माखन लाल चतुर्वेदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

makhan lal chaturvedi
makhan lal chaturvedi
poora nam makhan lal chaturvedi
janm 4 aprail, 1889 ee.
janm bhoomi bavee, madhy pradesh
mrityu 30 janavari, 1968 ee.
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr kavi, lekhak, patrakar, adhyapak
mukhy rachanaen 'krishnarjun yuddh', 'himakiritini', 'sahity devata', 'himatarngini', 'mata', 'yugacharan', 'samarpan', 'venu lo goonje dhara', 'amir irade', 'garib irade' adi.
vishay kavita, natak, grnth, kahani
bhasha hindi, snskrit
puraskar-upadhi 1949 ee.- sahity akadami puraskar
prasiddhi svatntrata senani
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
makhan lal chaturvedi ki rachanaen

makhan lal chaturvedi (angrezi: Makhan Lal Chaturvedi, janm- 4 aprail, 1889 bavee, madhy pradesh; mrityu- 30 janavari, 1968) saral bhasha aur ojapoorn bhavanaon ke anoothe hindi rachanakar the. inhonne hindi evn snskrit ka adhyayan kiya. ye 'karmavir' rashtriy dainik ke snpadak the. inhonne svatntrata andolan men sakriy roop se bhag liya. inaka upanam ek bharatiy atma hai. rashtriyata makhan lal chaturvedi ke kavy ka kalevar hai tatha rahasyatmak prem usaki atma hai.

chah nahin main surabala ke, gahanon men goontha jaoon
chah nahin, premi-mala men, bindh pyari ko lalachaoon
chah nahin, samraton ke shav, par he hari, dala jaoon
chah nahin, devon ke sir par, chadhoo bhagy par ithalaoon
mujhe tod lena vanamali, us path par dena tum phenk
matribhoomi par shish chadhane, jis path javen vir anek

jivan parichay

hindi jagath ke kavi, lekhak, patrakar makhan lal chaturvedi ka janm 4 aprail, 1889 ee. men bavee, madhy pradesh men hua tha. yah bachapan men kafi roogn aur bimar raha karate the. chaturvedi ji ke jivanikar basa ka kahana hai
'dainy aur daridray ki jo bhi kali parachhaee chaturvediyon ke parivar par jis roop men bhi rahi ho, makhanalal paurushavan saubhagy ka lakshanik shakun hi banata gaya.'[1]
inaka parivar radhavallabh sampraday ka anuyayi tha, isalie svabhavat: chaturvedi ke vyaktitv men vaishnav pad kanthasth ho gaye. prathamik shiksha ki samapti ke bad ye ghar par hi snskrit ka adhyayan karane lage. inaka vivah pandrah varsh ki avastha men hua aur usake ek varsh bad ath rupaye masik vetan par inhonne adhyapaki shuroo ki.

karyakshetr

1913 ee. men chaturvedi ji ne prabha patrika ka sampadan arambh kiya, jo pahale chitrashala pres, poona se aur bad men pratap pres, kanapur se chhapati rahi. prabha ke sampadan kal men inaka parichay ganesh shnkar vidyarthi se hua, jinake desh- prem aur sevavrat ka inake oopar bahut gahara prabhav pada. chaturvedi ji ne 1918 ee. men 'krishnarjun yuddh' namak natak ki rachana ki aur 1919 ee. men jabalapur se 'karmavir' ka prakashan kiya. yah 12 mee, 1921 ee. ko rajadroh men giraftar hue 1922 ee. men karagar se mukti mili. chaturvedi ji ne 1924 ee. men ganesh shnkar vidyarthi ki giraftari ke bad 'pratap' ka sampadakiy kary- bhar snbhala. yah 1927 ee. men bharatapur men sampadak sammelan ke adhyaksh bane aur 1943 ee. men hindi sahity sammelan ke adhyaksh hue. isake ek varsh poorv hi 'himakiritini' aur 'sahity devata' prakash men aye. inake 1948 ee. men 'him tarngini' aur 1952 ee. men 'mata' kavy grnth prakashit hue.

