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देवनागरी लिपि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi
devanagari lipi

devanagari lipi (angrezi: Devanagari scripts ) ek aisi lipi hai jisamen anek bharatiy bhashaen tatha kuchh videshi bhashaen likhin jati hain. snskrit, pali, hindi, marathi, konkani, sindhi, kashmiri, nepali, gadhavali, bodo, angika, magahi, bhojapuri, maithili, snthali adi bhashaen devanagari men likhi jati hain. ise nagari lipi bhi kaha jata hai. isake atirikt kuchh sthitiyon men gujarati, pnjabi, bishnupuriya manipuri, roman aur urdoo bhashaen bhi devanagari men likhi jati hain. hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha hai. san 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, lagabhag 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain. san 1998 ke poorv, matribhashiyon ki snkhya ki drishti se vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon ke jo ankade milate the, unamen hindi ko tisara sthan diya jata tha.

visheshataen

  • yah bharat men sarvadhik prachalit lipi jisamen snskrit, hindi aur marathi bhashaen likhi jati hain. is shabd ka sabase pahala ullekh 453 ee. men jain grnthon men milata hai. 'nagari' nam ke snbndh men mataiky nahin hai. kuchh log isaka karan nagaron men prayog ko batate hain. yah apane arnbhik roop men brahmi lipi ke nam se jani jati thi. isaka vartaman roop navi-dasavin shatabdi se milane lagata hai.
  • bhasha vigyan ki shabdavali men yah 'aksharatmak' lipi kahalati hai. yah vishv men prachalit sabhi lipiyon ki apeksha adhik poornatar hai. isake likhit aur uchcharit roop men koee antar nahin padata hai. pratyek dhvani snket yathavat likha jata hai.
  • isamen kul 52 akshar hain, jisamen 14 svar aur 38 vynjan hain. aksharon ki kram vyavastha, vinyas bhi bahut hi vaigyanik hai. svar-vynjan, komal-kathor, alpapran-mahapran, anunasiky-antasth-ushm ityadi vargikaran bhi vaigyanik hain. ek mat ke anusar devanagar kashi men prachalan ke karan isaka nam devanagari pada.[1]
  • bharat tatha eshiya ki anek lipiyon ke snket devanagari se alag hain[2], par uchcharan v varn-kram adi devanagari ke hi saman hain- kyonki vo sabhi brahmi lipi se utpann huee hain. isalie in lipiyon ko paraspar asani se lipyantarit kiya ja sakata hai. devanagari lekhan ki drishti se saral, saundary ki drishti se sundar aur vachan ki drishti se supathy hai.[1]

itihas

devanagari lipi, brahmi se devanagari ka vikasanukram

uttar bharat men nagari lipi ke lekh 8vin–9vin shatabdi se milane lag jate hain. dakshin bharat men isake lekh kuchh pahale se milate hain. vahan yah ‘nndinagari’ kahalati thi. ‘nagari’ nam ki vyutpati evn arth ke bare men puravid ekamat nahin hain. ‘lalit-vistar’ ki 64 lipiyon men ek ‘nag lipi’ nam milata hai. kintu ‘lalit-vistar’ (doosari shatabdi ee.) ki ‘nag-lipi’ ke adhar par nagari lipi ka namakaran snbhav nahin jan padata. ek any mat ke anusar, gujarat ke nagar brahmanon dvara sarvapratham upayog kiye jane ke karan isaka nam nagari pada. yah mat bhi sadhar nahin pratit hota. kuchh logon ne to yahan tak kaha ki, baki nagar to keval nagar hi hain kintu kashi devanagari hai, aur vahan isaka prachar hone ke karan is lipi ka nam 'devanagari’ pada. is mat ko svikar karane men adachanen hain. ek any mat ke anusar, nagaron men prachalit hone ke karan yah nagari kahalaee. is mat ko kuchh had tak svikar kiya ja sakata hai. dakshin ke vijayanagar rajaon ke danapatron ki lipi ko nndinagari ka nam diya gaya hai. yah bhi snbhav hai ki nndinagar[3], maharashtr ki lipi hone ke karan isake lie nagari ka nam astitv men aya. pahale-pahal vijayanagar rajy ke lekhon men nagari lipi ka vyavahar dekhane ko milata hai. bad men jab uttar bharat men bhi isaka prachar hua, to ‘nndi’ ki tarah yahan ‘dev’ shabd isake pahale jod diya gaya hoga. jo bhi ho, ab to yah nagari ya devanagari shabd uttar bharat men 8vin se aj tak likhe gaye pray: sabhi lekhon ki lipi-shailiyon ke lie prayukt hota hai. dasavin shatabdi men pnjab aur kashmir men prayukt sharada lipi nagari ki bahan thi, aur bangla lipi ko ham nagari ki putri nahin to bahan man sakate hain. aj samast uttar bharat men aur nepal men bhi aur snpoorn maharashtr men devanagari lipi ka istemal hota hai.[4]

