पंडित श्रद्धाराम शर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pndit shraddharam sharma
PanditShraddha.jpg
poora nam pndit shraddharam sharma
any nam pndit shraddharam phillauri
janm 30 sitambar, 1837 ee.
janm bhoomi phullaur gram, jalndhar, pnjab
mrityu 24 joon, 1881 ee.
mrityu sthan lahaur, pakistan
abhibhavak pita- jayadayalu
pati/patni mahatab kaur
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr jyotish tatha sahityakar
mukhy rachanaen 'om jay jagadish' ki arati, 'saty dharm muktavali', 'shatopadesh', 'sikhan de raj di vithiya', 'pnjabi batachit', 'bhagyavati', 'satyamrit pravah' adi.
bhasha snskrit, hindi, farasi
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh om jay jagadish hare
any janakari shraddharam sharma ji ki adhikansh rachanaen gady men hain. ve 18vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men hindi aur pnjabi ke pratinidhi gadyakar the. unake hindi gady men khadi boli ka pradhany hai. yatratatr urdoo aur pnjabi ka puth bhi hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

pndit shraddharam sharma athava 'shraddharam phillauri' (angrezi: Shardha Ram Sharma; janm- 30 sitambar, 1837 ee., jalndhar, pnjab; mrityu- 24 joon, 1881 ee., lahaur, pakistan) ek prasiddh jyotishi the, kintu ek jyotishi ke roop men unhen vah prasiddhi nahin mili, jo inake dvara likhi gee amar arati "om jay jagadish hare" ke karan mili. sampoorn bharat men pndit shraddharam sharma dvara likhit 'om jay jagadish hare' ki arati gaee jati hai. shraddharam sharma ji ne is arati ki rachana 1870 ee. men ki thi. pndit ji sanatan dharm pracharak, jyotishi, svatntrata sngram senani aur sngitgy hone ke sath-sath hindi aur pnjabi ke prasiddh sahityakar bhi the. apani vilakshan pratibha aur ojasvi vakpatuta ke bal par unhonne pnjab men navin samajik chetana evn dharmik utsah jagaya tha, jisase age chalakar ary samaj ke liye pahale se nirmit ek urvar bhoomi mili.

janm

qarib dedh sau varsh men mntr aur shastr ki tarah lokapriy ho gee "om jay jagadish hare" arati jaise bhavapoorn git ki rachana karane vale pndit shraddharam sharma ka janm brahman kul men 30 sitambar, 1837 men pnjab ke jalndhar zile men ludhiyana ke pas ek ganv 'fillauri' (phullaur) men hua tha. unake pita jayadayalu svayn ek achchhe jyotishi aur dharmik pravritti ke the. aise men balak shraddharam ko bachapan se hi dharmik snskar virasat men mile the. pita ne apane bete ka bhavishy padh liya tha aur bhavishyavani ki thi ki "ye balak apani laghu jivani men chamatkari prabhav vale kary karega."

shiksha tatha vivah

bachapan se hi shraddharam sharma ji ki jyotish aur sahity ke vishay men gahari ruchi thi. unhonne vaise to kisi prakar ki shiksha hasil nahin ki thi, parntu unhonne san 1844 men arthath matr sat varsh ki umr men hi gurumukhi lipi sikh li thi. das sal ki umr men snskrit, hindi, farasi, parshiyan (parasi) tatha jyotish adi ki padhaee shuroo ki aur kuchh hi varshon men ve in sabhi vishayon ke nishnat ho ge. unaka vivah ek sikkh mahila mahatab kaur ke sath hua tha.

shreshth sahityakar

pndit shraddharam sharma sanatan dharm pracharak, jyotishi, svatntrata sngram senani, sngitgy tatha hindi ke hi nahin, balki pnjabi ke bhi shreshth sahityakaron men se ek the. inaki ginati unnisavin shatabdi ke shreshth sahityakaron men hoti thi. apani vilakshan pratibha aur ojasvi vaktrita ke bal par unhonne pnjab men navin samajik chetana evn dharmik utsah jagaya, jisase age chalakar ary samaj ke liye pahale se nirmit urvar bhoomi mili. unaka likha upanyas 'bhagyavati' hindi ke arnbhik upanyason men gina jata hai. pn. shraddharam sharma gurumukhi aur pnjabi ke achchhe janakar the aur unhonne apani pahali pustak gurumukhi me hi likhi thi; parntu ve manate the ki hindi ke madhyam se is desh ke zyada se zyada logon tak apani bat pahunchaee ja sakati hai. unhonne apane sahity aur vyakhyanon se samajik kuritiyon aur andhavishvason ke khilaf jabardast mahaul banaya tha. unhonne sanatan dharm ka prachar-prasar kiya aur usi kram men om jay jagadish hare arati rachi.

