नरोत्तमदास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

narottamadas
Narottamdas.jpg
poora nam narottamadas
janm san 1493 (snvat- 1550)
janm bhoomi vadi, sitapur, uttar pradesh
mrityu agyat
karm-kshetr kavi
mukhy rachanaen sudama charit, dhruv-charit
vishay sagun bhakti
bhasha avadhi, hindi, brajabhasha
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

narottamadas hindi ke pramukh sahityakar the. hindi sahity men aise log virale hi hain jinhonne matr ek ya do rachanaon ke adhar par hindi sahity men apana sthan sunishchit kiya hai. ek aise hi kavi hain, uttar pradesh ke sitapur janapad men janme kavi narottamadas, jinaka ekamatr khand-kavy ‘sudama charit’ (brajabhasha men) milata hai jo hindi sahity ki amooly dharohar mani jati hai.

jivan parichay

narottamadas sitapur zile ke vadi namak kasbe ke rahane vale the. inaki jati ka ullekh kahin nahin milata. inaka 'sudamacharitr' grnth bahut prasiddh hai. isamen narottamadas ne sudama ke ghar ki daridrata ka bahut hi sundar varnan hai. yadyapi yah chhota hai, tathapi isaki rachana bahut hi saras aur hridayagrahini hai aur kavi ki bhavukata ka parichay deti hai. bhasha bhi bahut hi parimarjit aur vyavasthit hai. bahutere kaviyon ke saman bharati ke shabd aur vaky isamen nahin hain. kuchh logon ke anusar inhonne isi prakar ka ek aur khndakavy 'dhruvacharit' bhi likha hai. par vah kahin dekhane men nahin aya.

janm matabhed

mahakavi narottamadas ka durlabh chitr
  • ‘shiv sinh saroj’ men samvath 1602 tak inake jivit hone ki bat kahi gee hai. in pnktiyon ke lekhak ke adaraniy svargiy pitamah tatha adaraniy pitashri ko badi ke sannikat sthit gram allipur ka mool nivasi hone ke karan is mahanh kavi ke janmasthal par angrezon ke samay se chalane vale ekamatr vidyalay se shiksha prapt karane ka saubhagy mila hai jisase vahan prachalit janashrutiyon ko nikatata se sunane ka avasar prapt hua hai. vahan prachalit janashrutiyon ke adhar par yah gyat hua hai ki ye kanyakubj brahman the.
  • isake atirikt inake snbndh men any pramanik abhilekhon men ‘jarj griyarsan’ ka adhyayan hai, jisamen unhonne mahakavi ka janmakal samvath 1610 mana hai. vastutah inake janmakal ke sambandh men anek vidvanon ne apane -apane mat pragat kie hain parantu ‘shiv sinh sengar’ v ‘jarj griyarsan’ ke mat adhik samichin v pramanit pratit hote hai jisake adhar par ‘sudama charit’ ka rachana kal samvath 1582 men n hokar sanh 1582 arthath samvath 1636 hota hai.
mahakavi narottamadas parisar ki durdasha par alekh 1991
  • achary hajari prasad dvivedi ne ‘hindi sahity’ men narottamadas ke janm ka ullekh samvath 1545 men hona svikar kiya hai. is prakar anek vidvanon ke maton ke adhar par inake jivanakal ka nirdharan upalabdh sakshyon ke alok men 1493 ee. se 1582 ee. kiya gaya hai.

rachana parichay

pn. ganesh bihari mishr ki ‘mishrabndhu vinod’ ke anusar 1900 ki khoj men inaki kuchh any rachanaon ‘vichar mala’ tatha ‘dhruv-charit’ aur ‘nam-snkirtan’ ke snbndh men bhi janakariyan milati hain parantu is snbndh men ab tak pramanikata ka abhav hai. nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi, ki ek khoj riport men bhi ‘vicharamala’ v ‘nam-snkirtan’ ki anupalabdhata ka varnan hai. ‘dhruv-charit’ anshik roop se upalabdh hai jisake 28 chhnd ‘rasavati’ patrika men 1968 ank men prakashit hue. sidhauli patrakar sngh ke adhyaksh shri haridayal avasthi ne narottamadas ki hastalikhit ‘sudama charit’ ke 9 prishth prapt karane ka bhi dava kiya hai parantu yah hastalikhit kriti lakhanoo vishvavidyalay ke poorv kulapati ke pas kafi samay tak pramanikata ki parikshan ke lie padi rahi, parantu nirnay n ho saka.