visheshata

devanagari ki visheshata aksharon ke shirsh par lnbi kshaitij rekha hai, jo adhunik upayog men samany taur par judi huee hoti hai, jisase lekhan ke dauran shabd ke oopar atoot kshaitik rekha ka nirman hota hai. devanagari ko baen se dahini or likha jata hai. halanki yah lipi moolat: varnakshariy hai, lekin upayog men yah aksharik hai, jisamen pratyek vynjan ke ant men ek laghu dhvani ko man liya jata hai, basharte isase pahale vaikalpik svar ke chihn ka upayog n kiya gaya ho. devanagari ko svar chihnon ke bina bhi likha jata raha hai. yah ek dhvanyatmak lipi hai jo prachalit lipiyon (roman, arabi, chini adi) men sabase adhik vaigyanik hai. isase vaigyanik aur vyapak lipi shayad keval aipie lipi hai. [1]

lipi ka vikas

devanagari ka vikas uttar bharatiy aitihasik gupt lipi se hua, halanki antat: isaki vyutpatti brahmi varnaksharon se huee, jisase sabhi adhunik bharatiy lipiyon ka janm hua hai. satavin shatabdi se isaka upayog ho raha hai, lekin isake paripakv svaroop ka vikas 11vin shatabdi men hua. uchcharit dhvani snketon ki sahayata se bhav ya vichar ki abhivyakti 'bhasha' kahalati hai. jabaki likhit varn snketon ki sahayata se bhav ya vichar ki abhivyakti lipi. bhasha shravy hoti hai, jabaki lipi drishy. bharat ki sabhi lipiyan brahmi lipi se hi nikali hain. brahmi lipi ka prayog vaidik aryon ne shuroo kiya. brahmi lipi ka prachinatam namoona 5vin sadi BC ka hai jo ki bauddhakalin hai. guptakal ke prarambh men brahmi ke do bhed ho ge, uttari brahmi v dakshini brahmi. dakshini brahmi se tamil lipi / kaling lipi, telugu evn kannad lipi, grnth lipi tamilanadu, malayalam lipi[5] ka vikas hua.

uttari brahmi se nagari lipi ka vikas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
uttari brahmi (350ee. tak)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
gupt lipi (4thi-5vin sadi)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
siddhamatrika lipi (6thi sadi)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
kutil lipi (8vin-9vin sadi)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
nagari
 
 
 
sharada
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
gurumukhi
 
 
kashmiri
 
 
lahnda
 
 
takari
 
 
  • nagari lipi ka prayog kal 8vin–9vin sadi ee. se arambh hua. 10vin se 12vin sadi ke bich isi prachin nagari se uttari bharat ki adhikansh adhunik lipiyon ka vikas hua. isaki do shakhaen mili hain, pashchimi v poorvi. pashchimi shakha ki sarvapramukh/pratinidhi lipi devanagari lipi hai.

