कामिल बुल्के  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kamil bulke
fadar kamil bulke
poora nam fadar kamil bulke
janm 1 sitambar, 1909
janm bhoomi beljiyam
mrityu 17 agast, 1982
mrityu sthan dilli
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr hindi sahityakar tatha lekhak
mukhy rachanaen 'ramakatha : utpatti aur vikas', 'angrezi-hindi shabdakosh', 'muktidata', 'naya vidhan', 'hindi-angrezi laghukosh', 'baibil' (hindi anuvad) adi.
vidyalay kalakatta vishvavidyalay, ilahabad vishvavidyalay, yooven vishvavidyalay, yoorop
shiksha injiniyaring, em. e., bi.e.
puraskar-upadhi padm bhooshan
vishesh fadar kamil bulke daau. dhirendr varma ko apana prerana srot manate the. mahadevi varma ko ve ‘didi’ aur ilahabad ke logon ko ve ‘mayake vale’ kahate the.
any janakari 1951 men bharat sarakar ne fadar bulke ko bade hi adar ke sath bharat ki nagarikata pradan ki thi. ve hindi ko rashtrabhasha ke roop men pracharit karane vali samiti ke sadasy bane. bharat ke nagarik banane ke bad vah svayn ko 'bihari' kahakar bulate the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

fadar kamil bulke (angrezi: Camille Bulcke janm: 1 sitambar, 1909; mrityu: 17 agast, 1982) beljiyam se bharat akar mrityuparynt hindi, tulasidas aur valmiki ke bhakt rahe. unhen sahity evn shiksha ke kshetr men bharat sarakar dvara sanh 1974 men padm bhooshan se sammanit kiya gaya tha. fadar kamil bulke ka janm 1 sitambar 1909 ko beljiyam ki phlaindars stet ke 'ramsakapaile' ganv men hua tha. 'yooven vishvavidyalay' se abhiyantriki ki shiksha samapt karane ke bad vah 1935 men bharat ae. sabase pahale unhonne bharat ka bhraman kiya aur bharat ko achchhi prakar se samajha. kuchh samay ke lie vah darjiling men bhi rahe aur usake bad ranchi aur usake bad jharakhnd ke gumala zile ke 'ignasiyas vidyalay' men ganit vishay ka adhyapan karane lage. yahin par unhonne bharatiy bhashaen sikhani prarambh kin aur unake man men hindi bhasha sikhane ki lalak paida ho gee, jisake lie vah bad men prasiddh hue. unhonne likha hai-

'main jab 1935 men bharat aya to achnbhit aur du:khi hua. mainne mahasoos kiya ki yahan par bahut se padhe-likhe log bhi apani sanskritik parnparaon ke prati jagarook nahin hain. yah bhi dekha ki log angareji bolakar garv ka anubhav karate hain. tab mainne nishchay kiya ki am logon ki is bhasha men maharat hasil karoonga.'

parichay

fadar kamil bulke ka janm 1 sitambar, 1909 ko beljiyam ke pashchimi phlaindars stet ke ramsakapaile namak ganv men hua tha. unake pas sivil injiniyaring men bi.es.si digri thi, jo unhonne lovain vishvavidyalay se prapt ki thi. 1934 men unhonne bharat ka snkshipt daura kiya aur kuchh samay darjiling men ruke. unhonne gumala (vartaman men jharakhnd men) men 5 varshon tak ganit ka adhyapan kiya. yahin par unake man men hindi bhasha sikhane ki lalak paida ho gee, jisake lie ve bad men prasiddh hue. unhonne likha hai- "main jab 1935 men bharat aya to achnbhit aur du:khi hua. mainne mahasoos kiya ki yahan par bahut se padhe-likhe log bhi apani sanskritik parnparaon ke prati jagarook nahin hain. yah bhi dekha ki log angrezi bolakar garv ka anubhav karate hain. tab mainne nishchay kiya ki am logon ki is bhasha men maharat hasil karoonga."[1]

nam ka arth

'kamil' shabd ke do arth mane jate hain. ek arth hai- 'vedi-sevak' aur doosara arth hai- 'ek pushp ka nam.' fadar kamil bulke donon hi arthon ko charitarth karate the. ve jesuit sngh men dikshit snnyasi ke roop men 'vedi-snnyasi' the aur ek vyakti ke roop men mahakate hue pushp. aise pushp, jisaki upasthiti sabhi ke manon ko khushaboo se bhar deti hai. malik muhammad jayasi ne 'padmavat' men likha hai- "phool marai par marai n basoo." yah pnkti fadar kamil bulke par poori tarah satik baithati hai.[2]

