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chandradhar sharma guleri
Chandradhar-sharma-guleri.jpg
poora nam chandradhar sharma 'guleri'
janm 7 julaee, 1883
janm bhoomi guler ganv, kangada, himachal pradesh
mrityu 12 sitambar 1922
mrityu sthan kashi, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak pndit shivaram shastri aur lakshmidevi
karm bhoomi jayapur (rajasthan)
karm-kshetr yashasvi kathakar
mukhy rachanaen usane kaha tha, buddhoo ka kanta, d jayapur aaubzaravetari end its bildars adi.
bhasha snskrit, hindi, angrezi, pali, prakrit, marathi, bngala, laitin, frainch, jarman adi bhashaon ka gyan tha.
shiksha bi.e.
puraskar-upadhi nagari pracharini sabha ke sabhapati, anek pratishthit puraskar evn samman‎ se sammanit
prasiddhi unhen amar kahani ‘usane kaha tha’ ke rachanakar ke roop men adhik jana jata hai.
vishesh yogadan masik patr ‘samalochak’ ke sampadan
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

chandradhar sharma guleri (angrezi: Chandradhar Sharma 'Guleri, janm: 7 julaee, 1883; mrityu: 12 sitambar, 1922) hindi sahity ke prakhyat sahityakar the. bis varsh ki umr ke pahale hi unhen jayapur ki vedhashala ke jirnoddhar tatha usase sambandhit shodhakary ke lie gathit mandal men chun liya gaya tha aur kaiptan gairet ke sath milakar unhonne "d jayapur aaubzaravetari end its bildars" shirshak se angrezi granth ki rachana ki.

jivan parichay

moolatah himachal pradesh ke guler namak ganv ke vasi jyotirvid mahamahopadhyay pndit shivaram shastri rajasamman pakar jayapur (rajasthan) men bas ge the. unaki tisari patni lakshmidevi ne sanh 1883 men chandradhar ko janm diya. ghar men balak ko snskrit bhasha, ved, puran adi ke adhyayan, pooja-path, sndhya-vndan tatha dharmik karmakand ka vatavaran mila aur medhavi chandradhar ne in sabhi snskaron aur vidyaon atmasath kiya. jab guleri ji das varsh ke hi the ki inhonne ek bar snskrit men bhashan dekar bharat dharm mahamndal ke vidvanon ko ashcharyachakit kar diya tha. pndit kirtidhar sharma guleri ka yahan tak kahana tha ki ve panch varsh men angrezi ka tailigram achchhi tarah padh lete the. chandradhar ne sabhi parikshaen pratham shreni se uttirn ki. chandradhar bi.e. ki pariksha men sarvapratham rahe. sanh 1904 ee. men guleri ji meyo kaaulej, ajamer men adhyapak ke roop men kary karane lage. chandradhar ka adhyapak ke roop men unaka bada man-samman tha. apane shishyon men chandradhar lokapriy to the hi, isake sath anushasan aur niyamon ka ve sakhti se anupalan karate the. unaki asadharan yogyata se prabhavit hokar pndit madanamohan malaviy ne unhen banaras bula bheja aur hindoo vishvavidyalay men prophesar ka pad dilaya.[1] age chalakar unhonne angrezi shiksha bhi prapt ki aur pratham shreni men uttirn hote rahe. kalakatta vishvavidyalay se eph. e. (pratham shreni men dvitiy) aur prayag vishvavidyalay se bi. e. (pratham shreni men pratham) karane ke bad chahate hue bhi ve age ki padhaee paristhitivash jari n rakh pae, halanki unake svadhyay aur lekhan ka kram abadh roop se chalata raha. bis varsh ki umr ke pahale hi unhen jayapur ki vedhashala ke jirnoddhar tatha usase sambandhit shodhakary ke lie gathit mandal men chun liya gaya tha aur kaiptan gairet ke sath milakar unhonne "d jayapur aaubzaravetari end its bildars" shirshak angrezi granth ki rachana ki.


