बालकृष्ण भट्ट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

balakrishn bhatt
balakrishn bhatt
poora nam balakrishn bhatt
janm 3 joon, 1844
janm bhoomi ilahabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 20 julaee, 1914
abhibhavak pita- pndit veni prasad
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr hindi sahity
mukhy rachanaen 'sahity suman', 'nootan brahmachari', 'sau ajan ek sujan', 'bal-vivah', 'chndrasen', 'rel ka vikat khel' adi.
bhasha hindi, snskrit, angrezi, bngala aur farasi.
prasiddhi natakakar, patrakar, upanyasakar aur nibandhakar.
vishesh yogadan gady kavy ki rachana sarvapratham balakrishn bhatt ne prarnbh ki thi. inase poorv tak hindi men gady kavy ka nitant abhav tha.
nagarikata bharatiy
kal bharatendu yug
any janakari bhattaji svatntr roop se lekh likhakar hindi saptahik aur masik patron men bhejate the. ve kee varsh tak prayag men snskrit ke adhyapak rahe the. 'hindi pradip' masik patr ka sampadan ve nirntar ghata sahakar karate rahe the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

balakrishn bhatt (angrezi: Balkrishna Bhatt; janm- 3 joon, 1844, ilahabad, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 20 julaee, 1914) adhunik hindi sahity ke shirsh nirmataon men se ek the. aj ki gady pradhan kavita ka janak inhen mana jata hai. balakrishn bhatt ek saphal natakakar, patrakar, upanyasakar aur nibandhakar the. bhatt ji ne nibandh, upanyas aur natakon ki rachana karake hindi ko ek samarth shaili pradan ki. ye pahale aise nibandhakar the, jinhonne atmaparak shaili ka prayog kiya tha. balakrishn bhatt ko hindi, snskrit, angrezi, bngala aur farasi adi bhashaon ka achchha gyan tha. inhonne hindi sahity ki vividh roopon men seva ki. lagabhag battis varshon tak 'hindi pradip' ka snpadan kar bhattaji apane vicharon ka vyaktikaran karate rahe. ye 'bharatendu yug' ki dedipyaman maun vibhooti hone ke sath-sath 'dvivedi yug' ke lekhakon ke marg-darshak aur prerana strot bhi rahe.

janm tatha shiksha

balakrishn bhatt ji ka janm prayag (adhunik ilahabad), uttar pradesh men 3 joon, 1844 ee. men hua tha. inake pita ka nam pndit veni prasad tha. pndit veni prasad ki shiksha ki or vishesh ruchi rahati thi, sath hi inaki patni bhi ek vidushi mahila thin. atah balakrishn bhatt ki shiksha par balyakal se hi vishesh dhyan diya gaya. prarnbh men inhen ghar par hi snskrit ki shiksha di gayi aur 15-16 varsh ki avastha tak inaka yahi kram raha. isake uparant inhonne mata ke adeshanusar sthaniy mishan ke skool men angrezi padhana prarnbh kiya aur dasavin kaksha tak adhyayan kiya. vidyarthi jivan men inhen baeebil pariksha men kee bar puraskar bhi prapt hue. mishan skool chhodane ke uparant yah punah snskrit, vyakaran aur sahity ka adhyayan karane lage.[1]

vyavasayik jivan

kuchh samay ke lie balakrishn bhatt 'jamuna mishan skool' men snskrit ke adhyapak bhi rahe, par apane dharmik vicharon ke karan inhen pad tyag karana pada. vivah ho jane par jab inhen apani bekari khalane lagi, tab yah vyapar karane ki ichchha se kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) bhi ge, parantu vahan se shighr hi laut aye aur snskrit sahity ke adhyayan tatha hindi sahity ki seva men jut ge. yah svatntr roop se lekh likhakar hindi saptahik aur masik patron men bhejane lage tatha kee varsh tak prayag men snskrit ke adhyapak rahe. bhattaji prayag se 'hindi pradip' masik patr ka nirntar ghata sahakar 32 varsh tak usaka sampadan karate rahe. 'hindi pradip' bnd hone ke bad 'hindi shabdasagar' ka snpadan kary bhi inhonne kuchh samay tak dekha, par asvasthata ke karan inhen yah kary chhodana pada.

hindi sahity men sthan

balakrishn bhatt ka hindi ke nibandhakaron men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. nibandhon ke prarnbhik yug ko niahsnkoch bhav se bhatt yug ke nam se abhihit kiya ja sakata hai. vyngy vinod snpann shirshakon aur lekhon dvara ek or to bhattaji pratap narayan mishr ke nikat hain aur gnbhir vivechan evn vicharatmak nibandhon ke lie ve achary ramachandr shukl ke nikat hain. bhattaji apane yug ke n keval sarvashreshth nibandhakar the, apitu inhen sampoorn hindi sahity men pratham shreni ka nibandh lekhak mana jata hai. inhonne sahityik, samajik, rajanitik, dharmik, darshanik, naitik aur samayik adi sabhi vishayon par vichar vyakt kiye hain. inhonne tin sau se adhik nibandh likhe hain. inake nibandhon ka kalevar atynt snkshipt hai tatha tin prishthon men hi samapt ho jate hain.[1] inhonne moolatah vicharatmak nibandh hi likhe hain aur in vicharatmak nibandhon ko char shreniyon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. vyavaharik jivan se sambndhit.
  2. sahityik vishayon se samabandhit.
  3. samayik vishayon se sambndhit.
  4. hriday ki vritiyon par adharit.

kritiyan

bhattaji 'bharatendu yug' ki den the aur bharatendu mndali ke pradhan sadasy the. prayag men inhonne 'hindi pravarddhini' namak sabha ki sthapana ki thi aur 'hindi pradip' namak patr prakashit karate rahe. isi patr men inake anek nibandh drishtigochar hote hain. 'hindi sahity sammelan' prayag ne inake kuchh nibandhon ka sngrah 'nibandhavali' nam se prakashit bhi karavaya tha.