hindi gyan

fadar kamil bulke ne pndit badaridatt shastri se hindi aur snskrit ki shiksha prapt ki aur 1940 men 'visharad' ki pariksha 'hindi sahity sammelan', prayag se uttirn ki. unhonne kalakatta vishvavidyalay se snskrit men mastars digri hasil ki (1942-1944) thi. kamil bulke ne 1945-1949 men ilahabad vishvavidyalay se hindi sahity men shodh kiya, unaka shodh vishay tha- 'ramakatha ka vikas'. 1949 men hi vah 'sent jeviyars kaaulej', ranchi men hindi v snskrit vibhag ke vibhagadhyaksh niyukt kie ge. san 1951 men unhonne bharat ki nagarikata grahan ki. kamil bulke san 1950 men 'bihar rashtrabhasha parishad' ki karyakarini ke sadasy chune ge. vah san 1972 se 1977 tak bharat sarakar ki 'kendriy hindi samiti' ke sadasy rahe.

preranasrot 'daau. dhirendr varma'

kamil bulke lnbe samay tak ranchi ke sent jeviyars kaaulej men snskrit tatha hindi ke vibhagadhyaksh rahe the, lekin bad men baharepan ke karan kaaulej men padhane se adhik unaki ruchi gahan adhyayan aur svadhyay men hoti chali gee. bulke ka apane samay ke hindi bhasha ke sabhi choti ke vidvanon se snpark tha.

Blockquote-open.gif "fadar bulke tulasi ke adhikadhik samip pahunchane ke lie jivan bhar prayatnashil rahe. kaaulej mnch par bhashan dete hue unhonne kaha tha- "snskrit rajamata hai, hindi bahoorani hai aur angrezi naukarani hai. par naukarani ke bina bhi kam nahin chalata." Blockquote-close.gif

daau. dharmavir bharati, daau. jagadish gupt, daau. ramasvaroop, daau. raghuvnsh, mahadevi varma adi se unaka vichar-vimarsh aur snvad hota rahata tha. daau. dhirendr varma ko apana prerana srot manate hue ve apani atmakatha 'ek isaee ki astha, hindi-prem aur tulasi-bhakti 2' men likhate hain- "san 1945 men daau. dhirendr varma ki prerana se mainne em.e. ke bad ilahabad se daau. mata prasad ke nirikshan men shodh kary kiya." ilahabad ke pravas ko ve apane jivan ka ‘dvitiy basnt’ kahate the. mahadevi varma ko ve ‘didi’ aur ilahabad ke logon ko ve ‘mayake vale’ kahate the. bulke ji apane samay ke prati sajag evn sachet the. bharat aur bharatiyata (bharat ki svasth parnparaon) ke anany bhakt kamil bulke, bauddhik aur adhyatmik hone ke sath-sath eesa ke param bhakt the. sath hi gosvami tulasidas ki ramabhakti ke satvik aur adhyatmik ayam ke prati unake man men bahut adar tha. unaka kahana tha[3]-

"jab main apane jivan par vichar karata hoon, to mujhe lagata hai eesa, hindi aur tulasidas- ye vastav men meri sadhana ke tin pramukh ghatak hain aur mere lie in tin tatvon men koee virodh nahin hai, balki gahara snbndh hai… jahan tak vidya tatha astha ke parasparik snbndh ka prashn hai, to main un tinon men koee virodh nahin pata. main to samajhata hoon ki bhautikatavad, manav jivan ki samasya ka hal karane men asamarth hai. main yah bhi manata hoon ki ‘dharmik vishvas’ tark-vitark ka vishay nahin hai."

kamil bulke aur 'ramacharitamanas'

dharmik grnthon ka adhyayan ke lie bulke ke pas darshan ka gyan tha. vah bharatiy darshan aur sahity ka vyavasthit roop se adhyayan karana chahate the. unhonne tulasidas ke grnth ramacharit manas ko padha. vah ramacharit manas se vah bahut prabhavit hue aur unhonne ramacharit manas ka gahan adhyayan kiya. ramacharit manas men unhen naitikata aur vyavaharikata ka akarshak samanvay mila. at: unhonne apane shodh ka vishay 'ramakatha: utpatti aur vikas' chuna. is vishay par unhonne ilahabad vishvavidyalay se 'daauktaret' ki upadhi prapt ki. unaka yah kary bharat ke sath hi vishv men prakashit hua aur isake bad poora vishv bulke ko janane laga.