pustak lekhan

pndit shraddharam sharma ne san 1866 men pnjabi (gurumukhi) men 'sikhon de raj di vithiya' aur 'pnjabi batachit' jaisi kitaben likhakar mano kranti hi kar di. apani pahali hi pustak 'sikhon de raj di vithiya' se ve pnjabi sahity ke pitripurush ke roop men pratishthit ho ge aur unako "adhunik pnjabi bhasha ke janak" ki upadhi mili. bad men is rachana ka roman men anuvad bhi hua. is pustak men sikkh dharm ki sthapana aur isaki nitiyon ke bare men bahut sar garbhit roop se bataya gaya tha. pustak men tin adhyay hain. isake tisare aur antim adhyay men pnjab ki snkriti, lok parnparaon, lok sngit, vyavahar adi ke bare men vistrit janakari di gee thi. isi karan se shayad is pustak ko uchch kaksha ki padhaee ke lie chuna gaya. angrez sarakar ne tab hone vali aee.si.es. (jisaka bharatiy nam ab 'aee.e.es.' ho gaya hai) pariksha ke kors men, anivary pathaniy pustak vishay ke roop men is pustak ko shamil kiya tha. "pnjabi batachit" men malava, majhjh jaise pranton men jo istemal ki jatin hain, vah boli, batachit, pahanava, soch, muhavare, kahavaten jaisi baton ko sameta gaya hai. "pnjabi batachit" ko angrez british raj ke samay pnjabi bhasha sikhane ke lie sabase bada sahara samajhate the.

'om jay jagadish hare' ki rachana

pndit shraddharam sharma ka gurumukhi aur hindi sahity men mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai. 1870 men 32 varsh ki umr men pndit shraddharam sharma ne 'om jay jagadish hare' arati ki rachana ki. unaki vidvata aur bharatiy dharmik vishayon par unaki vaigyanik drishti ke log kayal ho ge the. jagah-jagah par unako dharmik vishayon par vyakhyan dene ke lie amntrit kiya jata tha aur tab hajaron ki snkhya men log unako sunane ate the. ve logon ke bich jab bhi jate, apani likhi 'om jay jagadish hare' ki arati gakar sunate. unaki arati sunakar to manon log besudh se ho jate the. arati ke bol logon ki juban par aise chadhe ki aj kee pidhiyan gujar jane ke bad bhi unake shabdon ka jadoo qayam hai. is arati ka upayog prasiddh nirmata-nirdeshak aur hindi filmon ke prasiddh abhineta manoj kumar ne apani suparahit film 'poorab aur pashchim' men kiya tha aur isalie kee log is arati ke sath manoj kumar ka nam jod dete hain.

bharat ke ghar-ghar aur mndiron men 'om jay jagadish hare' ke shabd varshon se goonj rahe hain. duniya ke kisi bhi kone men base kisi bhi sanatani hindoo parivar men aisa vyakti khojana mushkil hai, jisake hriday-patal par bachapan ke snskaron men 'om jay jagadish hare' ke shabdon ki chhap n padi ho. is arati ke shabd uttar bharat se lekar dakshin bharat ke har ghar aur mndir me poori shraddha aur bhakti ke sath gae jate hain. bachche se lekar yuvaon ko aur kuchh yad rahe ya n rahe, isake bol itane sahaj, saral aur bhavapoorn hai ki ek do bar sunane matr se isaki har ek pnkti dil aur dimag men rach-bas jati hai. hajaron sal poorv hue hamare gyat-agyat rishiyon ne paramatma ki prarthana ke lie jo bhi shlok aur bhakti git rache, 'om jay jagadish' ki arati ki bhakti ras dhara ne un sabhi ko apane andar samahit-sa kar liya hai. yah ek arati snskrit ke hajaron shlokon, stotron aur mntron ka nichod hai.

