भारतेन्दु युग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatendu yug
bharatendu harishchndr
vivaran 'bharatendu yug' adhunik hindi kavy ke pratham charan ko kaha gaya hai. is kal men nibndh, natak, upanyas tatha kahaniyon ki rachana huee.
any nam navajagaran kal
samay 1869 se 1900
pramukh kavi v lekhak bharatendu harishchndr, pratap narayan mishr, radhakrishnadas, anbikadatt vyas, thakur jagamohan sinh, balakrishn bhatt, devakinandan khatri aur kishori lal gosvami adi.
vishesh bharatendu yug ke kaviyon ki sabase badi sahityik den keval yahi mani ja sakati hai ki unhonne kavita ko ritikalin parivesh se mukt karake samasamayik jivan se jod diya.
any janakari bharatendu yug men parnparagat dharmikata aur bhakti bhavana ko apekshat: gaun sthan prapt hua. bharatendu ne kavy kshetr ko adhunik vishayon se snpann kiya aur riti ki bndhi-bndhayi paripati se kavita-sundari ko mukt karake taji hava men sans lene ka suavasar pradan kiya.

adhunik hindi kavy ke pratham charan ko "bharatendu yug" ki sngya pradan ki gee hai. bharatendu harishchndr ko hindi sahity ke adhunik yug ka pratinidhi mana jata hai. unhonne 'kavivachan sudha', 'harishchandr maigazin' aur 'harishchndr patrika' bhi nikali. isake sath hi anek natakon adi ki rachana bhi ki. bharatendu yug men nibndh, natak, upanyas tatha kahaniyon ki rachana huee.

navajagaran kal

bharatendu kal ko 'navajagaran kal' bhi kaha gaya hai. hindi sahity ke adhunik kal ke snkrati kal ke do paksh hain. is samay ke daramyan ek aur prachin paripati men kavy rachana hoti rahi aur doosari or samajik rajanitik kshetron men jo sakriyata badh rahi thi aur paristhitiyon ke badalav ke karan jin naye vicharon ka prasar ho raha tha, unaka bhi dhire-dhire sahity par prabhav padane laga tha. prarnbh ke 25 varshon (1843 se 1869) tak sahity par yah prabhav bahut kam pada, kintu san 1868 ke bad navajagaran ke lakshan adhik spasht roop se dikhaee dene lage the. vicharon men is parivartan ka shrey bharatendu harishchandr ko hai. isalie is yug ko "bharatendu yug" bhi kahate hain. bharatendu ke pahale brajabhasha men bhakti aur shrringar parak rachanaen hoti thin aur lakshan grnth bhi likhe jate the. bharatendu ke samay se kavy ke vishay chayan men vyapakata aur vividhata aee. shrringarikata, ritibaddhata men kami aee. rashtr-prem, bhasha-prem aur svadeshi vastuon ke prati prem kaviyon ke man men bhi paida hone laga. unaka dhyan samajik samasyaon aur unake samadhan ki or bhi gaya. is prakar unhonne samajik rajanitik kshetron men gatishil navajagaran ko apani rachanaon ke dvara protsahit kiya.[1]

pramukh kavi

bharatendu harishchndr, baba sumer sinh, badari narayan premaghan (1855-1923), pratap narayan mishr (1856-1894), radhakrishn das (1865-1907), anbika datt vyas (1858-1900) aur thakur jagamohan sinh (1857-1899) is yug ke pramukh kavi the. any kaviyon men ramakrishn varma, shri nivasadas, lala sitaram, ray devi prasad, balamukund gupt, navanit chaube adi hain. is kal ke lekhakon men balakrishn bhatt, radha charan gosvami, upadhyay badarinath chaudhari 'premaghan', lala shrinivas das, devakinandan khatri aur kishori lal gosvami adi ullekhaniy hain. inamen se adhikansh lekhak hone ke sath-sath patrakar bhi the.

bharatendu harishchndr ka yogadan

bharatendu yug ke poorv kavita men ritikalin pravrittiyan vidyaman thin. atishay shrringarikata, alnkar moh, riti nirupan evn chamatkarapriyata ke karan kavita jan-jivan se kat gee thi. deshi riyasaton ke snrakshan men rahane vale kavigan ritikal ke vyamoh se n to ubarana chahate the aur n hi ubarane ka prayas kar rahe the. aisi paristhitiyon men bharatendu ji ka kavy-kshetr men padarpan vastutah adhunik hindi kavy ke liye varadan siddh hua. unhonne kavy kshetr ko adhunik vishayon se snpann kiya aur riti ki bndhi-bndhayi paripati se kavita-sundari ko mukt karake taji hava men sans lene ka suavasar pradan kiya. bharatendu yug men parnparagat dharmikata aur bhakti bhavana ko apekshat: gaun sthan prapt hua, phir bhi is kal ke bhakti kavy ko tin vargaun men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hain-[2]

  1. nirgun bhakti
  2. vaishnav bhakti
  3. svadeshanurag-samanvit eeshvar-bhakti

is yug men hasy-vyngyatmak kavitaon ki bhi prachur parinam men rachana huee.

bharatendu yug ke kaviyon ki sabase badi sahityik den keval yahi mani ja sakati hai ki unhonne kavita ko ritikalin parivesh se mukt karake samasamayik jivan se jod diya. bharatendu adhunik kal ke janak the aur bharatendu yug ke any kavi unake prabhamndal men vicharan karane vale aise nakshatr the, jinhonne apani khuli ankhon se jan-jivan ko dekhakar use apani kavita ka vishay banaya. is kal men kavita aur jivan ke nikat ka snbndh sthapit hua aur yahi is kavita ka mahatv hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatendu kal ya navajagaran kal (1869 se 1900) (hindi) anchalik. abhigaman tithi: 09 janavari, 2016.
  2. bharatendu yug ke sahityik mahattv (hindi) nayakashri. abhigaman tithi: 09 janavari, 2016.

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