कंबन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

knban tamil bhasha ke prasiddh grnth 'knbaramayan' ke rachiyata the. inaka janm tamilanadu ke chol rajy men tiruvalunpoor namak ganv men hua tha. knban vaishnav the. unake samay tak barah pramukh alavar ho chuke the aur bhakti tatha prapati ka shastriy vivechan karane vale yamun, ramanuj adi acharyon ki parnpara bhi chal padi thi. 'knbaramayan' ka prachar-prasar keval tamilanadu men hi nahin, usake bahar bhi hua. yah tamil sahity ki sarvotkrisht kriti evn ek brihat grnth hai.

jivan parichay

janashruti ke anusar knban ka janm eesa ki navin shatabdi men hua tha. kuchh vidvanh inaka samay barahavin shatabdi aur kuchh navin shatabdi manate hain. knban ke vastavik nam ka pata nahin hai. 'knban' unaka upanam tha. inake mata-pita ka unaki balyavastha men hi dehant ho gaya. anath balak ko palane vala koee nahin tha. unake door ke ek snbndhi arkat zile ke sadaiyapp vallal namak dhani kisan ke daravaze par knban ko chupachap chhod ae. dayalu vallal ne balak ko apane bachchon ki dekh-rekh ke kam ke lie apane ghar men rakh liya. jab unhonne dekha ki unake bachchon ke sath knban bhi padhane men ruchi lene laga hai to sadaiyapp vallal ne knban ki shiksha ka bhi poora prabndh kar diya. is prakar knban ko vidya prapt huee aur unake andar se kavy ki pratibha prasphutit ho gee.

knbaramayan

knban vaishnav the. unake samay tak barahon pramukh alavar ho chuke the aur bhakti tatha prapati ka shastriy vivechan karane vale yamun, ramanuj adi acharyon ki parnpara bhi chal padi thi. knban ne pramukh alavar 'nammalavar'[1] ki prashasti ki hai. kaha to yahan tak jata hai ki knban ki 'ramayan' rnganath ji ko tabhi svikrit huee, jab unhonne 'nammalavar' ki stuti ukt grnth ke arnbh men ki. itana hi nahin, 'knbaramayan' men yatr-tatr ukt alavar ki shrisooktiyon ki chhaya bhi dikhaee padati hai, to bhi knban ne apane mahakavy ko keval sanpradayik nahin banaya hai, unhonne shiv, vishnu ke roop[2] men bhi paramatma ka stavan kiya hai aur ramachndr ko us paramatma ka hi avatar mana hai. grntharnbh men evn pratyek kand ke adi men prastut mngalacharan ke padyon se ukt tathy prakat hota hai. pro.ti.pi. minakshisundaram bhi 'knbaramayan' ko keval 'vaishnav snpraday' ka 'grnth' nahin manate. isilie shaivon tatha vaishnavon men 'knbaramayan' ka saman adar hua aur donon snpradayon ke parasparik vaimanasy ke door hone men isase paryapt sahayata mili.[3]

sarvotkrisht kriti

'knbaramayan' tamil sahity ki sarvotkrisht kriti evn ek brihat grnth hai[4] aur isake rachayita knban 'kavichakravarti' ki upadhi se prasiddh hain. upalabdh grnth men 10,050 pady hain aur balakand se yuddhakand tak chh: kandon ka vistar isamen milata hai. isase snbndhit ek uttarakand bhi prapt hai, jisake rachayita knban ke samasamayik ek any mahakavi 'ottakakoottan' mane jate hain. pauranikon ke karan 'knbaramayan' men anek prakshep bhi jud ge hain, kintu inhen badi asani se pahachana ja sakata hai, kyonki knban ki sashakt bhasha aur vilakshan pratipadan shaili ka anukaran shaky nahin hai.

kathanak

'knbaramayan' ka kathanak 'valmiki ramayan' se liya gaya hai, parntu knban ne mool 'ramayan' ka anuvad athava chhayanuvad n karake, apani drishti aur manyata ke anusar ghatanaon men saikadon parivartan kie hain. vividh paristhitiyon ke prastutikaran, ghatanaon ke chitran, patron ke snvad, prakritik drishyon ke upasthapan tatha patron ki manobhavanaon ki abhivyakti men pade-pade maulikata milati hai. tamil bhasha ki abhivyakti aur snpreshaniyata ko sashakt banane ke lie bhi kavi ne anek ne prayog kie hain. chhndovidhan, alnkar prayog tatha shabd niyojan ke madhyam se knban ne anupam saundary ki srishti ki hai. sita-ram ka vivah, shoorpanakha prasng, bali vadh, hanuman dvara sita sndarshan, meghanad vadh, ram-ravan yuddh adi prasng apane-apane kavyatmak saundary ke karan vishesh akarshak hain. lagata hai pratyek prasng apane men poorn hai aur natakiyata se otaprot hai. ghatanaon ke vikas ke sunishchit kram hain. pratyek ghatana arnbh, vikas aur parisamapti men ek vishisht shilp vidhan lekar samane ati hai.[3]

ram charitr ki vyakhya

valmiki ne ram ke roop men 'purush puratan' ka nahin, apitu 'mahamanav ka chitr upasthit kiya tha, jabaki knban ne ane yugadarsh ke anuroop ram ko paramatma ke avatar ke sath adarsh mahamanav ke roop men bhi pratishthit kiya. vaishnav bhakti tatkalin manyataon aur janata ki bhaktipoot bhavanaon se jude rahakar is mahakavi ne ram ke charitr ko mahatta poorit evn param poornatv samanvit aise ayamon men prastut kiya, jinaki iyatta aur eedrikta sahaj grahy hote hue bhi akalpaniy roop se manohar kinva manoram thi. yah nishchit hi knban jaisa anany sulabh pratibhavan mahakavi hi kar sakata tha.

tulasi aur knban

knban ki 'knbaramayan' ka prachar-prasar keval tamilanadu men hi nahin, usake bahar bhi hua. tnjaur zile men sthit tiruppanandal math ki ek shakha varanasi men hai. lagabhag 350 varsh poorv kumaragurupar nam ke ek snt ukt math men rahate the. sndhya vela men ve nityaprati gnga tat par akar 'knbaramayan' ki vyakhya hindi men sunaya karate the. gosvami tulasidas un dinon kashi men hi the aur snbhavat: 'ramacharitamanas' ki rachana kar rahe the. dakshin men janavishvas prachalit hai ki tulasidas ne 'knbaramayan' se prarena hi prapt nahin ki, apitu manas men kee sthalon par apane dhng se, usaki samagri ka upayog bhi kiya. yadyapi ukt vishvas ki pramanikata vivadaspad hai, to bhi itana sach hai ki tulasi aur knban ki rachanaon men kee sthalon par ashcharyajanak samanata milati hai.

vidvanh kathan

shri vi.vi.es. ayyar[5] ke anusar 'knb ramayan' vishv sahity men uttam kriti hai. 'iliyad', 'pairadaiz laaust' aur 'mahabharat se hi nahin, varanh adikavy 'valmiki ramayan' ki tulana men bhi yah adhik sundar hai.'[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. panchave alavar jo shathakop ya parankush muni ke nam se bhi prasiddh hain
  2. keval srishtikarta
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 knban (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2014.
  4. da.ar.pi. setupillai, tamil vibhagadhyaksh, madras vishvavidyalay ka angrezi men 'tamil litarechar' shirshak lekh
  5. knb ramayan-e stadi

liladhar, sharma bharatiy charit kosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: shiksha bharati, 123.

bahari kadiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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