राहुल सांकृत्यायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rahul sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan.JPG
poora nam rahul sankrityayan
any nam kedaranath pande, damodar svami
janm 9 aprail, 1893
janm bhoomi pandaha gram, zila ajamagadh, (uttar pradesh)
mrityu 14 aprail, 1963
mrityu sthan darjiling, pashchim bngal
abhibhavak govardhan pande, kulavanti
karm bhoomi bihar
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen ghumakkad shastr, 'satami ke bachche', 'jine ke lie', 'sinh senapati', 'volga se gnga' adi.
vishay darshan, dharm, yatra, rajaniti
bhasha hindi, pali, prakrit, apabhrnsh
puraskar-upadhi sahity akadami puraskar (1958), padm bhooshan (1963), tripitika chary
nagarikata bharatiy
adyatan‎
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

mahapandit rahul sankrityayan (janm- 9 aprail, 1893; mrityu- 14 aprail, 1963) ko hindi yatra sahity ka janak mana jata hai. ve ek pratishthit bahubhashavid the aur 20vin sadi ke poorvarddh men unhonne yatra vritant tatha vishv-darshan ke kshetr men sahityik yogadan kie. bauddh dharm par unaka shodh hindi sahity men yugantarakari mana jata hai, jisake lie unhonne tibbat se lekar shrilnka tak bhraman kiya tha.

jivan parichay

rahul sankrityayan ji ka janm 9 aprail, 1893 ko pandaha gram, zila ajamagadh (uttar pradesh) men hua. rahul sankrityayan ke pita ka nam govardhan pande aur mata ka nam kulavanti tha. inake char bhaee aur ek bahin thi, parantu bahin ka dehant balyavastha men hi ho gaya tha. bhaiyon men jyeshth rahul ji the. pitrikul se mila hua unaka nam 'kedaranath pande' tha. sanh 1930 ee. men lnka men bauddh hone par unaka nam 'rahul' pada. bauddh hone ke poorv rahul ji 'damodar svami' ke nam se bhi pukare jate the. 'rahul' nam ke age 'sanskrityayan' isalie laga ki pitrikul sankrity gotriy hai.

baly kal

rahul ji ka baly jivan nanihal arthat pandaha gram men vyatit hua. rahul ji ke nana ka nam tha pandit ram sharan pathak, jo apani yuvavastha men fauj men naukari kar chuke the. nana ke mukh se suni huee fauzi jivan ki kahaniyan, shikar ke adbhut vrittant, desh ke vibhinn pradeshon ka rochak varnan, ajanta-elora ki kivadantiyon tatha nadiyon, jharanon ke varnan adi ne rahul ji ke agami jivan ki bhoomika taiyar kar di thi. isake atirikt darja tin ki urdoo kitab men padha hua 'navajinda-bajinda' ka sher

sair kar duniya ki gaphil zindagani phir kahan,
zindagi gar kuchh rahi to naujavani phir kahan

rahul ji ko door desh jane ke lie prerit karane laga. kuchh kal pashchath ghar chhodane ka snyog yon upasthit hua ki ghi ki mataki sambhali nahin aur do ser ghi zamin par bah gaya. ab nana ki dant ka bhay tha, navajinda bajinda ka vah sher aur nana ke hi mukh se suni kahaniyan in sabane milakar kedaranath pande (rahul ji) ko ghar se bahar nikal diya.

jivan yatra

rahul ji ki jivan yatra ke adhyay is prakar hain-

isake bad pun: vapas ane par himalay ki yatra par gaye, sanh 1990 ee. se 1914 ee. tak vairagy se prabhavit rahe aur himalay par yayavar jivan jiya. varanasi men snskrit ka adhyayan kiya. parasa mahant ka sahachary mila, agara men padhaee ki, lahaur men mishanari kary kiya, isake bad pun: 'ghumakkadi ka bhoot' havi raha. kurg men bhi char mas tak rahe.

rajaniti men pravesh (1921-27)

rahul sankrityayan ne chhapara ke lie prasthan kiya, badh piditon ki seva ki, svatntrata andolan men satyagrah men bhag liya aur usamen jel ki saza mili, baksar jel men chh: mas tak rahe, zila kangres ke mntri rahe, isake bad nepal men dedh mas tak rahe, hazari bag jel men rahe. rajanitik shithilata ane par pun: himalay ki or gaye, kaunsil ka chunav bhi lada.

