भुवनेश्वर (साहित्यकार)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhuvaneshvar (sahityakar)
bhuvaneshvar
poora nam bhuvaneshvar prasad shrivastav
janm 1910
janm bhoomi shahajahanpur, uttar pradesh
mrityu 1957
mrityu sthan lakhanoo, uttar pradesh
karm-kshetr ekankikar, kahanikar, alochak, kavi
mukhy rachanaen shyama : ek vaivahik vidnbana, ek samyahin samyavadi, pratibha ka vivah (sabhi ekanki), bhediye, ‘mausi’, ‘ladaee’, ‘man bete’, ‘mastani’ (sabhi kahani) adi
bhasha hindi
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari premachnd ne bhuvaneshvar ko bhavishy ka rachanakar mana tha. isaki ek khas vajah thi ki bhuvaneshvar apane rachanakal se bahut age ki soch ke rachanakar the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
Disamb2.jpg bhuvaneshvar ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- bhuvaneshvar (bahuvikalpi)

bhuvaneshvar prasad shrivastav (angrezi:Bhuvaneshvar Prasad Shrivastava, janm: 1910 - mrityu: 1957) hindi ke prasiddh ekankikar, lekhak evn kavi the. bhuvaneshvar sahity jagath ka aisa nam hai, jisane apane chhote se jivan kal men lik se alag kism ka sahity srijan kiya. bhuvaneshvar ne madhy varg ki vidnbanaon ko katu saty ke pratiroop men ukera. unhen adhunik ekankiyon ke janak hone ka gaurav bhi hasil hai. ekanki, kahani, kavita, samiksha jaisi kee vidhaon men bhuvaneshvar ne sahity ko ne tevar vali rachanaen din. ek aisa sahityakar jisane apani rachanaon se adhunik snvedanaon ki nee paripati vikasit ki. premachnd jaise sahityakar ne unako bhavishy ka rachanakar mana tha. isaki ek khas vajah yah thi ki bhuvaneshvar apane rachanakal se bahut age ki soch ke rachanakar the. unaki rachanayon men kalatitata ka bodh hai, parantu ashcharyajanak roop se yah bhootakal se n jud kar bhavishy ke sath jyada prasngik nazar ati hain. ‘karavan’ ki bhoomika men svayn bhuvaneshvar ne likha hai ki ‘vivek aur tark tisari shreni ke kalakaron ke chor daravaze hain”. unaka yah manana unaki rachanaon men spashtataya drashtigochar bhi hota bhi hai. insan ko vastu men badalate jane ki jo tasvir unhonne ukeri, vo aj ke samay men aur bhi adhik prasngik ho jati hai.

jivan parichay

bhuvaneshvar ka janm shahajahanpur (uttar pradesh) ke kerugnj (khoya mndi) men, 1910 men ek khate-pite parivar men hua tha. parantu bachapan men hi man ki maut se achanak paristhitiyan unake viparit ho gee. intaramidiet ka ye vidyarthi shahajahanpur ko alavida karake ilahabad chala gaya. us samay ke bhuvaneshvar ka bauddhik gyan, hindi-angreji bhashaon par saman adhikar, insani rishton ko samajhane ka adabhut najariya samakalin lekhakon ke lie acharaj se kam nahin tha. parantu vyaktigat roop se svayn bhuvaneshvar ka jivan abhavon evn kathinataon ka pulinda tha. ilahabad, banaras, lakhanoo men bhatakate bhuvaneshvar ke lie mitr mndali ke ghar asara, aur kathinaiyon ka choli daman ka sath raha. parantu in pareshaniyon men bhi unaki sahity yatra anavarat jari rahi. ek bar svayn premachnd ne unase apane lekhan men ‘katuta’ kam karane ki ray di thi, jis par unhonne kaha ki is ‘katuta’ ki upaj ke pichhe ke karanon ki bhi padatal honi chahiye. shayad yahi karan, vo tamam visngatiyan thi, jinaka samana unhen apane jivan men karana pada. 1957 men lakhanoo steshan par bhuvaneshvar ne duniya ko alavida kah diya.

sahityik parichay

bhuvaneshvar ki sahity sadhana bahuayami thi. kahani, kavita, ekanki aur samiksha sab men unaki lekhani ek ne kalevar ka ehasas dilati hai. chhoti si ghatana ko bhi nee, parantu vastavikata ke sarvadhik sannikat drashti se dekhane ka najariya bhuvaneshvar ki visheshata hai. 'hns’ men 1933 men bhuvaneshvar ka pahala ekanki ‘shyama: ek vaivahik vidambana’ prakashit hua tha. 1935 men prakashit ekanki sngrah ‘karavan’ ne unhen ekankikar ke roop men pratishthit kar diya. bhuvaneshvar dvara likhit natak ‘tanbe ka kida’ (1946) ko vishv ki kisi bhi bhasha men bhi likhe gaye pahale asngat natak ka samman prapt hai. unake dvara likhit ekankiyon men ‘shyamahek vaivahik vidamvana’, ‘romansahromanch’, ‘straik’, ‘oosar’, ‘sikandar’ adi ka nam ullekhaniy hai. bhuvaneshvar ki pahali kahani ‘mausi’ ko premachnd ne samakalin kahaniyon ke pratinidhi snkalan ‘hindi ki adarsh kahaniyan’ men sthan diya. unaki kahani ‘bhediye’ hns ke aprail 1938 ank men prakashit huee. is kahani ne adhunik kahaniyon ki parampara men mazaboot niv ka nirman kiya. kaise registan se gujarata bnjara bhediyon se jan bachane ke lie unake age chugga phenkata hai. kahani aur jivan donon men phenkane ke is kram men sabase pahale phenki jati hain vo chijen jo apekshakrit kam mahatv ki hain. is kahani ne jivan ki kadavi sachchaee ko bina lag-lapet ke prastut kiya. kuchh sahityakar to is kahani ke marm ko kisi mainejament klas ke chuninda nishkarshon men bhi sarvashreshth manate hain. ‘mausi’, ‘ladaee’, ‘man bete’, ‘mastani’ adi any ullekhaniy kahaniyan hain.
isake atirikt bhuvaneshvar ne angrezi tatha hindi men kuchh kavitaen tatha alochanatmak lekh bhi likhe hain. parantu unake krititv ko pahachanane men logon ne bhool kar di. shayad yahi karan tha, ki is anokhe rachanakar ko poora jivan sngharsho aur vivadon men gujarana pada. premachnd ne unase hns se sthaee roop se judane ka agrah kiya tha. parantu anajane karanon se ye snvad poora na ho saka. halanki unaki rachanayen hns men lagatar prakashit hoti rahin. lekin agar vo hns ke sath jud jate to unaka rachana snsar kahin adhik vistrit roop men hamare samane hota. unake antim samay ki rachanaon ko sahejana vala unake sath koee nahin tha, jisake phalasvaroop us dauran raf kagajon ke pichhe likha gaya hindi aur angreji ka poornataya maulik sahity andheron men gum ho gaya. bhuvaneshvar ki upalabdh sabhi rachanaon ko aj punah logon tak pnhuchane ki avashyakata hai.