mahakavi narottamadas janmasthali parisar 2011

‘sudama charit’ ke snbndh men achary ramachandr shukl ne kaha haiah-

‘yadyapi yah chhota hai par isaki rachana bahut saras aur hridayagrahini hai aur kavi ki bhavukata ka parichay deti hai bhasha bhi bahut parimarjit hai aur vyavasthit hai. bahutere kaviyon k saman arabi ke shabd aur vaky isamen nahin hai.’
narottamadas janmasthali parisar men sthapit mahakavi ki moortin

daau. nagendr ne apane grath ‘ritikalin kaviyon ki ki samany visheshataen, khand -2, adhyay- 4’ men sabase pahale ‘savaiyon’ ka prayog karane vale kaviyon ki shreni men narottamadas ko rakha hen ‘kavitt’ (ghanakshari) ka prayog bhi sarvapratham narottamadas ne hi kiya tha. yah vidha akabar ke samakalin any kaviyon ne apanayi thi . daau. ramakumar varma ne narottamadas ke kavy ke sndarbh men likha haiah-
‘katha sngathan,’ ‘natakiyata’, ‘vidha=n, bhav, bhasha, dvandv’ adi sabhi drishtiyon se narottamadas krit sudama charit shreshth rachana hai.’

narottamadas ki rachanaen

  1. sudama charit, khand kaby (brajabhasha men snpadit snkalan)
  2. ‘dhruv-charit’, 28 chhnd ‘rasavati’ patrika men 1968 ank men prakashit
  3. ‘nam-snkirtan’, ab tak aprapt, (pramanikata ka abhav)
  4. 'vicharamala’, ab tak aprapt, (pramanikata ka abhav)

kitane sudama charit?

hindi men sudama chariton ki parnpara milati hai. nndadas ke sudamacharit ke bad narottamadas ka hi lekhan is vishay par milata hai. nand das ka sudamacharit vah lokapriyata nahin pa saka jo pandravahavin sadi men 1582 snvat men narottamadas ka kavyamay sudamacharit pane men saphal raha. sudama charit likhane ka silasila isake uparant bhi jari raha aur sudama charit ke yashasvi lekhakon ke roop men alam ka nam bhi ata hai jisane snvat 1623 men sudama charit likha. isi kadi men rajasthan nivasi shivadin ram joshi ka nam bhi liya jata hai. snkshep men ab tak sudama chariton ki snkhya nimn prakar hai

  • pandrahavi sadi 1582 narottamadas rachit sudama charit
  • solahavin sadi 1623 alam rachit sudama charit
  • 17 vi shati kaliram 1731
  • makhan kavi rachit 18 vi shati vikram
  • balakadas 1890
  • maharajadas 1919
  • shivadin ram joshi 1957 (lagabhag)

pnjabi men daau. manamohan sahagal ne ullekh kiya hai ki sudama charit parnpara se bhinn any kaviyon ne bhi sudama charitr shabd ka hi upayog kiya hai.

sudama charit -narottamadas (snkshipt)

vipr sudama basat hain, sada apane dham.
bhikh mangi bhojan karain, hiye japat hari-nam॥3॥

taki gharani pativrata, gahai ved ki riti.
salaj sushil subuddhi ati, pati seva saun priti॥4॥

kahyau sudama ek din, krisn hamare mitr.
karat rahati upades guru, aiso param vichitr॥5॥

(sudama ki patni)
lochan-kamal, dukh mochan, tilak bhal, sravanani kundal, mukut dhare math hain.
odhe pit basan, gare men baijaynti mal, snkh-chakr-gada aur padm liye hath hain.
vidv narottam sndipani guru ke pas, tum hi kahat ham padhe ek sath hain.
dvarika ke gaye hari darid harainge piy, dvarika ke nath vai anathan ke nath hain॥8॥

(sudama)
sichchhak haun, sigare jag ko tiy, tako kahan ab deti hai sichchha.
je tap kai paralok sudharat, snpati ki tinake nahi ichchha॥
mere hiye hari ke pad-pnkaj, bar hajar lai dekhi parichchha.
auran ko dhan chahiye bavari, brahman ko dhan keval bhichchha॥9॥

(sudama ki patni)
kodon, savan jurito bhari pet, tau chahati na dadhi doodh mathauti.
sit bititat jau sisiyatahin, haun hathati pai tumhen n hathauti॥
jo janati n hitoo hari son tumhen, kahe ko dvarika peli pathauti.
ya ghar te n gayau kabahoon piy, tooto tava aru phooti kathauti॥10॥

(sudama)
chhandi sabai jak tohi lagi bak, athahu jam yahai jhak thani.
jatahi daihain, laday ladha bhari, laihain laday yahai jiy jani॥
panu kahan te atari ata, jinako vidhi dinhi hai tooti si chhani.
jo pai daridr likho hai lalat tau, kahu pai meti n jat ayani॥13॥