  • nibandh sngrah - sahity suman, bhatt nibandhavali.
  • upanyas - nootan brahmachari, sau ajan ek sujan.
  • natak - damaynti svaynvar, bal-vivah, chndrasen, rel ka vikat khel.
  • anuvad - venisnhar, mrichchhakatik, padmavati.

bhasha

bhasha ki drishti se apane samay ke lekhakon men balakrishn bhatt ka sthan bahut ooncha hai. unhonne apani rachanaon men yathashakti shuddh hindi ka prayog kiya. bhavon ke anukool shabdon ka chunav karane men bhatt ji bade kushal the. kahavaton aur muhavaron ka prayog bhi unhonne sundar dhng se kiya hai. bhatt ji ki bhasha men jahan tahan poorvipan ki jhalak milati hai, jaise- samajha-bujha ke sthan par samajhay-bujhay likha gaya hai. balakrishn bhatt ki bhasha ko do kotiyon men rakha ja sakata hai. pratham koti ki bhasha tatsam shabdon se yukt hai. dvitiy koti men ane vali bhasha men snskrit ke tatsam shabdon ke sath-sath tatkalin urdoo, arabi, farasi tatha angl bhashiy shabdon ka bhi prayog kiya gaya hai. vah hindi ki paridhi ka vistar karana chahate the, isalie unhonne bhasha ko vishay evn prasng ke anusar prachalit hinditar shabdon se bhi samanvit kiya hai. balakrishn bhatt ki bhasha jivnt tatha chittakarshak hai. isamen yatr-tatr poorvi boli ke prayogon ke sath-sath muhavaron ka prayog bhi kiya gaya hai, jisase bhasha atyant rochak aur pravahamayi ban gee hai.[2]

shaili

balakrishn bhatt ki lekhan shaili ko do kotiyon men rakha ja sakata hai. pratham koti ki shaili ko parichayatmak shaili kaha ja sakata hai. is shaili men unhonne kahaniyan aur upanyas likhe hain. dvitiy koti men ane vali shaili goodh aur gnbhir hai. is shaili men bhatt ji ko adhik naipuny prapt hai. unhonne 'atm-nirbharata' tatha 'kalpana' jaise gambhir vishayon ke atirikt, 'ankh', 'nak' tatha 'kan' adi ati samany vishayon par bhi sundar nibandh likhe hain. apake nibandhon men vicharon ki gahanata, vishay ki vistrit vivechana, gambhir chintan ke sath ek anoothapan bhi hai. yatr-tatr vyngy evn vinod unaki shaili ko manornjak bana deta hai. unhonne hasy adharit lekh bhi likhe hain, jo atyant shikshadayak hain. bhatt ji ka gady, gady n hokar gadyakavy-sa pratit hota hai. vastut: adhunik kavita men padyatmak shaili men gady likhane ki parnpara ka sootrapat balakrishn bhatt ji ne hi kiya tha.[2]

varnanatmak shaili

varnanatmak shaili men balakrishn bhatt ji ne vyavaharik tatha samajik vishayon par nibandh likhe hain. jan sadharan ke lie bhatt ji ne isi shaili ko apanaya. unake upanyas ki shaili bhi yahi hai, kintu ise unaki pratinidhi shaili nahin kaha ja sakata. is shaili ki bhasha saral aur muhavaredar hai. vaky kahin chhote aur kahin bade hain.

vicharatmak shaili

bhatt ji dvara gnbhir vishayon par likhe ge nibandh isi shaili ke antargat ate hain. tark aur vishvas, gyan aur bhakti, snbhashan adi nibandh vicharatmak shaili ke udaharan hain. is shaili ki bhasha men snskrit ke shabdon ki adhikata hai.

bhavatmak shaili

is shaili ka prayog balakrishn bhatt ne sahityik nibandhon men kiya hai. ise bhatt ji ki pratinidhi shaili kaha ja sakata hai. is shaili men shuddh hindi ka prayog hua hai. bhasha pravahamayi, snyat aur bhavanukool hai. is shaili men upama, roopak, utpreksha adi alnkaron ka prayog bhi hua hai. alnkaron ke prayog se bhasha men vishesh saundary a gaya hai. bhavon aur vichar ke sath kalpana ka bhi sundar samanvay hua hai. isamen gady kavy jaisa annd hota hai.

vyngyatmak shaili

is shaili men hasy aur vyngy ki pradhanata hai. vishay ke anusar kahin vyngy atynt marmik aur tikha ho gaya hai. is shaili ki bhasha men urdoo shabdon ki adhikata hai aur vaky chhote-chhote hain.

nidhan

balakrishn bhatt ka nidhan 20 julaee, 1914 ee. men hua. lekhakon men unaka sarvochch sthan hai. bhattaji ne natakakar, nibandhakar, lekhak, upanyasakar aur anuvadak adi vibhinn roopon men hindi ki seva ki aur use dhani banaya. sahity ki drishti se bhatt ji ke nibandh atynt uchch koti ke hain. is disha men unaki tulana angrezi ke prasiddh nibndhakar charls lainb se ki ja sakati hai. gady kavy ki rachana bhi sarvapratham bhatt ji ne hi prarnbh ki thi. inase poorv tak hindi men gady kavy ka nitant abhav tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 pn. balakrishn bhatt (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 sitambar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 balakrishn bhatt, parichay (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 sitambar, 2013.

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