hindi bhasha ki lipi ke roop men vikas

devanagari par mahapurushon ke vichar[6]
hindustan ki ekata ke liye hindi bhasha jitana kam degi, usase bahut adhik kam devanagari lipi de sakati hai.
achary vinoba bhave
hamari nagari duniya ki sabase adhik vaigyanik lipi hai.
rahul sankrityayan
hindustan ke liye devanagari lipi ka hi vyavahar hona chahie, roman lipi ka vyavahar yahan ho hi nahin sakata.
mahatma gandhi
urdoo likhane ke liye devanagari lipi apanane se urdoo utkarsh ko prapt hogi.
khushavant sinh
samast bharatiy bhashaon ke lie yadi koee ek lipi avashyak ho to vah devanagari hi ho sakati hai.
krishnasvami ayyar (nyayadhish)
bngala varnamala ki janch se maloom hota hai ki devanagari lipi se nikali hai aur isi ka sidha sada roop hai.
rameshachndr datt
devanagari dhvanishastr ki drishti se atynt vaigyanik lipi hai.
ravishnkar shukl
  • devanagari lipi ko hindi bhasha ki adhikrit lipi banane men badi kathinathayon ka samana karana pada hai. angrezon ki bhasha niti farasi ki or adhik jhuki huee thi. isilie hindi ko bhi farasi lipi men likhane ka shadayntr kiya gaya.
  • jaaun gilakraist— hindi bhasha aur farasi lipi ka ghalamel phort viliyam kaaulej (1800-54) ki den thi. phort viliyam kaaulej ke hindustani vibhag ke sarvapratham adhyaksh jaaun gilakraist the. unake anusar hindustani ki tin shailiyan thin—darabari ya farasi shaili, hindustani shaili v hindavi shaili. ve farasi shaili ko durooh tatha hindavi shaili ko gnvaroo manate the. isalie unhonne hindustani shaili ko prathamikata di. unhonne hindustani ke jis roop ko badhava diya, usaka mooladhar to hindi hi tha, kintu usamen arabi–farasi shabdon ki bahulata thi aur vah farasi lipi men likhi jati thi. gilakraist ne hindustani ke nam par asal men urdoo ka hi prachar kiya.
  • viliyam prais— 1823 ee. men hindustani vibhag ke adhyaksh ke roop men viliyam prais ki niyukti huee. unhonne hindustani ke nam par hindi[7] par bal diya. prais ne gilakraist dvara janit bhasha–sambandhi bhrannti ko door karane ka prayas kiya. lekin prais ke bad kaaulej ki gatividhiyon men koee vishesh pragati nahin huee.
  • adalat sambandhi vigypti (1837 ee.)— varsh 1830 ee. men angrez kampani ke dvara adalaton men farasi ke sath–sath deshi bhashaon ko bhi sthan diya gaya. vastav men, is vigyptika palan 1837 ee. men hi shuroo ho saka. isake bad bngal men bangla bhasha aur bangla lipi pachalit huee. snyukt prant uttar pradesh, bihar v madhy prant madhy pradesh men bhasha ke roop men to hindi ka prachalan hua, lekin lipi ke mamale men nagari lipi ke sthan par urdoo lipi ka prachar kiya jane laga. isaka mukhy karan adalati amalon ki kripa to thi hi, sath hi musalamanon ne bhi dharmik adhar par ji–jan se urdoo ka samarthan kiya aur hindi ko kachahari se hi nahin shiksha se bhi nikal bahar karane ka andolan chaloo kiya.
  • 1857 ke vidroh ke bad hindoo – musalamanon ke parasparik virodh men hi sarakar apani suraksha samajhane lagi. atah bhasha ke kshetr men unaki niti bhedabhavapoorn ho gee. angrez vidvanon ke do dal ho ge. donon or se paksh–vipaksh men anek tark–vitark prastut kie ge. bims sahab urdoo ka aur graus sahab hindi ka samarthan karane valon men pramukh the.
  • nagari lipi aur hindi tatha farasi lipi aur urdoo ka abhinn sambandh ho gaya. atah donon ke paksh–vipaksh men kafi vivad hua.
  • raja shiv prasad 'sitare–hind' ka lipi sambandhi prativedan (1868 ee.)—farasi lipi ke sthan par nagari lipi aur hindi bhasha ke lie pahala prayas raja shivaprasad ka 1868 ee. men unake lipi sambandhi prativedan 'memorandam kort kairektar in d apar provins aauph indiya' se arambh hua.