lnka ke lie prasthan (1927)

rahul sankrityayan ne lnka men 19 mas pravas kiya, nepal men agyatavas kiya, tibbat men sava baras tak rahe, lnka men doosari bar gaye, isake bad satyagrah ke lie bharat men lautakar aye. kuchh samay bad lnka ke lie tisari bar prasthan kiya.

yatraen (1932-33)

rahul sankrityayan ne inglaind aur yoorop ki yatra ki. do bar laddakh yatra, do bar tibbat yatra, japan, koriya, mnchooriya, soviyat bhoomi (1935 ee.), eeran men pahali bar, tibbat men tisari bar 1936 ee. men, soviyat bhoomi men doosari bar 1937 ee. men, tibbat men chauthi bar 1938 ee.men yatra ki.

andolan (1938)

kisan mazadooron ke andolan men 1938-44 tak bhag liya, kisan sngharsh men 1936 men bhag liya aur satyagrah bhookh hadatal kiya.

saza, jel aur ek naye jivan ka prarambh

rahul sankrityayan ji kamyunist parti ke sadasy bane. jel men 29 mas (1940-42 ee.) rahe. isake bad soviyat roos ke lie pun: prasthan kiya. roos se lautane ke bad rahul ji bharat men rahe aur kuchh samay ke pashchath chin chale gaye, phir lnka chale gaye.

mahan paryatak

rahul ji ki prarambhik yatraon ne unake chintan ko do dishaen din. ek to prachin evn arvachin vishayon ka adhyayan tatha doosare desh-deshantaron ki adhik se adhik pratyaksh janakari prapt karana. in do pravrittiyon se abhibhoot hokar rahul ji mahanh paryatak aur mahanh adhyeta bane.

dharm

kattar sanatani brahman kul men janm lekar bhi sanatan dharm ki roodhiyon ko rahul ji ne apane oopar se utar phenka aur jo bhi tarkavadi dharm ya tarkavadi samajashastr unake samane ate gaye, use grahan karate gaye aur shanai: shanai: un dharmon evn shastron ke bhi mool tatvon ko apanate hue unake bahy dhanche ko chhodate gaye.

Blockquote-open.gif "kamar bandh lo bhavi ghumakkadon!
snsar tumhare svagat ke lie bekarar hai." Blockquote-close.gif

sanatan dharm se, ary samaj se aur bauddh dharm se samyavad-rahul ji ke samajik chintan ka kram hai, rahul ji kisi dharm ya vicharadhara ke dayare men bndh nahin sake. 'majjhim nikay' ke sootr ka havala dete hue rahul ji ne apani 'jivan yatra' men is tathy ka spashtikaran is prakar kiya hai-
“bade ki bhanti mainne tumhen upadesh diya hai, vah par utarane ke lie hai, sir par dhoye-dhoye phirane ke lie nahin-to maloom hua ki jis chiz ko main itane dinon se dhoondhata raha hoon, vah mil gayi”.

medhavi vyaktitv ke dhani

yadyapi rahul ji ke jivan men paryatak vritti sadaiv pradhan rahi, parantu unaka paryatan keval paryatan ke lie hi nahin raha. paryatan ke mool men adhyayan ki pravritti sarvopari rahi. anek dharmik evn rajanitik valayon men rahane ke bad bhi unake adhyayan evn chintan men kabhi jadata nahin ane payi. rahul ji balyakal se hi medhavi the. samooche darje men avval hona unake lie sadharan bat thi. paristhitiyon ke anusar jis vishay ke sampark men ve aye, usaki poori janakari prapt karana unaka vyaktigat dharm ban gaya. varanasi men jab snskrit se anurag hua, to sampoorn snskrit sahity evn darshanadi ko padh liya. kalakatta men angrezi se pala pada to kuchh samay men angrezi ke gyata ban gaye. ary samaj ka jab prabhav pada to vedon ko math dala. bauddh dharm ki or jab jhukav hua to pali, prakrit, apabhrnsh, tibbati, chini, japani, evn sinhali bhashaon ki janakari lete hue sampoorn bauddh granthon ka manan kiya aur sarvashreshth upadhi 'tripitika chary' ki padavi payi. samyavad ke krod men jab rahul ji gaye to karl marks, lenin tatha stalin ke darshan se poorn parichay hua. prakarantar se rahul ji itihas, puratattv, sthapaty, bhashashastr evn rajaniti shastr ke achchhe gyata the.

ghumakkadi svabhav

rahul sankrityayan pratima

rahul sankrityayan ka manana tha ki ghumakkadi manav-man ki mukti ka sadhan hone ke sath-sath apane kshitij vistar ka bhi sadhan hai. unhonne kaha bhi tha ki- "kamar bandh lo bhavi ghumakkadon, snsar tumhare svagat ke lie bekarar hai." rahul ne apani yatra ke anubhavon ko atmasat karate hue ‘ghumakkad shastr’ bhi racha. ve ek aise ghumakkad the jo sachche gyan ki talash men tha aur jab bhi sach ko dabane ki koshish ki gee to vah bagi ho gaye. unaka sampoorn jivan antarvirodhon se bhara pada hai.