upalabdhi

bulke ke dvara prastut shodh ki visheshata thi ki yah moolatah hindi men prastut kiya gaya pahala shodh prabndh hai. fadar bulke jis samay ilahabad men shodh kar rahe the, us samay sabhi vishayon men shodh prabndh keval angrezi bhasha men hi prastut kie jate the. fadar bulke ne agrah kiya ki unhen hindi men shodh prabndh prastut karane ki anumati di jae. isake lie shodh snbndhi niyamavali men parivartan kiya gaya.

bhasha gyan

bulke bahu-bhashavidh the. vah apani matribhasha 'phlemish' ke atirikt angrezi, phrench, jarman, laitin, grik, snskrit aur hindi par bhi snpoorn adhikar rakhate the.

bharat ki nagarikata

1951 men bharat sarakar ne fadar bulke ko bade hi adar ke sath bharat ki nagarikata pradan ki. vah hindi ko rashtrabhasha ke roop men pracharit karane vali samiti ke sadasy bane. bharat ke nagarik banane ke bad vah svayn ko 'bihari' kahakar bulate the.

harivnsharay bachchan ki kavita[2]

fadar bulke tumhen pranam!
janme aur pale yorup men
par tumako priy bharat dham
fadar bulke tumhen pranam!
rahi matribhasha yorup ki
boli hindi lagi lalam
fadar bulke tumhen pranam!
eesaee snskar lie bhi
poojy hue tumako shriram
fadar bulke tumhen pranam!
tulasi hote tumhen pagatari
ke hit dete apana cham
fadar bulke tumhen pranam!
sada sahaj shraddha se lega
mera desh tumhara nam
fadar bulke tumhen pranam!

hindi sahityanuragi

gajendr narayan sinh jo ki fadar kamil bulke ke chhatr rahe, ve batate hain ki- "main snt jeviyars kaaulej men dakhil hua tha to ek din samay nikalakar fadar bulke se milane gaya. unake kamare ke bnd daravaze par dastak lagate hue mainne kaha- 'men aee kam in fadar.' mere itana kahate hi daravaza khula aur ek atynt hi shant, saumy, sadhu purush gardan par bhagalapuri silk ki chadar lapete hue khada tha. unhonne dhire se gambhir svar men kaha- "abhi daravaze par dastak lagate hue apane kisi bhasha ka vyavahar kiya? kya apaki apani koee boli ya bhasha nahin hai? ap svatntr rashtr ke nagarik hain, phir bhi videshi angl bhasha ka vyavahar hindi ke ek pradhyapak ke pas kyon kar rahe hain? apaki matribhasha kya hai?" prashnon ki jhadi laga di unhonne. main avak stambh khada raha. unhonne mujhase poochha ki- "apaki matribhasha kya hai?" mere dvara bataye jane par ki maithali hai, to unhonne mujhase nirvikar bhav se kaha- "ainda jab ap mere pas aen to maithali ya hindi main hi bat karenge, angrezi men kadapi nahin." hindi ke prati samarpit aise sahityaanuragi bahubhashavid us videshi snt pradhyapak ki or nirnimesh men takata hi yah gaya.

apane hindivid hone ke karan daau. bulke ko desh-videsh men bahut samman prapt tha. 1950 se hi ve 'bihar rashtrasabha parishad' ki karyakarini ke sadasy the. ve 1972 se hi bharat sarakar ki 'kendriy hindi samiti' ke bhi sadasy the. unhen 1973 men beljiyam ki 'raauyal akadami' ka sadasy banaya gaya tha. unake ‘ramakatha’ hindi vishay ki upadhi ke liye hindi men likhit pratham shodh prabndh ki bhasha ke madhyam ke roop men hindi ko pahali bar pratishthit karane ka shrey unaka hai. isake lie unhen bahut sngharsh karana pada tha. svargiy kaka kalelakar ne ek bar kaha tha- "fadar bulke tulasi ke adhikadhik samip pahunchane ke lie jivan bhar prayatnashil rahe." kaaulej mnch par bhashan dete hue unhonne kaha tha- snskrit rajamata hai, hindi bahoorani hai aur agrezi naukarani hai. par naukarani ke bina bhi kam nahin chalata.