  • jaaun shor- ek angrez adhikari phredariq jaaun shor ne farasi tatha angrezi donon bhashaon ke prayog par apatti vyakt ki thi aur nyayalay men hindustani bhasha aur devanagari lipi ka samarthan kiya tha.
  • bngal ke gavarnar aishale ke adesh (1870 ee. v 1873 ee.)—varsh 1870 ee. men gavarnar aishale ne devanagari ke paksh men ek adesh jari kiya, jisamen kaha gaya ki farasi – poorit urdoo nahin likhi jae. balki aisi bhasha likhi jae jo ek kulin hindustani farasi se poornataya anabhigy rahane par bhi bolata hai. varsh 1873 ee. men bngal sarakar ne yah adesh jari kiya ki patana, bhagalapur tatha chhota nagapur divijanon (snbhagon) ke nyayalayon v karyalayon men sabhi vigyptiyan tatha ghoshanaen hindi bhasha tatha devanagari lipi men hi ki jaen.
  • varsh 1881 ee. tak ate-ate uttar pradesh ke padosi pranton bihar, madhy pradesh men nagari lipi aur hindi prayog ki sarakari agya jari ho gee to uttar pradesh men nagari andolan ko bada naitik protsahan mila.
  • prachar ki drishti se varsh 1874 ee. men merath men 'nagari prakash' patrika prakashit huee. varsh 1881 ee. men 'devanagari pracharak' tatha 1888 ee. men 'devanagari gajat' patr prakashit hue.
  • bharatendu harishchandr - bharatendu harishchandr ne nagari andolan ko abhootapoorv shakti pradan ki aur ve isake pratik aur neta mane jane lage. unhonne 1882 men shiksha ayog ke prashn–patr ka javab dete hue kaha- 'sabhi sabhy deshon ki adalaton men unake nagarikon ki boli aur lipi ka prayog hota hai. yahi aisa desh hai, jahan n to adalati bhasha shasakon ki matribhasha hai aur n praja ki.'
  • pratap narayan mishr ‌- pn. pratap narayan mishr ne hindi–hindoo–hindoostan ka nara lagana shuroo kar diya.
  • 1893 ee. men angrez sarakar ne bharatiy bhashaon ke lie roman lipi apanane ka prashn khada kar diya. isaki tivr pratikriya huee.
  • nagari pracharini sabha, kashi (sthapana–1893 ee.) v madan mohan malaviy- nagari pracharini sabhi ki sthapana—varsh 1893 men nagari prachar evn hindi bhasha ke snvarddhan ke lie nagari pracharini sabha, kashi ki sthapana ki gee. sarvapratham is sabha ne kachahari men nagari lipi ka pravesh karana hi apana mukhy kartavy nishchit kiya. sabha ne 'nagari kairektar' namak ek pustak angrezi men taiyar ki, jisamen sabhi bharatiy bhashaon ke lie roman lipi ki anupayuktata par prakash dala gaya tha. malaviy ke netritv men 17 sadasyiy pratinidhi mndal dvara lephtinent gavarnar entoni maikadanal ko yachika ya memoriyal dena (1898 ee.)—malaviy ne ek svatntr pustika 'kort kairektar end praimari ejukeshan in narth–vestarn provinsej' (1897 ee.) likhi, jisaka bada vyapak prabhav pada. varsh 1898 ee. men prant ke tatkalin lephtinent gavarnar ke kashi ane par nagari pracharini sabha ka ek prabhavashali pratinidhi mndal malaviy ke netritv men unase mila aur hazaron hastaksharon se yukt ek memoriyal unhen diya. yah malaviy ji ka hi athak prayas tha, jisake parinamasvaroop adalaton men nagari ko pravesh mil saka. isilie adalaton men nagari ke pravesh ka shrey malaviyaji ko diya jata hai.
  • gauri datt- vyaktigat roop se merath ke gauri datt ko nagari prachar ke lie ki gee sevaen avismaraniy hain.
  • in tamam prayatnon ka shubh parinam yah hua ki 18 aprail 1900 ee. ko gavarnar sahab ne farasi ke sath nagari ko bhi adalaton/kachahariyon men saman adhikar de diya. sarakar ka yah prastav hindi ke svabhiman ke lie sntoshaprad nahin tha. isase hindi ko adhikarapoorn samman nahin diya gaya tha. balki hindi ke prati daya dikhalaee gee thi. keval hindi bhashi janata ke lie suvidha ka prabandh kiya gaya tha. phir bhi, ise itana shrey to hai hi ki kachahariyon men sthan dila saka aur yah mazaboot adhar pradan kiya, jisake bal par vah 20vin sadi men rashtralipi ke roop men ubharakar samane a saki.