hindi kavy ke vidyarthi makhanalal ji ki kavitaen padhakar sahasa ashchary chakit rah jate hai. unaki kavitaon men kahin jvalamukhi ki tarah dhadhakata hua antarman, jo vishamata ki samoochi agni sine men dabaye phootane ke lie machal raha hai, kahin virat paurush ki hunkar, kahin karuna ki ajib dard bhari manuhar. ve jab akrosh se uddipt hote hain to pralaynkar ka roop dharan kar lete hain kintu doosare hi kshan ve apani katarata se vihval hokar manamohan ki ter lagane lagate hain. chaturvedi ji ke vyaktitv men snkramanakalin bharatiy samaj ki sari virodhi athava virodhi jaisi pratit hone vali vishishtataon ka sampunjan dikhayi padata hai.

shaikshik kary sarvopari

(makhan lal chaturvedi se juda ye kissa mahadevi varma ji aksar sahayogiyon ko sunaya karati thi)[2]

svadhinata ke bad jab madhy pradesh naya rajy bana tha tab yah prashn uth khada hua ki kis neta ko is rajy ke pratham mukhyamntri pad ki bagador saunpi jay? kisi ek nam par sarvasammati nahin bani. tin nam ubhar kar samane aye pahala pndit makhanalal chaturvedi, doosara pndit ravishnkar shukl, aur tisara pndit dvaraka prasad mishra . kagaz ke tin tukado par ye nam alag alag likhe ge. har tukade ki ek pudiya banayi gayi. tino pudiyaye apas men khoob phenti gayi phir ek pudiya nikali gayi jis par pndit makhan lal chaturvedi ka nam ankit tha. is prakar yah tay paya gaya ki ve navagathit madhy pradesh ke pratham mukhyamntri honge. tatkalin diggaj neta makhanalal ji ke pas daud pade. sabane unhen is bat ki suchana aur badhaee bhi di ki ab apako mukhyamntri ke pad ka karyabhar snbhalana hai. pndit makhanalal chaturvedi ne sabako lagabhag dantate hue kaha ki main pahale se hi shikshak aur sahityakar hone ke nate "devaguru" ke asan par baitha hoon. meri padavanati karake tum log mujhe "devaraj" ke pad par baithana chahate ho jo mujhe sarvatha asvikary hai . unaki is asahamati ke bad ravishnkar shukl ko navagathit pradesh ka mukhyamntri banaya gaya.

rachanaen

chaturvedi ji ki rachanaon ko prakashan ki drishti se is kram men rakha ja sakata hai. 'krishnarjun yuddh' (1918 ee.), 'himakiritini' (1941 ee.), 'sahity devata' (1942 ee.), 'himatarngini' (1949 ee.- sahity akadami puraskar se puraskrit), 'mata' (1952 ee.). 'yugacharan', 'samarpan' aur 'venu lo goonje dhara' unaki kahaniyon ka sngrah 'amir irade, garib irade' nam se chhapa hai.

do shreniyon men rachanaen

kavi ke kramik vikas ko drishti men rakhakar makhanalal chaturvedi ki rachanaon ko do shreni men rakh sakate hain.

  1. arambhik kavy- 1920 ee. ke pahale ki rachanaen
  2. parinati kavy- 1920 ee. se bad ki kavy- srishti


chaturvedi ji ki rachanaon ki pravrittiyan prayah spasht aur nishchit hain. rashtriyata unake kavy ka kalevar hai to bhakti aur rahasyatmak prem unaki rachanaon ki atma. arambhik rachanaon men bhi ve pravrittiyan spashtata parilakshit hoti hain. prabha ke praveshank men prakashit unaki kavita 'niti-nivedan' shayad unake man ki tatkalin sthiti ka poora parichay deti hai. isamen kavi 'shreshthata sopanagami udar chhatravrind' se ek atm-nivedan karata hai. unhen poorvajon ka smaran dilakar ratnagarbha matribhoomi ki rnkatapar taras khane ko kahata hai. usi samay prabha bhag 1, snkhya 6 men prakashit 'prem' shirshak kavitaon se sabase savity prem vyapt ho, isake lie sandesh diya hai kyonki is prem ke bina 'beda par' hone vala nahin hai. makhanalal ji ki rashtriy kavitaon men adarsh ki thothi udane bhar nahin hai. unhonne khud rashtriy sngram men apana sab kuchh balidan kiya hai, isi karan unake svaron men 'balipnthi' ki sachchaee, nirbhikata aur kashton ke jhelane ki adamy lalasa ki jhnkar hai. yah sach hai ki unaki rachanaon men kahin-kahin 'hindoo rashtriyata' ka svar zyada prabal ho utha hai kintu ham ise sampradayikata nahin kah sakate, kyonki doosare sampraday ahit ki akanksha inamen rnchamatr bhi dikhaee n padegi. 'vijayadashami' aur pravasi bharatiy vrind'[3] athava 'hinduon ka ranagit', 'mnjumadhavi vritt' [4] aisi hi rachanaen hain. unhonne samayik rajanitik vishamon ko bhi drishti men rakhakar likha aur aise jalate prashnon ko kavy ka vishay banaya.