apane adhyayan kal men hi unhonne sanh 1900 men jayapur men nagari mnch ki sthapana men yog diya aur sanh 1902 se masik patr ‘samalochak’ ke sampadan ka bhar bhi snbhala. prasngavash kuchh varsh kashi ki nagari pracharini sabha ke sampadak mndal men bhi unhen sammilit kiya gaya. unhonne devi prasad aitihasik pustakamala aur soory kumari pustakamala ka sampadan kiya aur nagari pracharini pustakamala aur soory kumari pustakamala ka sampadan kiya aur nagari pracharini sabha ke sabhapati bhi rahe.


jayapur ke rajapandit ke kul men janm lene vale guleri ji ka rajavnshon se ghanishth sambandh raha. ve pahale khetadi naresh jayasinh ke aur phir jayapur rajy ke samant-putron ke ajamer ke meyo kaaulej men adhyayan ke dauran unake abhibhavak rahe. sanh 1916 men unhonne meyo kaaulej men hi snskrit vibhag ke adhyaksh ka pad snbhala. sanh 1920 men pn. madan mohan malaviy ke prabndh agrah ke karan unhonne banaras akar kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke prachyavidya vibhag ke prachary aur phir 1922 men prachin itihas aur dharm se sambaddh manindr chandr nandi pith ke prophesar ka karyabhar bhi grahan kiya. is bich parivar men anek dukhad ghatanaon ke aghat bhi unhen jhelane pade. sanh 1922 men 12 sitambar ko piliya ke bad tez bukhar se matr 39 varsh ki ayu men unaka dehavasan ho gaya.


is thodi-si ayu men hi guleri ji ne adhyayan aur svadhyay ke dvara hindi aur angrezi ke atirikt snskrit, prakrit, bangla, marathi adi ka hi nahin jarman tatha phrench bhashaon ka gyan bhi hasil kiya tha. unaki ruchi ka kshetr bhi bahut vistrit tha aur dharm, jyotish, itihas, puratattv, darshan bhasha vigyan shikshashastr aur sahity se lekar sngit, chitrakala, lokakala, vigyan aur rajaniti tatha samasamayik samajik sthiti tatha riti-niti tak phaila hua tha. unaki abhiruchi aur soch ko gadhane men spasht hi is vistrit patabhoomi ka pramukh hath tha aur isaka parichay unake lekhan ki vishayavastu aur unake drishtikon men barabar milata rahata hai. pn. chandradhar sharma guleri ke sath ek bahut badi vidambana yah hai ki unake adhyayan, gyan aur ruchi ka kshetr halanki behad vistrit tha aur unaki pratibha ka prasar bhi anek kritiyon, kritiroopon aur vidhaon men hua tha, kintu am hindi pathak hi nahin, vidvanon ka ek bada varg bhi unhen amar kahani ‘usane kaha tha’ ke rachanakar ke roop men hi pahachanata hai. is kahani ki prakhar chaundh ne unake baki vaividhy bhare sashakt kriti snsar ko mano gras liya hai. unake prabal prashnsak aur prakhar alochak bhi amooman isi kahani ko lekar ulajhate rahe hain. prachin sahity, snskriti, hindi bhasha samakalin samaj, rajaniti adi vishayon se judi inaki vidvata ka zikr yada-kada hota rahata hai, par ‘kachhua dharam’ aur ‘maresi mohi kuthaoon’ jaise ek do nibandhon aur purani hindi jaisi lekhamala ke ullekh ko chhodakar us vidvata ki banagi am pathak tak shayad hi pahunchi ho. vyapak hindi samaj unaki prakand vidvata aur sarjanatmak pratibha se lagabhag anajan hai.