Blockquote-open.gif “bade ki bhanti mainne tumhen upadesh diya hai, vah par utarane ke lie hai, sir par dhoye-dhoye phirane ke lie nahin-to maloom hua ki jis chiz ko main itane dinon se dhoondhata raha hoon, vah mil gayi”. Blockquote-close.gif

- rahul sankrityayan

vedant ke adhyayan ke pashchath jab unhonne mndiron men bali chadhane ki parampara ke viruddh vyakhyan diya to ayodhya ke sanatani purohit un par lathi lekar toot pade. bauddh dharm svikar karane ke bavajood vah isake ‘punarjanmavad’ ko nahin svikar pae. bad men jab ve marksavad ki or unmukh hue to unhonne tatkalin soviyat sngh ki kamyunist parti men ghuse sattalolup suvidhaparaston ki tikhi alochana ki aur unhen andolan ke nasht hone ka karan bataya. sanh 1947 men akhil bharatiy sahity sammelan ke adhyaksh roop men unhonne pahale se chhape bhashan ko bolane se mana kar diya evn jo bhashan diya, vah alpasnkhyak snskriti evn bhashaee saval par kamyunist parti ki nitiyon ke viparit tha. natijan parti ki sadasyata se unhen vnchit hona pada, par unake tevar phir bhi nahin badale. is kalavadhi men ve kisi bndish se pare pragatishil lekhan ke sarokaron aur tatkalin prashnon se lagatar jude rahe. is bich marksavadi vicharadhara ko unhonne bharatiy samaj ki thos paristhitiyon ka ankalan karake lagoo karane par zor diya. apani pustak ‘vaigyanik bhautikavad’ evn ‘darshan-digdarshan’ men is sambandh men unhonne samyak prakash dala. antat: sanh 1953-54 ke dauran pun: ek bar ve kamyunist parti ke sadasy banaye gaye.

sahityik jivan

apani 'jivan yatra' men rahul ji ne svikar kiya hai ki unaka sahityik jivan sanh 1927 se prarambh hota hai. vastavik bat to yah hai ki rahul ji ne kishoravastha par karane ke bad hi likhana shuroo kar diya tha. jis prakar unake panv nahin ruke, usi prakar unake hath ki lekhani bhi kabhi nahin ruki. unaki lekhani se vibhinn vishayon par pray: 150 se adhik granth pranit hue hain. prakashit granthon ki snkhya sambhavat: 129 hai. lekhon, nibandhon evn vaktritataon ki snkhya hazaron men hain.

kritiyan

rahul sankrityayan

rahul ji ki prakashit kritiyon ka kram is prakar hai-

upanyas-kahani

maulik anuvad
  • 'satami ke bachche' (kahani, 1939 ee.)
  • 'jine ke lie' (1940 ee.)
  • 'sinh senapati' (1944 ee.)
  • 'jay yaudhey' (1944 ee.)
  • 'volga se gnga' (kahani sngrah, 1944 ee.)
  • 'madhur svapn' (1949 ee.)
  • 'bahurngi madhupuri' (kahani, 1953 ee.)
  • 'vismrit yatri' (1954 ee.)
  • 'kanaila ki katha' (kahani, 1955-56 ee.)
  • 'saptasindhu'
  • 'shaitan ki ankh' (1923 ee.)
  • 'vismriti ke garbh se' (1923 ee.)
  • 'jadoo ka mulk' (1923 ee.)
  • 'sone ki dhal' (1938)
  • 'dakhunda' (1947 ee.)
  • 'jo das the' (1947 ee.)
  • 'anath' (1948 ee.)
  • 'adina' (1951 ee.)
  • 'soodakhor ki maut' (1951 ee.)
  • 'shadi' (1952 ee.)

darshan

  • 'vaigyanik bhautikavad' (1942 ee.)
  • 'darshan digdarshan' (1942 ee.)
  • 'bauddh darshan' (1942 ee.)