(sudama ki patni)
vipr ke bhagat hari jagat vidit bndhu, let sab hi ki sudhi aise mahadani hain.
padhe ek chatasar kahi tum kaiyo bar, lochan apar vai tumhain n pahichani hain.
ek dinabndhu kripasindhu pheri gurubndhu, tum sam kaun din jakau jiy jani hain.
nam lete chauguni, gaye ten dvar sauguni so, dekhat sahastr guni priti prabhu mani hain॥20॥

(sudama)
dvarika jahu joo dvarika jahu joo, athahu jam yahai jhak tere.
jau n kahau kariye to badau dukh, jaiye kahan apani gati here॥
dvar khare prabhu ke chhariya tahn, bhoopati jan n pavat nere.
panch supari tai dekhu bichar kai, bhent ko chari n chaur mere॥23॥

yah suni kai tab brahmani, gee parosi pas.
pav ser chaur liye, aee sahit hulas॥24॥
siddhi kari ganapati sumiri, bandhi dupatiya khoont.
mangat khat chale tahan, marag vali boot॥25॥

dithi chakachaundhi gee dekhat subarnamee,
ek ten saras ek dvarika ke bhaun hain.
poochhe bin kooo kahoon kahoo son n kare bat,
devata se baithe sab sadhi-sadhi maun hain.

dekhat sudama dhay paurajan gahe pany,
kripa kari kahau vipr kahan kinhau gaun hain.
dhiraj adhir ke haran par pir ke,
batao balavir ke mahal yahan kaun hain?॥30॥

(shrikrishn ka dvarapal)
sis paga n jhaga tan men prabhu, janai ko ahi basai kehi grama.
dhoti phati-si lati dupati aru, pany upanah ki nahin sama॥
dvar khadyo dvij durbal ek, rahyau chakisaun vasudha abhirama.
poochhat din dayal ko dham, batavat apano nam sudama॥II35II

bolyau dvarapal sudama nam pande suni, chhande raj-kaj aise ji ki gati janai ko?
dvarika ke nath hath jori dhay gahe pany, bhentat lapatay kari aise dukh sanai ko?
nain dooo jal bhari poochhat kusal hari, bipr bolyaun vipada men mohi pahichane ko?
jaisi tum karau taisi karai ko kripa ke sindhu, aisi priti dinabndhu! dinan sau mane ko?II 36II

aise behal bevain son pag, kntak-jal lage puni joye.
hay! mahadukh payo sakha tum, aye itai n kite din khoye॥
dekhi sudama ki din dasa, karuna karike karunanidhi roye.
pani parat ko hath chhuyo nahin, nainan ke jal saun pag dhoye॥ II42II

(shri krishn)
kachhu bhabhi hamako diyau, so tum kahe n det.
chanpi potari kankh men, rahe kahau kehi het॥II 46II

age chana guru-matu diye t, liye tum chabi hamen nahin dine.
shyam kahyau musukay sudama son, chori ki bani men hau joo pravine॥
potari kankh men chanpi rahe tum, kholat nahin sudha-ras bhine.
pachhili bani ajaun n taji tum, taisi bhabhi ke tndul kine॥ II47II


deno hutau so dai chuke, bipr n jani gath.
chalati ber gopal joo, kachhoo n dinhaun hath॥II 60II

vah pulakani vah uth milani, vah adar ki bhanti.
yah pathavani gopal ki, kachhoo na jani jati॥II61II

ghar-ghar kar odat phire, tanak dahi ke kaj.
kaha bhayau jo ab bhayau, hari ko raj-samaj॥II62II

haun kab it avat hutau, vahi pathyau theli.
kahihaun dhani saun jaikai, ab dhan dharau sakeli॥II63II

vaisei raj-samaj bane, gaj-baji ghane, man snbhram chhayau.
vaisei knchan ke sab dham hain, dvarike ke mahilon phiri ayau.
bhaun bilokibe ko man lochat sochat hi sab ganv mnjhayau.
poochhat pande phirain sabason par jhopari ko kahoon khoj n payau॥II70II

kanak-dnd kar men liye, dvarapal hain dvar.
jay dikhayau sabani lain, ya hai mahal tumhar॥II73I

tooti si madaiya meri pari huti yahi thaur,
tamain paro dukh kataun kahan hem-dham ri.
jevar-jaraoo tum saje prati ang-ang,
sakhi sohai sng vah chhoochhi huti chham ri.
tum to patnbar ri odhe kinaridar,
sari jaratari vah odhe kari kamari.
meri va pndain tihari anuhar hi pai,
vipada sataee vah paee kahan pamari?II80II

kai vah tooti-si chhani hati kahan, knchan ke sab dham suhavat.
kai pag men panahi n hati kahn, lai gajarajahu thadhe mahavat॥
bhoomi kathor pai rat katai kahan, komal sej pai nind n avat.
kain jurato nahin kodo savan prabhu, ke paratap tai dakh n bhavat॥ II119II


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sambndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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