karyakshetr

apane adhyayan kal men hi unhonne sanh 1900 men jayapur men nagari mnch ki sthapana men yogadan diya aur sanh 1902 se masik patr ‘samalochak’ ke sampadan ka bhar bhi snbhala. prasngavash kuchh varsh kashi ki nagari pracharini sabha ke sampadak mndal men bhi unhen sammilit kiya gaya. unhonne devi prasad aitihasik pustakamala aur soory kumari pustakamala ka sampadan kiya aur nagari pracharini pustakamala aur soory kumari pustakamala ka sampadan kiya aur nagari pracharini sabha ke sabhapati bhi rahe. jayapur ke rajapandit ke kul men janm lene vale guleri ji ka rajavnshon se ghanishth sambandh raha. ve pahale khetadi naresh jayasinh ke aur phir jayapur rajy ke samant-putron ke ajamer ke meyo kaaulej men adhyayan ke dauran unake abhibhavak rahe. sanh 1916 men unhonne meyo kaaulej men hi snskrit vibhag ke adhyaksh ka pad snbhala. sanh 1920 men pn. madan mohan malaviy ke prabndh agrah ke karan unhonne banaras akar kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke prachyavidya vibhag ke prachary aur phir 1922 men prachin itihas aur dharm se sambaddh manindr chandr nandi pith ke prophesar ka karyabhar bhi grahan kiya. is bich parivar men anek dukhad ghatanaon ke aghat bhi unhen jhelane pade.

akadamik, shodhaparak lekhan

apane 39 varsh ke snkshipt jivanakal men guleri ji ne kisi svatantr granth ki rachana to nahin ki kintu phutakar roop men bahut likha, anaginat vishayon par likha aur anek vidhaon ki visheshataon aur roopon ko sametate-samnjit karate hue likha. unake lekhan ka ek bada hissa jahan vishuddh akadamik athava shodhaparak hai, unaki shastrgyta tatha pandity ka parichayak hai; vahin, usase bhi bada hissa unake khule dimag, manavatavadi drishti aur samakalin samaj, dharm rajaniti adi se gahan sarokar ka parichay deta hai. lok se yah sarokar unaki ‘purani hindi’ jaisi akadamik aur ‘maharshi chyavan ka ramayan’ jaisi shodhaparak rachanaon tak men dikhaee deta hai. in baton ke atirikt guleri ji ke vicharon ki adhunikata bhi hamase aj unake puravishkar ki mang karati hai. matr 39 varsh ki jivan-avadhi ko dekhate hue guleri ji ke lekhan ka pariman aur unaki vishay-vastu tatha vidhaon ka vaividhy sachamuch vismayakar hai. unaki rachanaon men kahaniyan kathaen, akhyan, lalit nibandh, gambhir vishayon par vivechanatmak nibandh, shodhapatr, samikshaen, sampadakiy tippaniyan, patr vidha men likhi tippaniyan, samakalin sahity, samaj, rajaniti, dharm, vigyan, kala adi par lekh tatha vaktavy, vaidik/pauranik sahity, puratattv, bhasha adi par prabandh, lekh tatha tippaniyan-sabhi shamil hain.

rachanaen

nibndhakar ke roop men bhi chndradhar ji bade prasiddh rahe hain. inhonne sau se adhik nibndh likhe hain. sanh 1903 ee. men jayapur se jain vaidy ke madhyam se samalochak patr prakashit hona shuroo hua tha jisake ve snpadak rahe. inhonne poore manoyog se samalochak men apane nibndh aur tippaniyan dekar jivnt banae rakha. chndradhar ke nibndh vishay adhikatar - itihas, darshan, dharm, manovigyan aur puratattv snbndhi hi hain.

chndradhar sharma guleri ki rachanaen[1]
nibndh
  • shaishunak ki moortiyan
  • devakul
  • purani hindi
  • sngit
  • kachchhua dharm
  • ankh
  • moresi mohin kuthaoon
kavitaen
  • eshiya ki vijay dashami
  • bharat ki jay
  • venaauk barn
  • ahitagni
  • jhuki kaman
  • svagat
  • eeshvar se prarthana
kahani sngrah
  • usane kaha tha
  • sukhamay jivan
  • buddhu ka kanta