kritiyan

kahani
  • ajadi : ek patr
  • ek rat
  • jivan ki jhalak
  • dakamunshi
  • bhediye
  • bhavishy ke garbh men
  • man-bete
  • mastarani
  • mausi
  • ladaee
  • sooryapooja
  • hay re, manav hriday!
ekanki
  • ek samyahin samyavadi
  • ekaki ke bhav
  • patit (shaitan)
  • pratibha ka vivah
  • shyama : ek vaivahik vidnbana
  • azadi ki ninv
  • jeroosalam
  • sikndar
  • akabar
  • chngez khan
  • mrityu
  • ham akele nahin hain
  • sava ath baje

sahityik visheshata

lekhak ki rachanaon ke anushilan se yahi dharana banati hai ki pashchim ke adhunik sahity ka unhonne achchha adhyayan kiya hai. ibsan, sha. di. ech., larens tatha phrayad ke prati vishesh anurakt pratit hote hain. zindagi ko unhonne kadavahat, tikhepan, vikriti aur vidrupata se hi dekha tha. sambhavatah isi karan unamen samaj ke prati tivr vitrishna, prabal akrosh aur ugr vidroh ka bhav prakat hua hai. jivan ki is katu anubhooti ne hi unhen phakkd, nirdvandv aur snyamahin bana diya tha. bhuvaneshvar ne hindi pashchaty shaili ke ekanki ki parnpara banayi. unaki pratham rachana 'shyama--ek vaivahik vidnbana', 'hns' ke disnbar, 1933 ee. ke ank men prakashit huee. isake bad any ekanki rachanaen 'shaitan' (1934 ee.), 'ek samyahin samyavadi' (hns, march 1934 ee.), 'pratibha ka vivah' (1933 ee.), 'rahasy romanch' (1935 ee.), 'latari' (1935 ee.) prakashit hueen. inhen sngrahit karake unhonne san 1956 ee. men 'karavan' sngya dekar prakashit kiya. in sabhi ekankiyon par pashchim ki ekanki shaili ki chhap hai. vishay-vastu aur samasya ke vishleshan men pashchim ke buddhivadi natakakaron ibsan aur sha ka prabhav hai. parishisht karane vale jo sootr-vaky diye hain, ve sha ke vyng aur phrayad ki yaun-pradhan vicharadhara ka smaran dilate hain. bhuvaneshvar ke aur bhi ekanki prakashit hote rahe- 'mrityu' ('hns 1936 ee.), 'ham akele nahin hain' tatha 'sava ath baje' ('bharat'), 'straik' aur 'oosar' ('hns' 1938 ee.) in rachanaon men unaki drishti ka visstar dekhane ko milata hai. yaun-samasya tatha prem ke trikon se oopar uthakar ve samaj ke dukh-dard ko bhi dekhane lage. san 1938 ee. men sumitranndan pnt dvara snpadit 'roopabh' patrika men unhonne ek bade natak 'adamakhor' ka pahala ank prakashit karaya. isase unhonne jivan ki katu vastavikataon ke udaghatan ka ghor yatharthavadi drishtikon apanaya hai. san 1940 ee. men unhonne gogol ke prasiddh natak 'inspektar janaral' ko lagabhag paun ghnte ke ekanki ka roop diya. san 1941 ee. men 'vishvavani' men 'roshani aur ag' shirshak ek prayog upasthit kiya, jisamen grik natakon jaisa poorvalap (koras) tha. 'kathaputaliyan' (1942 ee.) men unhonne pratikavadi shaili apanayi. in prayogatmak rachanaon ke anntar bhuvanevar ki natyakala paripakv roop men dekhane ko mili. 'photographar ke samane' (1945 ee.),'tanbe ke kide' (1946 ee.) men manushy ki badhati huee arthalolupata ka udghatan hai. san 1948 ee. men 'itihas ki kenchul' ekaki likha aur isake anntar unake kee etihasik ekanki prakashit hue- 'azadi ki ninv' (1949 ee.), 'jeroosalam' (1949 ee.),'sikndar (1949 ee.),'akabar' (1950 ee.) tatha chngez khan (1950 ee.). in rachanaon men rashtriyata ka svar bhi ubhara hai. antim kriti 'sio ki gadi' (1950 ee.) hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pustak- hindi sahity kosh-2 | sampadak- dhirendr varma | prishth- 414

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