kavita lekhan

20vin shati ke pratham dashak men hi chaturvedi ji ne kavita likhana arnbh kar diya tha, par azadi ke sngharsh men sakriyata ka avesh shanai:-shanai: umr ke chadhav ke sath paravan chadha, jab ve bal gngadhar tilak ke krantikari kriya-kalapon se prabhavit hone ke bavajood mahatma gandhi ke bhi anuyaee bane. apane rashtriy chetana ko rajanaitik vaktavyon se bahar nikala. rajaniti ko sahity srijan ki tnkar se rashtriy rngat bakhshi aur janasadharan ko jatalaya ki yah rashtriyata gahare manaviy sarokaron se upajati hai, jisaka apana ek snvedanashil evn udatt manaviy star hota hai. apani rachanaon men ek bharatiy atma ne balipnthi ke bhav ko udghatit kiya hai.[5]

chaturvedi ji rajaniti aur rachana ko sath-sath nibhate chalate the. aise shreshth mudde rajaniti men vilayit nahin hone pate. nij rachana-karm ke vishay men, atm-vigyapan se door rahate hue tanik halke vinod ke sath dada (chaturvedi ji) nij vyatha is tarah vyakt kar ge hain. apane doosare kavy-snkalan ‘him tarngini’ ki bhoomika men ullekh hai- ’kavita ki dharmashala men, jahan kuchh log kamare pa ge the, kuchh doosare log pharsh par bistar dale baithe the aur kuchh any poori dharmashala par hi ekadhikar kie the… kee ek dharmashala ki divaron par hath ki khadiya mitti se likh rahe the… vahin sabase surakshit aur shreshth sthan mera hai.’ yah samay aj se 70-75 varsh poorv 'dvivedi yug' ki shakahari roodhivadi chetana se prabhavit drishti ke snkuchit hote jane ka samay tha. is jadavadita ke sath chhayavadi romani chetana se ek tarah ki takarahat chaloo thi. dadaji ne inase hatakar apani maulik chetana ka parichay pathakon ko diya.

arambhik kavy

makhanalal ji ki arambhik rachanaon men bhaktiparak athava adhyatmik vicharaprerit kavitaon ka bhi kafi mahattvapoorn sthan hai. yah sahi hai ki in rachanaon men is tarah ki sookshmata athava adhyatmik rahasy ka atindriy sparsh nahin hai, jaisa chhayavadi kaviyon men hai athava kavi ki parinat kavyashrenigat ane vali kuchh rachanaon men hai. bhakti ka roop yahan kafi svasth hai kintu sath hi sthool bhi. karan shayad yah raha hai ki inamen kavi ki niji vyaktigat anubhootiyon ka utana yog nahin hai, jitana ek vyapak naitik dharatal ka, jise ham 'samooh- prarthana koti' ka kavy kah sakate hain. isamen stuti ya stotr shaili ki jhalak bhi mil jati hai. jaisa pahale hi kaha gaya, kavi ke oopar vaishnav parampara ka ghana prabhav dikhayi padata hai. bhaktiparak kavitaon ko kisi vishesh sampraday ke antargat rakhakar dekhana thik n hoga, kyonki in kavitaon men kisi sampradayagat manyata ka nirvah nahin kiya gaya hai. inamen vaishnav, nirgun, soofi, sabhi, tarah ki vicharadharaon ka samnvay-sa dikhaee padata hai. kahin desh pranay-nivedan hai, kahin sarmpan, kahin ulahana aur kahin desh-prem ke takaje ke karan svadhinata-prapti ka varadan bhi manga gaya hai. 'ramanavami' jaisi rachanaon men desh-prem aur bhagavatprem ko saman dharatal par utarane ka prayatn spasht hai.