bhasha visheshgy

pratibha ke dhani chandradhar sharma guleri ne apane abhyas se snskrit, hindi, angrezi, pali, prakrit aur apabhrnsh bhashaon par asadharan adhikar prapt kiya. unhen marathi, bngala, laitin, frainch, jarman adi bhashaon ki bhi achchhi janakari thi. unake adhyayan ka kshetr bahut vistrit tha. sahity, darshan, bhasha vigyan, prachin bharatiy itihas aur puratattv jyotish sabhi vishayon ke ve vidvanh the. inamen se koee vishay aisa nahin tha, jis par guleri ji ne sadhikar likha n ho. ve apani rachanaon men sthal-sthal par ved, upanishad, sootr, puran, ramayan, mahabharat ke sndarbhon ka snket diya karate the. isilie in granthon se parichit pathak hi unaki rachanaon ko bhali-bhanti samajh sakata tha. granth rachana ki apeksha sphut ke roop men hi unhonne adhik sahity srijan kiya.[2]

shodhaparak lekhan

apane 39 varsh ke snkshipt jivanakal men guleri ji ne kisi svatantr granth ki rachana to nahin ki kintu phutakar roop men bahut likha, anaginat vishayon par likha aur anek vidhaon ki visheshataon aur roopon ko sametate-samnjit karate hue likha. unake lekhan ka ek bada hissa jahan vishuddh akadamik athava shodhaparak hai, unaki shastrgyta tatha pandity ka parichayak hai; vahin, usase bhi bada hissa unake khule dimag, manavatavadi drishti aur samakalin samaj, dharm rajaniti adi se gahan sarokar ka parichay deta hai. lok se yah sarokar unaki ‘purani hindi’ jaisi akadamik aur ‘maharshi chyavan ka ramayan’ jaisi shodhaparak rachanaon tak men dikhaee deta hai. in baton ke atirikt guleri ji ke vicharon ki adhunikata bhi hamase aj unake puravishkar ki mang karati hai. matr 39 varsh ki jivan-avadhi ko dekhate hue guleri ji ke lekhan ka pariman aur unaki vishay-vastu tatha vidhaon ka vaividhy sachamuch vismayakar hai. unaki rachanaon men kahaniyan kathaen, akhyan, lalit nibandh, gambhir vishayon par vivechanatmak nibandh, shodhapatr, samikshaen, sampadakiy tippaniyan, patr vidha men likhi tippaniyan, samakalin sahity, samaj, rajaniti, dharm, vigyan, kala adi par lekh tatha vaktavy, vaidik/pauranik sahity, puratattv, bhasha adi par prabandh, lekh tatha tippaniyan-sabhi shamil hain.

vishay-vastu ki vyapakata

vishay-vastu ki vyapakata ki drishti se guleri ji ka lekhan dharm puratattv, itihas aur bhashashastr jaise gambhir vishayon se lekar kashi ki nind jaise halake-phulake vishayon tak ko saman bhav se sametata hai. vishayon ka itana vaividhy lekhak ke adhyayan, abhiruchi aur gyan ke vistar ki gavahi deta hai, to har vishay par itani gaharaee se samakalin pariprekshy men vichar apane samay aur ne vicharon ke prati usaki sajagata ko rekhankit karata hai. raj jyotishi ke parivar men janme, hindoo dharm ke tamam karmakandon men vidhivath dikshit, tripundadhari nishthavan brahman ki chhavi se yah roodhibhnjak yatharth shayad mel nahin khata, magar us samajik-rajanitik-sahityik uttejana ke kal men unaka pratigami roodhiyon ke khilaf avaz uthana svabhavik hi tha. yah yad rakhana zaroori hai ki ve roodhiyon ke virodh ke nam par keval ankh moondakar talavar nahin bhanjate. khandan ke sath hi ve uchit aur upayukt ka mndan bhi karate hain. kintu dharm, samaj, rajaniti aur sahity men unhen jahan kahin bhi pakhand ya anauchity nazar ata hai, us par ve jamakar prahar karate hain. is kram men unaki vaicharik paradarshita, gaharaee aur dooradarshita isi bat se siddh hai ki unake uthae hue adhikatar mudde aur unaki alochana aj bhi prasngik hain. unake lekhan ki rochakata usaki prasngikata ke atirikt usaki prastuti ki anokhi bhngima men bhi nihit hai. us yug ke kee any nibandhakaron ki tarah guleri ji ke lekhan men bhi masti tatha vinod bhav ek antardhara lagatar pravahit hoti rahati hai. dharmasiddhant, adhyatm adi jaise kuchh ek gambhir vishayon ko chhodakar lagabhag har vishay ke lekhan men yah vinod bhav prasngon ke chunav men bhasha ke muhavaron men uddharanon aur uktiyon men barabar jhnkrit rahata hai. jahan alochana kuchh adhik bhedak hoti hai, vahan yah vinod vyngy men badal jata hai-jaise shiksha, samajik, roodhiyon tatha rajaniti sambandhi lekhon men isase guleri ji ki rachanaen kabhi gudagudakar, kabhi jhakajhorakar pathak ki ruchi ko bandhe rahati hain.