kisi bhi kriti ka kalajayi hona isi tathy se pramanit hota hai ki jab kriti us karta ki n hokar samaj ke pratyek vyakti ki, apani-si ban jaye. jis tarah 'ramacharitamanas' ya 'shrimadbhagavad gita' ya 'nanak bani' kalantar men ban payi hai. isi tarah shraddharam sharma ji dvara likhi 'om jay jagadish hare' aj harek sanatani, hindoo dharmi ke lie shraddha ka paryay ban gayi hai. is arati ka pratyek shabd shraddha se bhiga hua, eeshvar ki prarthana aur manushy ki shraddha ko pratibinbit karata hai.

janajagaran ka kary

vaise pndit shraddharam sharma dharmik kathaon aur akhyanon ke lie kafi prasiddh the. unhonne dharmik kathaon aur akhyanon ka uddharan dete hue angrez hukumat ke khilaf janajagaran ka aisa vatavaran taiyar kiya ki unaka akhyan sunakar har ek vyakti ke bhitar deshabhakti ki bhavana bhar jati thi. isase angrez sarakar ki nind ud gee. shraddharam ji desh ke svatantrata andolanon men bhag lene tatha apane bhashanon men mahabharat ke uddharanon ka ullekh karate hue british sarakar ko ukhad phenkane ka sndesh dete the aur logon men krantikari vichar paida karate the.

ganv se nishkasan

pndit shraddharam sharma ke vichar aur bhashan pulis men dakhil hone vale asnkhy ladakon ne sune the aur usi ke lie 1865 men british sarakar ne unako unake ganv phullauri se nishkasit kar diya tha aur asapas ke ganvon tak men unake pravesh par pabndi laga di gee thi. lekin unake dvara likhi gee kitabon ka pathan vidyalayon men ho raha tha aur vah jari raha. pndit shraddharam sharma ne apane vyakhyanon se logon men angrez sarakar ke khilaf kranti ki mashal hi nahin jalaee, balki saksharata ke lie bhi zabardast kam kiya. pndit shraddharam sharma svayn jyotish ke achchhe gyata the aur amritasar se lekar lahaur tak unake chahane vale the. isalie is nishkasan ka un par koee asar nahin hua, balki unaki lokapriyata aur badh gee. log unaki baten sunane ko aur unase milane ko utsuk rahane lage. isi dauran unhonne hindi men jyotish par kee kitaben likhin aur logon ke sampark men rahe.

ek eesaee padari fadar nyootan, jo pndit shraddharam sharma ke krantikari vicharon se behad prabhavit the, unake hastakshep par angrez sarakar ko thode hi dinon men unake nishkasan ka adesh vapas lena pada. pndit shraddharam sharma ne padari ke kahane par san 1868 men eesaeeyon ki pavitr pustak baeebal ke kuchh anshon ka gurumukhi men anuvad kiya. pndit shraddharam sharma ne apane vyakhyanon se logon men angrez sarakar ke khilaf kranti ki mashal hi nahin jalaee, balki saksharata ke lie bhi zabardast kam kiya.

pratham upanyasakar

pndit shraddharam sharma ko bharat ke pratham upanyasakar ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. unhonne 1877 men 'bhagyavati' namak ek upanyas likha tha, jo hindi men tha. mana jata hai ki yah hindi ka pahala upanyas hai. is upanyas ki pahali samiksha aprail, 1887 men hindi ki masik patrika 'pradip' men prakashit huee thi. isake prakashan se pahale hi pndit shraddharam sharma ji ka nidhan ho gaya, parntu unaki mrityu ke bad unaki patni ne kafi kasht sahan karake bhi is upanyas ka prakashan karavaya. ise pnjab sahit desh ke kee rajyon ke skoolon men kee salon tak padha jata raha.