kosh

  • 'shasan shabd kosh' (1948 ee.)
  • 'rashtrabhasha kosh' (1951 ee.)

jivani

  • 'meri jivan yatra' (do bhagon men 1944)
  • 'saradar prithvi sinh' (1944 ee.)
  • 'naye bharat ke naye neta' (1944 ee.)
  • 'rajasthani ranivas' (1953 ee.)
  • 'bachapan ki smritiyan' (1953 ee.)
  • 'atit se vartaman' (1953 ee.)
  • 'stalin' (1954 ee.)
  • 'karl marks' (1954 ee.)
  • 'lenin' (1954 ee.)
  • 'akabar' (1956 ee.)
  • 'maotse tung' (1954 ee.)
  • 'ghumakkad svami' (1956 ee.)
  • 'asahayog ke mere sathi' (1956 ee.)
  • 'jinaka main kritgy' (1956 ee.)
  • 'vir chandr sinh gadhavali' (1957 ee.)

bauddh dharm

  • 'buddhacharya' (1930 ee.)
  • 'dhammapad' (1933 ee.)
  • 'majjhimanikay' (1933)
  • 'vinay pitak' (1934 ee.)
  • 'dirghanikay' (1935 ee.)
  • 'mahamanav buddh' (1956 ee.)

rajaniti samyavad

  • 'baisavin sadi' (1923 ee.)
  • 'samyavad hi kyon' (1934 ee.)
  • 'dimagi gulami' (1937 ee.)
  • 'kya karen' (1937 ee.)
  • 'tumhari kshay' (1947 ee.)
  • 'soviyat nyay' (1939 ee.)
  • 'rahul ji ka aparadh' (1939 ee.)
  • 'soviyat kamyunist parti ka itihas' (1939 ee.)
  • 'manav samaj' (1942 ee.)
  • 'aj ki samasyaen' (1944 ee.)
  • 'aj ki rajaniti' (1949 ee.)
  • 'bhago nahin badalo' (1944 ee.)
  • 'kamyunist kya chahate hain?' (1953 ee.)

desh darshan

  • 'soviyat madhy eshiya' (1947 ee.)
  • 'kinnar desh' (1948 ee.)
  • 'darjiling parichay' (1950 ee.)
  • 'kumaoon' (1951 ee.)
  • 'gadhaval' (1952 ee.)
  • 'naipal' (1953 ee.)
  • 'himalay pradesh' (1954 ee.)
  • 'jaunasagar deharadoon' (1955 ee.)
  • 'ajamagadh puratattv' (1955)

snskrit balapothi (sampadan) darshan, dharm

  • 'vadanyay' (1935 ee.)
  • 'pramanavarttik' (1935 ee.)
  • 'adhyarddhashatak' (1935 ee.)
  • 'vigrahavyavarttani' (1935 ee.)
  • 'pramanavarttikabhashy' (1935-36 ee.)
  • 'pr. va. svavritti tika' (1937 ee.)
  • 'vinayasootr' (1943 ee.)

yatra

  • 'meri laddakh yatra' (1926 ee.)
  • 'lnka yatravali' (1927-28 ee.)
  • 'tibbat men sava varsh' (1939 ee.)
  • 'meri yoorop yatra' (1932 ee.)
  • 'meri tibbat yatra' (1934 ee.)
  • 'yatra ke pann' (1934-36 ee)
  • 'japan' (1935 ee.)
  • 'eeran' (1935-37 ee.)
  • 'roos men pachchis mas' (1944-47 ee.)
  • 'ghumakkad shastr' (1949 ee.)
  • 'eshiya ke durgam khandon men' (1956 ee.)

sahity aur itihas

  • 'vishv ki rooparekha' (1923 ee.)
  • 'tibbat men bauddh dharm' (1935 ee.)
  • 'puratattv nibandhavali' (1936 ee.)
  • 'hindi kavyadhara' (apabhrnsh, 1944 ee.)
  • 'bauddh snskriti' (1949 ee.)
  • 'sahity nibandhavali' (1949 ee.)
  • 'adi hindi ki kahaniyan' (1950 ee.)
  • 'dakkhini hindi kavyadhara' (1952 ee.)
  • 'saral doha kosh' (1954 ee.)
  • 'madhy eshiya ka itihas, 1,2' (1952 ee.)
  • 'rigvaidik ary' (1956 ee.)
  • 'bharat men angrezi rajy ke snsthapak' (1957 ee.)
  • 'tulasi ramayan snkshep' (1957 ee.)