apane dharm ke prati astha

ek bar kisi kaaulej men ayojit 'tulasi jaynti' par kamil bulke amntrit the. svagatakarta ne apane svagat bhashan men kaha ki- "daau. bulke ram ke anany bhakt hain." is par pratikar karate hue unhonne kaha ki- "main to kaitholik eesaee padari hoon. mere lie ram eeshvar roop nahin ho sakate. mere liye to vndaniy keval eesa masih hain." apane mazahab aur usake prati atoot astha kamil bulke men thi. bavajood is roodhi aur kattarata ke ve 'tulasi sahity' ke prashnsak aur ‘manas’ ke anuragi the. ve aksar kahate the ki- "gosvami tulasidas vishv ke mahanh kaviyon men the aur unaki rachanaon men gyan ka akshay bhndar chhipa hai."[2]

'padmabhooshan' samman

kamil bulke ki hindi sevaon ke liye 1974 men bharat sarakar ne unhen 'padmabhooshan' ki upadhi di. us samay fadar aksar kahate the- "is upadhi ke bad bahut-sa samay logon ke sath chala jata hai." ve ek pal bhi bekar gnvana pasnd nahin karate the. fadar hindi ke itane sabal pakshadhar the ki samany batachit men bhi agrezi shabd ka prayog unhen pasnd nahin tha. unhen is bat ka du:kh tha ki hindi vale apani hindi ka samman nahin karate. unaka vichar tha- "duniya bhar men shayad hi koee aisi vikasit sahity bhasha ho jo hindi ki saralata ki barabari kar sake." unhen is bat ka dard tha ki hindibhashi aur hindi snsthaen hindi ko kha ge. jab bhi koee unase angrezi men bolata tha, ve poochh lete the- "kya tum hindi nahin janate?"

rachanaen

bulke ne baibil ka hindi anuvad bhi kiya. maauris metaralink ke prasiddh natak 'd bloo bard' ka nil pnchhi nam se bulke ne anuvad kiya. unaki chhoti-badi kul milakar unhonne qarib 29 kitaben likhin. unaki pramukh kritiyan hain -

Blockquote-open.gif daau. dhirendr varma ko apana prerana srot manate hue kamil bulke apani atmakatha 'ek isaee ki astha, hindi-prem aur tulasi-bhakti 2' men likhate hain- "san 1945 men daau. dhirendr varma ki prerana se mainne em.e. ke bad ilahabad se daau. mata prasad ke nirikshan men shodh kary kiya." ilahabad ke pravas ko bulke apane jivan ka ‘dvitiy basnt’ kahate the. mahadevi varma ko ve ‘didi’ aur ilahabad ke logon ko ve ‘mayake vale’ kahate the. Blockquote-close.gif

  1. ramakatha : utpatti aur vikas
  2. angreji-hindi shabdakosh
  3. muktidata
  4. naya vidhan
  5. hindi-angrezi laghukosh
  6. ramakatha
  7. nilapnchhi
  8. baibil (hindi anuvad)
  9. d hindi saltar
  10. snt lukas ke anushar yeshu khrist ka pavitr susamachar


unake dvara taiyar kiya 'angreji-hindi shabdakosh' aj bhi pramanikata aur upayogita ki drishti se sarvashreshth mana jata hai. kamil bulke ke shodhagrnth ke uddharanon ne pahali bar sabit kiya ki ramakatha keval bharat hi nahin, antararashtriy katha hai. isi prasng men fadar bulke apane ek mitr halaind ke daau. hoyakas ka vivaran dete hue kahate hain ki- "ve snskrit aur indoneshiyaee bhashaon ke vidvanh the.

hindi-angrezi shabdakosh

bulke ajivan hindi ki seva men lage rahe. hindi-angareji shabdakosh ke nirman ke lie ve satat prayatnashil rahe. varsh 1968 men angreji hindi kosh prakashit hua jo aj bhi sabase pramanik shabdakosh mana jata hai. unhonne isamen 40 hazar shabd jode aur ise ajivan adyatan bhi karate rahe. kamil bulke ka angrezi-hindi shabdakosh aur baibil ka hindi anuvad 'naya vidhan', hindi ke mahatv aur usaki samarthy ko siddh karane ke hi upakram hain. unake 'angrezi-hindi shabdakosh' ne angrezi ke sthan par hindi ke prayog ki rah ko sugam banaya hai.

kathan

fadar bulke ne kaha -

'1938 men mainne hindi ke adhyayan ke dauran ramacharit manas tatha vinay patrika ka parishilan kiya. is adhyayan ke dauran ramacharit manas ki ye pnktiyan padhakar atynt annad ka anubhav hua-
dhany janamu jagatital tasoo.
pitahi pramod charit suni jasoo॥
chari padarath karatal take.
priy pitu-matu pran sam jake.

dilli vishvavidyalay men hindi vibhag ke poorv adhyaksh profesar nityannd tivari kahate hain-