parinat kavy

parinat kavy-srishti men uparyukt mukhy pravrittiyon ka aur bhi adhik vikas dikhaee padata hai. kshobh, uchchhvas ke sthan par pida ko sahane aur use ek marmik abhivyakti dene ka prayatn dikhaee padata hai. 'kaidi aur kokila' ke pichhe jo rashtriyata ka roop hai, vah arambhik abhidhatmak kavy-kritiyon se spasht hi bhinn hai. usi prakar 'jharana' aur 'ansoo' men bhavon ki gaharaee aur anubhootiyon ki yogyata ka svar prabal hai, kintu isaka tatpary yah kadapi nahin hai ki is dauran unhonne udbodhan-kavy likha hi nahin. 'yug tarun se', 'pravesh', 'senani' adi rachanaen udbodhan kavy ke antargat hi rakhi jayengi. unhonne rajanitik ghatanaon ko drishti men rakhakar shraddhanjalimoolak kavy bhi likha. 'sntosh' 'natoriyas vir', 'bandhan sukh' adi men ganeshashnkar vidyarthi ki madhur smritiyan hain to rashtriy jhande ki bhent men haradevanarayan sinh ke prati shraddha ka nivedan hai.

makhan lal chaturvedi ka dak tikat

chhayavad

paravarti kavy men adhyatmik rahasy ki dhara stuti aur prarthana ke adhyatmik dharatal ke utar kar sookshm rahasy aur bhakti ki apekshakrit adhik svabhavik bhoomi par bahati dikhaee padati hai. chhayavadi vyaktitv men virath ki bhavana ka pariparak hai to adhyatmik rahasy ki dhara men kisi agyat asim priyatam ke sath samip atma ka pranay-nivedan. prakriti aur adhyatmik rahasy ka yah naya alok chhayavadi kavi ki jivan drishti ka adhar hai. makhanalal ji ki rachanaon men bhi yah alok hai kintu isaka roop thoda bhinn hai. bhinn is arth men ki ve 'shyam' ya 'krishn' ki jis roopamadhuri se akrisht the, usako surakshit rakhate hue rahasy ke is kshetr men pravesh karana chahate hain. avyakt lok men bhi unhen 'bansuri' bhool nahin pati hai. isi karan makhanalal ki kavitaon men chhayavadi rahasy bhavana ka sagun madhura bhakti ke sath ek ajib samanvay dikhaee padata hai. unaka eeshvar (nirakar) itana nirakar nahin hai ki use ve nana nam roop dekar upalabdh n kar saken. ve khudi ko mitakar khuda dekhate hai isi karan unaki rachanaon men chhayavadi vaiyaktikata ka aikantik svar tivr nahin sunaee padata hai. ravindranath ki rahasyavadi bhavana ka prabhav un par spasht hai- 'chala too apane nabh ko chhod, pa gaya mujhamen tav akar.' athava 'are ashesh shesh ki god, ya mere 'main' hi men to udar teri apani hai chhupi har' adi kritiyon men agyat ke prati nivedan ka svar spasht hai, kintu radha ke muralidhar ko apana natavar kahane men ve kabhi nahin hichakate. unaka man jaise sagun roop men zyada rama hai vaise hi chhayavadi shaili apanane par bhi ve anand ko vyakt karate samay 'natavar' ke prem-atnk se apane ko mukt n kar sake.