pndit shraddharam sharma ke jivan aur unake dvara likhi gee pustakon par 'guru nanak vishvavidyalay' ke hindi vibhag ke din aur hindi vibhagadhyaksh daau. haramindar sinh ne zabardast shodh kar tin snskaranon men 'shraddharam grnthavali' ka prakashan bhi kiya. unaka manana tha ki pn. shraddharam ka "bhagyavati" upanyas jo 1888 men nirmal prakashan se prakashit hua tha, hindi sahity ka sabase pahala prakashit upanyas hai. lekin yah matr hindi ka hi pahala upanyas nahin tha, balki kee mayanon men yah pahala tha. gyatavy hai ki ab tak lala shrinivasadas ke 'pariksha guru' ko[1] hindi ka pahala upanyas mana jata raha hai. 'd tribyoon'[2] men prakashit samachar/lekhon ka sandarbh liya jae to 'bharatiy sahity akadami' ne bhi phillauriji ke upanyas "bhagyavati" ko hindi ka sabase pahala upanyas mane jane ko manyata de di hai. is tarah hindi sahity ke itihas ko aur khasakar hindi upanyas ke itihas ke punarlekhan ki disha men ek nee pahal huee hai. smaraniy bat yah hai ki "bhagyavati" jendar ishyoo ke sandarbh men bhi ek krantikari rachana hai, kyonki is upanyas ki kendriy manyata hi yahi hai ki beti bete se kisi bat men kam nahin hoti.

kuprathaon par prahar

aj jis pnjab men sabase zyada kanyaon ki bhroon hatyaen hoti hain, isaka ehasas pndit shraddharam sharma ne bahut pahale kar liya tha aur is vishay par unhonne 'bhagyavat' upanyas likha, jo samay se bahut pahale ye soch lekar samane aya ki stri shiksha, stri ko samanata ka darja milana svasth samaj ke lie labhakari hai. is upanyas men unhonne kashi ke ek pndit umadatt ki beti bhagavati ke kiradar ke madhyam se 'bal vivah' jaisi kupratha par zabardast chot ki thi. is upanyas men unhonne bharatiy stri ki dasha aur usake adhikaron ko lekar krantikari vichar prastut kie the. upanyas men upanyas ki nayika bhagyavati pahali beti paida hone par samaj ke logon dvar majak udae jane par apane pati se kahati hai ki "nanhi si kanya ki shadi karana, galat bat hai aur beta ya beti donon saman hain." praudh shiksha dena zaroori hai, ye bhi mudda liya hai.

stri shiksha par bal

shraddharam sharma ji ne ladakiyon ko tab padhane ki vakalat ki, jab ladakiyon ko ghar se bahar tak nahin nikalane diya jata tha, parnparaon, kuprathaon aur roodhiyon par chot karate rahane ke bavajood ve logon ke bich lokapriy bane rahe. jabaki vah ek aisa daur tha, jab koee vyakti andhavishvason aur dharmik roodhiyon ke khilaf kuchh bolata tha to poora samaj usake khilaf ho jata tha. nishchay hi unake andar apani bat ko kahane ka sahas aur use logon tak pahunchane ki jabardast kshamata thi.

rachanaen

pndit shraddharam sharma ji ki lagabhag do darjan rachanaon ka pata chalata hai, yatha-

snskrit kritiyan

'nityaprarthana' (shikharini chhnd ke 11 padon men eeshvar ki do stutiyan), 'bhrigusnhita' (sau kundaliyon men phaladesh varnan, yah adhoori rachana hai), 'haritalika vrat' (shivapuran ki ek katha), 'krishnastuti' vishayak kuchh shlok, jo ab aprapy hain.

hindi kritiyan

'tatvadipak' (prashnottar men shruti, smriti ke anusar dharm karm ka varnan); 'saty dharm muktavali' (phullauri ji ke shishy shri tulasidev sngrahit bhajanasngrah) pratham bhag men thumariyan, bisan pade, dooti pad hain; dvitiy men raganusar bhajan, ant men ek pnjabi baramah; 'bhagyavati' (striyon ki hinavastha ke sudhar hetu pranit upanyas), 'satyopadesh' (sau dohon men anekavidh shikshaen), 'bijamntr' ("satyamritapravah' namak rachana ki bhoomika), 'satyamritapravah' (phullauri ji ke siddhanton, aur achar vichar ka darpan grnth), 'pakasadhani' (rasoee shiksha vishayak), 'kautuk sngrah' (mntratntr, jadootone snbndhi), 'drishtantavali' (sune hue drishtanton ka sngrah, jinhen shraddharam apane bhashanon aur shastrarthon men prayukt karate the), 'ramalakamadhenu' ("nity prarthana' men prakashit vigyapan se pata chalata hai ki yah jyotish grnth snskrit se hindi men anoodit hua tha), 'atmachikitsa' (pahale snskrit men likha gaya tha. bad men isaka hindi anuvad kar diya gaya. antat: ise phullauri ji ki antim rachana 'satyamrit pravah' ke prarnbh men jod diya gaya tha), 'maharaja' kapoorathala ke lie virachit ek nitigrnth (aprapy hai).