'fadar kamil bulke aur mainne ilahabad vishvavidyalay men hindi ke pradhyapak daauktar mata prasad gupt ke nirdeshan men apana shodh kary poora kiya tha. mainne unamen hindi ke prati hindi valon se kahin zyada gahara prem dekha. aisa prem jo bharatiy jadon se jud kar hi snbhav hai. unhonne ramakatha aur ramacharit manas ko bauddhik jivan diya.'

ramakatha marmgy

fadar kamil bulke ka doosara jag-vikhyat pahaloo hai ki ve hindi ke vidvan, ramakatha ke marmgy v videsh men janme bharatiy the. unhonne ilahabad vishvavidyalay se 'ramakatha utpatti aur vikas' par 1950 men pi.ech.di. ki. is shodh men snskrit, pali, prakrit, apabhrnsh, hindi, bngala, tamil adi samast prachin aur adhunik bharatiy bhashaon men upalabdh ram vishayak vipul sahity ka hi nahin, varanh tibbati, barmi, singhal, indoneshiyaee, malay, thaee adi eshiyaee bhashaon ke samast ram sahity ki samagri ka bhi is katha ke adhyayan ke vikas ki drishti se atynt vaigyanik riti se upayog hua hai. tulasidas unhen utane hi priy the, jitane apani matribhasha phlemish ke mahakavi gajaile ya angrezi ke mahakavi shekyapiyar. ve pray: kaha karate the- "hindi men sab kuchh kaha ja sakata hai." is bat ki pushti karane ke lie unhonne sabase pahale darshan, dharmashastr adi vishayon ki paribhashik shabdavali ka ek laghukosh 'e taiknikal ingalish hindi glausari' ke nam se prakashit kiya. isake bad 'angrezi-hindikosh' ko 1967 men taiyar kiya aur isaka khoob svagat hua.[2]

daau. fadar bulke shodh sasthan

ilahabad ko apana 'mayaka' manane aur kahane vale fadar bulke sachamuch hi gnga-yamuna-sarasvati ke sngam-tirth the. unake pustakalay ke dvar sabhi ke lie sadaiv khule rahate the. unaka pustkalay us samay bahut 'amir' mana jata tha. 'amir' is roop men ki usamen asnkhy kitaben thin, jinhen fadar bulke svayn apane kharche par mngaya karate the. aj bhi un pustakon ka labh ranchi ke log utha rahe hain. manaresa haus, jo ab 'daau. fadar bulke shodh sasthan' ke roop men jana jata hai, vahan baithakar n jane kitane vidyarthi adhyayan karate rahate hain.

param vinodi svabhav

fadar kamil bulke param vinodi the. apane vinodi svabhav ke karan ve jivan ka, mitron ka, sngat ka, parasparik mel-milap ka bharapoor annd lete the. ek bar kisi ne unase poochha- "fadar, apake sir ke bal kale aur dadhi ke safed kyon hain?" to fadar kamil bulke ne pratyuttar men kaha- "main sir par kala aur dadhi par safed khijab lagata hoon." phir bole, "sir ke bal kale hain, kyonki sir men kuchh bhi nahin hai." fadar ko bachche bahut priy the. unake nishchhal balaroop men unhen shayad kabhi mariyam ki god men khelate-machalate eesa dikhaee dete honge to kabhi dasharath ke angan men thumuk-thumuk chalate raghuvir, jinaki paujaniyan baj rahi hai. 'thumuk chalat bajat painjaniyan.'[2]

mrityu

fadar kamil bulke ki mrityu gaingrin ke karan 17 agast, 1982 ko dilli men huee. dilli ke 'akhil bharatiy ayurvigyan snsthan' ke adhikariyon ke asahayog poorn acharan aur garm mausam ke chalate fadar kamil bulke ke parthiv sharir ko ranchi lana asnbhav ho gaya to dilli sthit jesuit mathavasiy sathiyon ne unhen dilli men hi daphanane ka nirnay liya. kashmiri get sthit 'nikalsan semetri' men antim samadhi men jane se poorv jab unaka taboot khola gaya to baba kamil bulke ke jude hath hriday par the aur mukhamandal par chir-shanti ki saumyata chhaee huee thi. mrityu unaki saumy chhavi ko mita n saki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi ke suyogy vidvanh fadar kamil bulke (hindi) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 01 disambar, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 kadambini, ech em vi el prakashan, sitambar-2013
  3. hindimay the fadar kamil bulke (hindi) pravasiduniya.com. abhigaman tithi: 01 disambar, 2016.

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