devanagari ank

devanagari ank nimn roop men likhe jate hain-

devanagari ank 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
hindi shoony ek do tin char panch chhah sat ath nau
angrezi ank 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

devanagari lipi ka namakaran

  • devanagari lipi ko 'hindi lipi' bhi kaha jata hai.
  • devanagari ka namakaran vivadaspad hai. zyadatar vidvanh gujarat ke nagar brahman se isaka sambandh jodate hain. unaka manana hai ki gujarat men sarvapratham prachalit hone se vahan ke pndit varg arthath nagar brahmanon ke nam se ise 'nagari' kaha gaya hai. apane astitv men ane ke turant bad isane devabhasha snskrit ko lipibaddh kiya, isalie 'nagari' men 'dev' shabd jud gaya aur ban gaya "devanagari".

devanagari lipi ka svaroop

  • yah lipi bayin or se dayin or likhi jati hai.
  • yah n to shuddh roop se aksharatmak lipi hai aur n hi varnatmak lipi.

devanagari lipi ke gun

  1. ek dhvani ke lie ek hi varn snket.
  2. ek varn snket se anivaryatah ek hi dhvani vyakt.
  3. jo dhvani ka nam vahi varn ka nam.
  4. mook varn nahin.
  5. jo bola jata hai vahi likha jata hai.
  6. ek varn men doosare varn ka bhram nahin.
  7. uchcharan ke sookshmatam bhed ko bhi prakat karane ki kshamata.
  8. varnamala dhvani vaigyanik paddhati ke bilkul anuroop.
  9. prayog bahut vyapak (snskrit, hindi, marathi, nepali ki ekamatr lipi).
  10. bharat ki anek lipiyon ke nikat.

devanagari lipi ke dosh

  1. kul milakar 403 taip hone ke karan tnkan, mundran men kathinaee.
  2. shirorekha ka prayog anavashyak alnkaran ke lie.
  3. anavashyak varn (ri, ri, lri, ॡ, nh, nh, sh)— aj inhen koee shuddh uchcharan ke sath uchcharit nahin kar pata.
  4. dviroop varn (npr a, gy, ksh, t, tr, chh, jh, ra n, sh)
  5. samaroop varn (kh men r v ka, gh men dh ka, m men bh ka bhram hona).
  6. varnon ke snyukt karane ki koee nishchit vyavastha nahin.
  7. anusvar evn anunasikata ke prayog men ekaroopata ka abhav.
  8. tvarapoorn lekhan nahin kyonki lekhan men hath bar–bar uthana padata hai.
  9. varnon ke snyuktikaran men r ke prayog ko lekar bhram ki sthiti.
  10. i ki matra (i) ka lekhan varn ke pahale par uchcharan varn ke bad.

devanagari lipi men kie ge sudhar

  1. bal gngadhar ka 'tilak fant' (1904-26).
  2. savarakar bndhuon ka 'a ki barahakhadi'.
  3. shyamasundar das ka pnchamakshar ke badale anusvar ke prayog ka sujhav.
  4. gorakh prasad ka matraon ko vynjan ke bad dahine taraf alag rakhane ka sujhav.
  5. shrinivas ka mahapran varn ke lie alpraman ke niche a chihn lagane ka sujhav.
  6. hindi sahity sammelan ka indaur adhiveshan aur kaka kalelakar ke snyojakatv men nagari lipi sudhar samiti ka gathan (1935) aur usaki sifarishen.
  7. kashi nagari pracharini sabha dvara a ki barahakhadi aur shrinivas ke sujhav ko asvikar karane ka nirnay (1945).
  8. uttar pradesh sarakar dvara gathit achary narendr dev samiti ka gathan (1947) aur usaki sifarishen.
  9. shiksha mntralay ke devanagari lipi sambandhi pakashan—'manak devanagari varnamala' (1966 ee.), 'hindi vartani ka manakikaran' (1967 ee.), 'devanagari lipi tatha hindi ki vartani ka manakikaran' (1983 ee.) adi.

lipi ke kuchh pramukh lekh

pratiharavnshi raja mahendrapal ke danapatr ki tin pnktiyan (shivaramamoorti ke adhar par)