bhojapuri natak

  • 'tin natak' (1944 ee.)
  • 'panch natak' (1944 ee.)


karmayogi yoddha

ek karmayogi yoddha ki tarah rahul sankrityayan ne bihar ke kisan-andolan men bhi pramukh bhoomika nibhaee. sanh 1940 ke dauran kisan-andolan ke silasile men unhen ek varsh ki jel huee to devali kaimp ke is jel-pravas ke dauran unhonne ‘darshan-digdarshan’ granth ki rachana kar dali. 1942 ke bharat chhodo andolan ke pashchath jel se nikalane par kisan andolan ke us samay ke shirsh neta svami sahajanand sarasvati dvara prakashit saptahik patr ‘hunkar’ ka unhen sampadak banaya gaya. british sarakar ne phoot dalo aur raj karo ki niti apanate hue gair kangresi patr-patrikaon men char ankon hetu ‘gundon se ladie’ shirshak se ek vigyapan jari kiya. isamen ek vyakti gandhi topi v javahar bandi pahane ag lagata hua dikhaya gaya tha. rahul sankrityayan ne is vigyapan ko chhapane se inkar kar diya par vigyapan ki moti dhanarashi dekhakar svami sahajanand ne ise chhapane par jor diya. antat: rahul ne apane ko patrika ke sampadan se hi alag kar liya. isi prakar sanh 1940 men ‘bihar prantiy kisan sabha’ ke adhyaksh roop men jamindaron ke atnk ki paravah kie bina ve kisan satyagrahiyon ke sath kheton men utar hnsiya lekar ganna katane lage. pratirodh svaroop zamindar ke lathaiton ne unake sir par var kar lahuluhan kar diya par ve himmat nahin hare. isi tarah n jane kitani bar unhonne janasngharshon ka sakriy netritv kiya aur apani avaj ko mukhar abhivyakti di.[1]

any vishayon par drishtikon

rahul sankrityayan ke samman men jari dak tikat

rahul ji ne hindi sahity ke atirikt dharm, darshan, lok sahity, yatra sahity, jivani, rajaniti, itihas, snskrit ke granthon ki tika aur anuvad, kosh, tibbati bhasha evn balapothi sampadan adi vishayon par poore adhikar ke sath likha hai. hindi bhasha aur sahity ke kshetr men rahul ji ne 'apabhrnsh kavy sahity' 'dakkhini hindi sahity' 'adi hindi ki kahaniyan' prastut kar luptapray nidhi ka uddhar kiya hai. rahul ji ki maulik kahaniyan evn upanyas ek naye drishtikon ko samane rakhati hai. sahity se sambandhit rahul ji ki rachanaon men ek aur vishisht bat yah rahi hai ki unhonne prachin itihas athava vartaman jivan ke un achhoote angon ko sparsh kiya hai, jis par sadharanataya logon ki drishti nahin gayi thi. un rachanaon men jahan ek or prachin ke prati moh, itihas ka gaurav adi hai, to doosari or unaki anek rachanaen sthaniy rngat ko lekar mohak chitr upasthit karati hai. 'satami ke bachche' aur 'kanaila ki katha' is tathy ki pushti karate hain. rahul ji ne prachin khandaharon se ganatntriy pranali ko khoj nikala. dharmik andolanon ke mool men jakar sarvahara ke dharm ko pakad liya. itihas ke prishthon men asadharan ke sthan par sadharan ko adhik prashray diya aur is prakar janata, janata ka rajy, mehanatakash mazadoor yah sab unaki rachanaon ke mooladhar bane. sahityik bhasha, kavyatmakata athava vynjanaon ka sahara n lete hue rahul ji ne sidhi, saral shaili ka sahara liya. isilie rahul ji ki rachanaen pathakon ke lie bhi manornjak evn bodhagamy hain.

puraskar

mahapandit rahul sankrityayan ko sanh 1958 men 'sahity akadami puraskar' aur sanh 1963 bharat sarakar dvara 'padm bhooshan' se sammanit kiya gaya.

mrityu

rahul sankrityayan ko apane jivan ke antim dinon men ‘smriti lop’ jaisi avastha se gujarana pada evn ilaj hetu unhen masko le jaya gaya. march, 1963 men ve pun: masko se dilli a ge aur 14 aprail, 1963 ko sattar varsh ki ayu men sannyas se samyavad tak ka unaka saphar poora ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rahul sankrityayan ka ghumakkad shastr [jivan parichay - krishn kumar yadav] (hindi) sahity shilpi. abhigaman tithi: 24 march, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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