vishesh mahattv

chhayavadi kavy men prakriti ek abhinav jivnt roop men chitrit ki gayi hai. makhanalal ji ki kavitaon men prakriti chitran ka bhi ek vishesh mahattv hai. madhy pradesh ki dharati ka unake man men ek vishesh akarshan hai. yah sahi hai ki kavi prakriti ke roop akrisht karate hain kintu usaka man doosari samasyaon men itana ulajha hai ki unhen prakriti men ramane ka avakash nahin hai. is karan prakriti unake kavy men uddipan banakar hi rah gayi hai, chahe rashtriy adh: patan se utpann glani men shasy-shyamala bhoomiki duravastha ko sochate samay, chahe bandikhane ke sikachon se janmabhoomi ko yad karate samay. chhayavadi kaviyon ki tarah prakriti men sab kuchh khojane ka inhen avakash hi n tha.

krishnarjun yuddh aur sahity devata

gady rachanaon men 'krishnarjun yuddh' aur 'sahity devata' ka vishesh mahattv hai. 'krishnarjun yuddh' apane samay ki bahut lokapriy rachana rahi hai. parasi natak kampaniyon ne jis dhng se hamari snskriti ko vikrit karane ka prayatn kiya, vah kisi prabuddh pathak se chhipa nahin hai. 'krishnarjun yuddh' shayad aise naty pradarshanon ka muhatod javab tha. gandharv chitrasen apane pramadajany kukrity ke karan krishn ke krodh ka patr bana. krishn ne doosari sandhya tak kshama n mangane par usake vadh ki pratigya ki. narad ko chitrasen ka aparadh chhota laga, dand bhari. unhonne prayatnapoorvak subhadra ke madhyam se arjun dvara chitrasen ki raksha ka pran kara liya. arjun aur krishn ke yuddh se srishti ka vinash nikat aya jan brahma adi ne daud-dhoop karake shanti ki sthapana ki. is pauranik natak ko bharatiy natay parampara ke anusar upasthit kiya gaya hai. yah abhineyata ki drishti se kafi sulajhi huee rachana kahi ja sakati hai. 'sahity devata' makhanalal ji ke bhavatmak nibandhon ka sngrah hai.

bhasha aur shaili

bhasha aur shaili ki drishti se makhanalal par arop kiya jata hai ki unaki bhasha badi bedaul hai. usamen kahin-kahin vyakaran ki avehana ki gayi hai. kahin arth nikalane ke lie dooranvay karana padata hai, kahin bhasha men kathor snskrit shabd hain to kahin bundelakhandi ke gramy prayog. kintu bhasha-shaili ke ye sare dosh sirph ek bat ki soochana dete hain ki kavi apani abhivyakti ko itana mahattvapoorn samajha hai ki use niyamon men hamesha abaddh rakhana unhen svikar nahin hua hai. bhasha- shilp ke prati makhanalal ji bahut sachesht rahe hain. unake prayog samany svikaran bhale hi n payen,unaki maulikata men sandeh nahin kiya ja sakata.

vidvanh tippani

  • sv. atrey ji ka kahana tha ki "dada (chaturvedi ji) ki kavita se parichay mujhe karavas men hua. 'dilli shadyntr kes' ke ek abhiyukt ke roop men dilli jel men lnbe din katate hue ek kapi men kavitaen utarakar rakhana shuroo kiya tha. kavita padhane men ruchi thi, par kitaben ek sath do-tin se adhik rakh nahin sakata tha. at: pasnd ki kavitaen kapi men nakal kar pustaken lauta kar nee pustaken mangata rahata tha. tabhi ek din chamatkrit-sa hokar dada ki chhoti-si nimn kavita padhi[5]-

‘chah nahin main surabala ke
keshon men goontha jaoon.
chah nahin, premi-mala men bindh
pyari ko lalachaoon.
chah nahin samraton ke shav par
he hari dala jaoon.
mujhe tod lena van mali,
us path men dena tum phenk,
matribhoomi par shish chadhane,
jis path javen vir anek.’- [6]

  • sv. daau. prabhakar machave ne tippani ki thi, jo makhanalal ji ke kavy-vyaktitv ko achchhi tarah ujagar karane men sahayak hai- "dada ka yug, vah yug tha, jab log prant, bhasha aur jati ke bhed bhulakar bali-pnthi hokar ate the. gandhi ji, tab kaha karate the ki batachit to ham log karate hain. bhashan makhanalal ji dete hain."
  • dada ke giton ki bat karate hue daau. shivamngal sinh ‘suman’ ka manana tha ki "ve unake giton ke diladada hain." udaharan men unhonne prastut kiya-

‘amar rashtr, unmukt rashtr,
udnd yah meri boli.
yah sudhar samajhauton vali,
mujh ko bhati nahin thitholi.’