shivaramamoorti ki ray hai ki harshavardhan ke samakalin gaudadesh (pashchim bngal) ke raja shashank ke tamrapatron men poorvi bharat ki nagari lipi ka svaroop pahale-pahal dekhane ko milata hai. parntu in tamrapatron ki lipi ko ham abhi nagari nahin kah sakate. adhik se adhik ise ham ‘prak-nagari’ ka nam de sakate hain, kyonki is lipi ke akshar nyoonakoniy (tirachhe) aur thos trikoni sironvale hain. uttar bharat men nagari lipi ka prayog pahale-pahal kannauj ke pratiharavnshiy raja mahendrapal (891-907 ee.) ke danapatron men dekhane ko milata hai. inamen ‘a’ ki matra pahale ki tarah akshar ki daeen or adi n hokar, khadi aur poori lnbi ho gee hai. ‘k’ ka niche ka muda hua vakr usake dnd ke sath mil jata hai. is lipi men aksharon ke niche ke sire saral hai aur siron par, pahale ki tarah thos trikon n hokar, ab adi lakiren hain. isake bad to uttar bharat se nagari lipi ke dheron lekh milate hain. inamen guhilavnshi, chahaman (chauhan) vnshi, rashtrakoot, chaluky(solnki), paramar, chndelavnshi, haihay (kalachuri) adi rajaon ke nagari lipi men likhe hue danapatr tatha shilalekh prasiddh hain. dakshin ke pallav shasakon ne bhi apane lekhon ke lie nagari lipi ka prayog kiya tha. isi lipi se age chalakar ‘grnth lipi’ ka vikas hua. tamil lipi ki apoornata ke karan usamen snskrit ke granth likhe nahin ja sakate the, isalie snskrit ke grnth jis nagari lipi men likhe jane lage, usi ka bad men ‘granth lipi’ nam pad gaya. kanchipuram ke kailashanathar mndir men nagari lipi men likhe hue bahut se vivaran milate hain. inamen saral aur kalatmak donon hi prakar ki lipiyon ka prayog dekhane ko milata hai. yah lipi harshavardhan ki lipi se kafi milati-julati dikhaee deti hai.

dhar nagari ke paramar shasak bhoj ke betama tamrapatr (1020 ee.) ka ek ansh

sudoor dakshin men bhi paday shasakon ne 8vin shatabdi men nagari ka istemal kiya tha. mahabalipuram ke atiranachndeshvar namak guphamndir men jo lekh milata hai, vah bhi nagari men hai. sabase niche dakshin men nagari ka jo lekh milata hai, vah hai paday-raja varagun (9vin shatabdi) ka paliyam danapatrh. is danapatr ki lipi men aur atiranachndeshvar ke guphalekh ki lipi men kafi samy hai. dakshin ke uttam, rajaraj aur rajendr jaise chol rajaon ne apane sikkon ke lekhon ke lie nagari ka istemal kiya hai. shrilnka ke parakramabahu, vijayabahu jaise rajaon ke sikkon par bhi nagari ka upayog hua hai. 13vin shatabdi ke keral ke shasakon ke sikkon par ‘virakeralasy’ jaise shabd nagari men ankit milate hain. vijayanagar shasanakal se to nagari (nndinagari) ka bahutayat se upayog dekhane ko milata hai. is kal ke adhikansh tamrapatron par nagari lipi men hi lekh ankit hain, hastakshar hi pray: telugu-kannad lipi men hai. sikkon par bhi nagari ka prayog dekhane ko milata hai. dakshini shaili ki nagari lipi (nndinagari lipi) ka prachinatam namoona hamen rashtrakoot raja dntidurg ke samngad danapatron men, jo 754 ee. ke hain, dikhaee deta hai. bad men badami ke chalukyon ke uttaradhikari rashtrakoot shasakon ne to is nagari lipi ka bade paimane par istemal kiya. rashtrakoot raja krishnaraj pratham ke nagari lipi men likhe hue taleganv-danapatr prasiddh hain. devagiri ke yadavavnshi rajaon ne bhi nagari lipi ka hi upayog kiya tha. dhar nagari ka paramar shasak bhoj apane vidyanurag ke lie itihas men prasiddh hai. bansavada tatha vetama se prapt usake tamrapatr (1020 ee.) usaki ‘konkanavijay’ ke upalakshy men jari kie gaye the. ye arnbhik nagari lipi men hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 devanagari lipi ka snkshipt parichay (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi sahity. abhigaman tithi: 28 sitnbar, 2010.
  2. urdoo ko chhodakar
  3. adhunik nanded
  4. muळe, gunakar akshar katha. nee dilli: soochana evn prasaran mntralay, bharat sarakar.
  5. grnth lipi se vikasit
  6. hindi par mahapurushon ke vichar (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) snvedanaon ke pnkh. abhigaman tithi: 26 disnbar, 2010.
  7. nagari lipi men likhit

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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