‘kheloge koodoge hoge kharab’ ki manyata vale yug men guleri ji khel ko shiksha ka sashakt madhyam manate the. bal-vivah ke virodh aur stri-shiksha ke samarthan ke sath hi aj se sau sal pahale unhonne balak-balikaon ke svasth charitrik vikas ke lie sahashiksha ko avashyak mana tha. ye sab aj ham shahari janon ko itihas ke rochak prasng lag sakate hain kintu poore desh ke sandarbh men, yahan phaile ashiksha aur andhavishvas ke mahaul men guleri ji ki baten aj bhi sngat aur vicharaniy hain. bharatavasiyon ki kamazoriyan ka ve lagatar zikr karate rahate hain-visheshakar samajik rajanitik sandarbhon men. hamare adhahpatan ka ek karan apasi phoot hai-

‘‘yah mahadvip ek doosare ko katane ko daudati huee billiyon ka pitara hai’’ (dinamineshan kaaulej : 1904)

jati-vyavastha bhi hamari bahut badi kamazori hai. guleri ji sabase man ki snkirnata tyagakar us bhavy karmakshetr men ane ka ahvan karate hain jahan samajik jati bhed nahin, manasik jati bhed nahin aur jahan jati bhed hai to kary vyavastha ke hit (varn vishayak katipay vichar : 1920).

chhuachhoot ko ve sanatan dharm ke viruddh manate hain. arthahin karmakandon aur jyotish se jude andhavishvason ka ve jagah-jagah zoradar khandan karate hain. keval shastramoolak dharm ko ve bahyadharm manate hain aur dharm ko karmakand se n jodakar itihas aur samajashastr se jodate hain. dharm ka arth unake lie

‘‘sarvajanik pritibhav hai’’ ‘‘jo sampradayik eershya-dvesh ko bura manata hai’’ (shri bharatavarsh mahamandal rahasy : 1906). unake anusar udarata sauhard aur manavatavad hi dharm ke pranatattv hote hain aur is tathy ki pahachan behad zaroori hai-‘‘ajakal vah udar dharm chahie jo hindoo, sikkh, jain, parasi, musalaman, kristan sabako ek bhav se chalavai aur inamen biradari ka bhav paida kare, kintu snkirn dharmashiksha...(adi) hamari bich ki khaee ko aur bhi chaudi banaenge.’’ (dinamineshanal kaaulej : 1904). dharm ko guleri ji barabar karmakand nahin balki achar-vichar, lok-kalyan aur jan-seva se jodate rahe.

khyati

chandradhar sharma guleri ki hindi sahity men sabase adhik khyati 1915 men ‘sarasvati’ masik men prakashit kahani ‘usane kaha tha’ ke karan huee. yah kahani shilp aur vishay-vastu ki drishti se aj bhi ‘mil ka patthar’ mani jati hai.[2]

mrityu

chandradhar sharma guleri ki mrityu 12 sitambar 1922 ee. men kashi men huee.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 chandradhar sharma guleri (hindi) hindi patal – hindi ki utkrisht rachanaon ka uttam sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 20 joon, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 liladhar, sharma bharatiy charit kosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: shiksha bharati, 264.

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