‘suman’ ji ne to yah bhi kaha ki "unaki kavita prayatn-sadhy kabhi nahin rahi. unake svaron men kavidharm aur jivan-dharm ka samahar ho gaya tha. venu ke gunjan aur shnkh ke udghosh ki yah banagi svayn men bhi anany thi."

  • daau. nagendr ne bhi makhanalal chaturvedi ki kavitaon ke vishay men likha hai ki "unaki kavitaon men oj aur madhury avibhakt hain. oj to jaise kavi ke bhavon ki snkulata ko bhed kar phoot pada hai aur abhivyakti hai tir ki tarah sidhi, yatha[5]-

‘ladऩe tak mahaman
ek poonji hai tir-kaman.
mujhe bhoolane men sukh pati
jag ki kali syahi.
bndhan door kathin sauda hai
main hoon ek siyahi.
sir par pralay, netr men masti
mutthi men manachahi.
lakshy matr mera priyatam hai
main hoon ek siyahi.’[7]

  • bhale hi makhanalal ji ke kavy-vyaktitv ka moolyankan nahin hua. unhen bahut-so ne yatheshth manyata nahin di, parntu dadaji kisi dvndv se pidit nahin hue. koee kuntha unhen sata nahin paee aur tabhi shayad kah bhi diya-

‘kya akash utar
aya hai doobon ke darabar men,
nili bhoomi hari ho aee,
in kiranon ke jvar men.’

rachana ki lnbi yatra

rachana ki ek lnbi yatra makhanalal chaturvedi ne par ki thi. yon to inaki ni:sprih sahity sadhana aur vividh vishayak git 1904 se hi sahriday kavy-premiyon men lokapriy hone lage the, par pahala kavy-sngrah san 1942 men 'himatarngini' chhapa, 1957 men 'mata' nam se ek any pustak kavitaon ki prakash men aee. tab yug charan aur samarpan aur pashchath venu lo goonjadhara 1960 men prakashit hue. bad men gady giton ka sngrah 'sahity devata' aur nibndh tatha chnd kahaniyan 'amir irade-garib irade' ke nam se prakash men ae. ek natak ‘krishnarjun yuddh’ shirshak se bhi apane likha tha. jahir hai ki makhanalal chaturvedi ne ‘ek bharatiy atma’ kahalane ke nate apane lie navin path-rekha talashi thi, magar alochakon ne is or udasinata ka hi parichay diya. han, tab vidyanivas mishr ne apaki kavitaon ke rashtriy sootr kholate hue likha- "dhyan se dekhen to samajh men ata hai ki makhanalal ne bharat ko hi ek kavita ki shakl men rachane ki saphal koshish ki hai. 1914 men patni ke asamayik trasad nidhan par ashrupat karate hue apane likha tha- "bhaee chhedo nahin mujhe khulakar rone do/ yah patthar ka hriday asunon se dhone do." vidyanivas age jodate hain ki "dada jab vyakhyan dete to nissndeh himalay ki oonchaee, gnga-yamuna, narmada ki kalakal, karadhaniyon ke noopur ki jhnkar aur sagar ki uttal tarngon ke darshan unaki bhasha men hote the. bharat ki atma bolati thi vani men. yah vani aj bhi aprasngik nahin hai.[5]

mrityu

makhanalal chaturvedi ki mrityu 1968 ee. men huee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shaishav aur kaishaur' : makhanalal chaturvedi, prishth 58
  2. alekh: shikshak banam rashtrapati, lekhika daa krishn svaroop anandi, patrika: nee ajadi udghosh, pharavari 2014, prishth 8
  3. 'prabha', bhag 2, snkhya 7
  4. mnjumadhavi vritt (bhag 2, snkhya 8
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 makhanalal chaturvedi:main bali path ka angara hoon (hindi) dainik tribyoon. abhigaman tithi: 24 janavari, 2015.
  6. pushp ki abhilasha
  7. him kiritani se

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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