang nahin thi apitu is vyavastha ko isamen bad men shamil kiya gaya. ayyngar ke anusar uchch jati ya nimn jati jaisi koee chiz nahin, apitu keval chetana ki uchchatar sthiti ya chetana ki nimnatar sthiti hoti hai. in donon sthitiyon ka janm se kuchh lena-dena nahin hai. unaka vishvas tha ki janm ke adhar par kisi vyakti ko usake pooja ke adhikar se vnchit karana svayn eeshvaratv ke viruddh aparadh hai. isi vishvas ne unhen hindoo mndiron men daliton ke pravesh ke adhikar ka samarthan karane ke lie prerit kiya. svatntrata sngram ke dauran ve harijanon ke utthan ke lie sndharsh karane vale agrani netaon men se ek the.

nidhan

19 march, 1978 ko 87 varsh ki ayu men anantashayanam ayyngar ka nidhan ho gaya. vah antim samay tak tirupati men snskrit vidyapith aur anek dharmarth sngathanon ke karyon men vyast rahe.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. "emden" jarmani ki ek panadubbi ka nam tha, jisane dvitiy vishvayuddh ke prarnbhik dinon men mitr deshon ki nausena ki bhari kshati ki thi.

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