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devakinandan khatri
devakinandan khatri
poora nam devakinandan khatri
janm 29 joon, 1861 ee.
janm bhoomi mujaffarapur, bihar
mrityu 1 agast, 1913 ee.
mrityu sthan kashi (vartaman banaras)
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen 'chndrakanta', 'chndrakanta sntati', 'bhootanath', 'kajar ki kothari', 'narendr-mohini' adi.
bhasha urdoo, farasi, hindi, snskrit, angrezi
prasiddhi upanyasakar
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari hindi ke suprasiddh upanyas lekhak shri vrindavanalal varma ne devakinandan khatri ko "hindi ka shirazi" kaha hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

devakinandan khatri (angrezi: Devaki Nandan Khatri, janm- 29 joon, 1861 ee.; bihar; mrityu- 1 agast, 1913 ee., banaras) hindi ke pratham tilismi lekhak the. unhonne 'chndrakanta', 'chndrakanta sntati', 'kajar ki kothari', 'narendr-mohini', 'kusum kumari', 'virendr vir', 'gupt gonda', 'katora bhar' aur 'bhootanath' jaisi rachanaen kin. 'bhootanath' ko unake putr 'durga prasad khatri' ne poora kiya tha. hindi bhasha ke prachar-prasar men unake upanyas 'chndrakanta' ka bahut bada yogadan raha hai. is upanyas ne sabaka man moh liya tha. is kitab ka rasasvadan karane ke lie kee gair-hindibhashiyon ne hindi bhasha sikhi. baboo devakinndan khatri ne 'tilism', 'aiyyar' aur 'aiyyari' jaise shabdon ko hindi bhashiyon ke bich lokapriy bana diya.[1]

'jitane hindi pathak unhonne (baboo devakinandan khatri ne) utpann kiye utane kisi aur grnthakar ne nahin.[2]

jivani

devakinandan khatri ji ka janm 29 joon, 1861 (ashadh krishn paksh saptami snvath 1918) shanivar ko poosa, mujaffarapur, bihar men hua tha. unake pita ka nam 'lala eeshvaradas' tha. unake poorvaj pnjab ke nivasi the aur mugalon ke rajy kal men oonche padon par kary karate the. maharaj ranajit sinh ke putr sherasinh ke shasan kal men lala eeshvaradas kashi (adhunik banaras) akar bas gaye. devakinandan khatri ji ki prarambhik shiksha urdoo-farasi men huee thi. bad men unhonne hindi, snskrit evn angrezi ka bhi adhyayan kiya.

vyavasay ki shuruat

mujaffarapur devakinandan khatri ke nana-nani ka nivas sthan tha. apake pita 'lala eeshvaradas' apani yuvavastha men lahaur se kashi ae the aur yahin rahane lage the. devakinandan khatri ka vivah mujaffarapur men hua tha, aur gaya zile ke tikari rajy men achchha vyavasay tha. arnbhik shiksha samapt kar ve 'tekari istet' pahunch gaye aur vahan ke raja ke yahan kary karane lage. bad men unhonne varanasi men ek printins pres ki sthapana ki aur 1883 men hindi masik patr 'sudarshan' ko prarambh kiya.

lekhan ki prerana

kuchh dinon bad unhonne maharaj banaras se chakiya aur naugadh ke jngalon ka theka le liya tha. is karan se devakinndan ki yuvavastha adhikatar ukt jngalon men hi biti thi. devakinandan khatri bachapan se hi ghoomane ke bahut shaukin the. is thekedari ke kary se unhen paryapt ay hone ke sath-sath ghoomane phirane ka shauq bhi poora hota raha. vah lagatar kee-kee dinon tak chakiya evn naugadh ke bihad jngalon, pahadiyon aur prachin aitihasik imaraton ke khndaharon ki khak chhanate rahate the. bad men jab unase jngalon ke theke vapis le lie gaye, tab inhin jngalon, pahadiyon aur prachin aitihasik imaraton ke khndaharon ki prishthabhoomi men apani tilism tatha aiyyari ke karanamon ki kalpanaon ko mishrit kar unhonne 'chandrakanta' upanyas ki rachana ki. inhin jagnlon aur unake khndaharon se devakinandan khatri ko prerana mili thi, jisane 'chndrakanta', 'chndrakanta sntati', 'bhootanath' aise aiyyari aur tilasmi upanyason ki rachana karaee, jisane apako hindi sahity men amar bana diya. apake sabhi upanyason ka sara rachana tntr bilakul maulik aur svatntr hai. is tilasmi tatv men apane apane chatury aur buddhi-kaushal se aiyyari vala vah tatv bhi mila diya tha, jo bahut kuchh bharatiy hi hai. yah param prasiddh bat hai ki 19vin shatabdi ke ant men lakhon pathakon ne bahut hi chav aur ruchi se apake upanyas padhe aur hazaron adamiyon ne keval apake upanyas padhane ke lie hindi sikhi. yahi karan hai ki hindi ke suprasiddh upanyas lekhak shri vrindavanalal varma ne apako hindi ka 'shirazi' kaha hai.