urdoo kritiyan

'durjan-mukh-chapetika', 'dharmakasauti' (do bhag), 'dharmasnvad', 'upadesh sngrah' (phullauri ji ke bhashanon adi ke vishay men prakashit samacharapatron ki riporten), 'asool e mazahib' (pnjab ke lephtinent gavarnar ke ichchhanusar farasi pustak "dabistani mazahib' ka anuvad). pahali tinon rachanaon men bhagavat (sanatan) dharm ka pratipadan evn bharatiy tatha abharatiy prachin arvachin maton ka joradar khndan kiya gaya.

pnjabi kritiyan

'barahamasa' (snsar se virakti ka upadesh), 'sikkhan de itihas di vithia' (yah grnth angrejon ke pnjabi bhasha ki ek pariksha ke pathyakram ke lie likha gaya tha. isamen kuchhek anaitihasik aur janmasakhiyon ke viparit baten bhi ullikhit thin), 'pnjabi batachit' (pnjab ke vibhinn kshetron ki upabhashaon ke namoonon, khelon aur riti rivajon ka parichayatmak grnth), 'baint aur visanapadon' men virachit samagr "ramalila' tatha "krishnalila' (aprapy).

"satyamrit pravah" kitab men vyakti ke usoolon par bal diya gaya hai. lekhak kahate hain "ek bachche ki bat agar oosulo pe tiki huee aur nyay sngat hai, use main zyada tavajjo doonga, ved puranon men kahi gayi bina tark ya nyay hin baton ke bajay." shradhdharam ji viveki, nyayapriy, svatntr vicharak, ne aur khule dhng se vedon ka niroopan karane ke himayati the.

ant samay

shraddharam sharma ji ka svargavas matr 44 varsh ki alpayu men 24 joon, 1881 ko lahaur men hua. hindi ke jane-mane lekhak aur sahityakar ramachndr shukl ne pndit shraddharam sharma aur bharatendu harishchndr ko hindi ke pahale do lekhakon men mana hai. unake antim samay men, ve ye kahate hue chal base ki "aj se hindi ka bas ek hi sachcha sapoot rah jayega, jab main ja raha hoon." unaka ishara bharatendu harishchndr ji ki aur tha. us samay kahe ye bhavapoorn shabd shayad atishyokti se lage hon, par ye sach nikale. ramachndr shukl ji jo alochak the, ve kahate hain ki "shraddharam ji ki vani men tej aur sammohan bhi tha aur ve apane samay ke ek prakhar lekhak kahalaye jayengen."

'om jay jagadish hare' ki arati

om jay jagadish hare, svami jay jagadish hare, bhakt janon ke snkat, kshan men door kare. om jay...

jo dhyave phal pave, duahkh binase man ka, sukh-sampati ghar ave, kasht mite tan ka. om jay...

mat pita tum mere, sharan gahoon main kisaki, tum bin aur n dooja, as karoon main jisaki. om jay...

tum pooran paramatma, tum antaryami, parabrahm parameshvar, tum sab ke svami. om jay...

tum karuna ke sagar, tum palanakarta, main sevak tum svami, kripa karo bharta. om jay...

tum ho ek agochar, sabake pranapati, kis vidhi miloon dayamay, tumako main kumati. om jay...

dinabndhu duahkhaharta, tum rakshak mere, karuna hast badhao, dvar pada tere. om jay...

vishay vikar mitao, pap haro deva, shraddha bhakti badhao, sntan ki seva. om jay...

om jay jagadish, svami jay jagadish hare.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jo san 1902 men prakashit hua tha
  2. 17 march, 2005/ 17 sitambar, 1998

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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