chandrakanta ki rachana

baboo devakinandan khatri ne jab upanyas likhana prarambh kiya, us samay men adhikatar hindoo log bhi urdoo bhasha hi janate the. is prakar ki paristhitiyon men khatri ji ne mukhy lakshy banaya, aisi rachana karana jisase devanagari hindi ka prachar v prasar ho. yah itana saral kary nahin tha. kintu unhonne aisa kar dikhaya. 'chandrakanta' upanyas itana lokapriy hua ki us samay jo log hindi likhana-padhana nahin janate the ya keval urdoo bhasha hi janate the, unhonne keval is upanyas ko padhane ke lie hindi sikhi isi lokapriyata ko dhyan men rakh kar unhonne isi katha ko age badhate hue doosara upanyas 'chandrakanta santati' likha, jo 'chandrakanta' ki apeksha adhik rochak tha. in upanyason ko padhate samay pathak khana-pina bhi bhool jate the. in upanyason ki bhasha itani saral hai ki panchavin kaksha ke chhatr bhi in pustakon ko padh lete hain. pahale do upanyason ke 2000 prishth se adhik hone par bhi, ek bhi kshan aisa nahin ata, jahan pathak oob jaen.

pramukh rachanaen

  1. chandrakanta (1888 - 1892): chandrakanta upanyas ko padhane ke liye lakhon logon ne hindi sikhi. yah upanyas char bhagon men vibhakt hai. pahala prasiddh upanyas chndrakanta sanh‌ 1888 ee. men kashi men prakashit hua tha. usake charo bhagon ke kuchh hi dinon men kee snskaran ho ge the.
  2. chandrakanta santati (1894 - 1904): chandrakanta ki abhootapoorv saphalata se prerit ho kar devakinandan khatri ne chaubis bhagon vale vishal upanyas chndrakanta santati ki rachana ki. unaka yah upanyas bhi atyadhik lokapriy hua.
  3. bhootanath (1907 - 1913) (apoorn): chandrakanta santati ke ek patr ko nayak bana kar devakinandan khatri ji ne is upanyas ki rachana ki. kintu asamayik mrityu ke karan vah is upanyas ke keval chhah bhagon hi likh paye. age ke shesh pandrah bhag unake putr 'durgaprasad khatri' ne likh kar poore kiye. 'bhootanath' bhi kathavastu ki antim kadi nahin hai. isake bad baboo durgaprasad khatri likhit 'rohatas math' (do khndon men) ata hai .

any rachanaen

  1. kusum kumari
  2. virendr vir urph katora bhar khoon
  3. kajar ki kothari
  4. anoothi begam
  5. narendr mohini
  6. gupt godana
lahari pres

chndrakanta se utsahit hokar apane chndrakanta sntati, likhana arnbh kar diya jisake kul 24 bhag hain. das varsho men hi bahut adhik kirti aur yash snpadit kar chukane par aur apani rachanaon ka itana adhik prachar dekhane par sanh‌ 1898 ee men apane apane niji pres ki sthapana ki. ap sada se svabhavat: bahut hi 'lahari' arthath manamauji aur vinodapriy the. isilie devakinandan khatri ne apane pres ka nam bhi 'lahari pres' rakha tha. devakinandan khatri ke upanyason men kee aiyyaron aur patron ke jo nam ae hain ve sab apane apani mitramndali men se hi chune the aur is prakar unhonne apane anek ghanisht mitron aur sngi sathiyon ko apani rachanaon ke dvara amar bana diya tha.

hindi sahity men sthan

devakinandan khatri ki sabhi kritiyon men manornjan ki jo itani adhik kautoohalavardhak aur rochak samagri milati hai, usaka sara shrey devakinandan khatri ke anokhe aur apratim buddhibal ka hi hai. hindi ke aupanyasik kshetr ka apane arnbh hi nahin kiya tha, usamen unhonne bahut hi uchch, ujjval aur bejod sthan bhi prapt kar liya tha. bharatendu ke uparant ap pratham aur sarvadhik prakashaman tare ke roop men hindi sahity men ae the.

nidhan

khed hai ki devakinandan khatri ne adhik ayu nahin paee aur pray: 52 varsh ki avastha men hi kashi men 1 agast, 1913 ko ap paralokavasi ho ge.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. devakinndan khatri (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24mee, 2011.
  2. achary ramachandr shukl, hindi sahity ka itihas, kashi, snvath 2012 vi॰, pri॰ 499) .

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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