कहानी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kahani
snskrit men rachit 'pnchatntr'
vivaran 'kahani' gady lekhan ki ek vidha hai. yah gady katha sahity ka ek anyatam bhed tatha upanyas se bhi adhik lokapriy sahity ka roop hai.
vikas 1910 se 1960 ke bich.
mahattvapoorn tattv 'kathavastu', 'patr' athava 'charitr-chitran', 'kathopakathan' athava 'snvad', 'deshakal' athava 'vatavaran', 'bhasha-shaili' tatha 'uddeshy'.
paribhasha "kahani vah dhrupad ki tan hai, jisamen gayak mahaphil shuroo hote hi apani snpoorn pratibha dikha deta hai, ek kshan men chitt ko itane madhury se paripoorn kar deta hai, jitana rat bhar gana sunane se bhi nahin ho sakata." (premachnd)
any janakari yah kahana pramanik aur uchit hi hai ki bharat snsar ka pratham aur sarvashreshth kathapith raha hai. yah desh kahani ki janmabhoomi hai. vaidik katha sahity ke sath hi bharat bauddh aur jain kathaon ka bhi adi desh hai.

kahani hindi sahity men gady lekhan ki ek vidha hai. unnisavin sadi men gady sahity men ek nee vidha ka vikas hua, jise 'kahani' ke nam se jana gaya. bngala men ise 'galp' kaha jata hai. kahani gady katha sahity ka ek anyatam bhed tatha upanyas se bhi adhik lokapriy sahity ka roop hai. manushy ke janm ke sath hi sath kahani ka bhi janm hua aur kahani kahana tatha sunana manav ka adim svabhav ban gaya. isi karan se pratyek sabhy tatha asabhy samaj men kahaniyan paee jati hain. hamare desh men kahaniyon ki badi lnbi aur sampann parnpara rahi hai. vedon, upanishadon men varnit 'yam-yami', 'pururava-urvashi', 'saupanin-kadrav', 'sanatkumar-narad', 'gngavataran', 'shrring', 'nahush', 'yayati', 'shakuntala', 'nal-damayanti' jaise akhyan kahani ke hi prachin roop hain. 1910 se 1960 ke bich hindi kahani ka vikas jitani gati ke sath hua, utani gati kisi any sahityik vidha ke vikas men nahin dekhi jati. san 1900 se 1915 tak hindi kahani ke vikas ka pahala daur tha.

paribhasha

amerika ke kavi-alochak-kathakar 'edagar elin po' ke anusar kahani ki paribhasha is prakar paribhashit kiya ja sakata hai-

"kahani vah chhoti akhyanatmak rachana hai, jise ek baithak men padha ja sake, jo pathak par ek samanvit prabhav utpann karane ke liye likhi gee ho, jisamen us prabhav ko utpann karane men sahayak tatvon ke atirikh‍t aur kuchh n ho aur jo apane ap men poorn ho."
bharat ke upanyas samrat 'premachand' ne kahani ke pramukh lakshanon ko batate hue usaki paribhasha ki hai. unhonne likha hai
"kahani vah dhrupad ki tan hai, jisamen gayak mahaphil shuroo hote hi apani snpoorn pratibha dikha deta hai, ek kshan men chitt ko itane madhury se paripoorn kar deta hai, jitana rat bhar gana sunane se bhi nahin ho sakata."

hindi ke lekhakon men premachnd pahale vyakti the, jinhonne apane tin lekhon men kahani ke sambndh men apane vichar vyakt kie- "kahani (galp) ek rachana hai, jisamen jivan ke kisi ek ang ya kisi ek manobhav ko pradarshit karana hi lekhak ka uddeshy rahata hai. usake charitr, usaki shaili, usaka katha-vinyas, sab usi ek bhav ko pusht karate hain. upanyas ki bhanti usamen manav-jivan ka snpoorn tatha brihat roop dikhane ka prayas nahin kiya jata. vah aisa ramaniy udyan nahin, jisamen bhanti-bhanti ke phool, bel-boote saje hue hain, balki ek gamala hai, jisamen ek hi paudhe ka madhury apane samunnat roop men drishtigochar hota hai."

kahani ki aur bhi paribhashaen uddhrit ki ja sakati hain. par kisi bhi sahityik vidha ko vaigyanik paribhasha men nahin bandha ja sakata, kyonki sahity men vigyan ki sunishchitata nahin hoti. isalie usaki jo bhi paribhasha di jaegi, vah adhoori hogi.

mahattvapoorn tattv

kahaniyon men nimnalikhit tattv mahattvapoorn mane ge hain-

  1. 'kathavastu'
  2. 'patr' athava 'charitr-chitran'
  3. 'kathopakathan' athava 'snvad'
  4. 'deshakal' athava 'vatavaran'
  5. 'bhasha-shaili'
  6. 'uddeshy'

kahani ke dhanche ko kathanak athava kathavastu kaha jata hai. pratyek kahani ke liye kathavastu ka hona anivary hai, kyonki isake abhav men kahani ki rachana ki kalpana bhi nahin ki ja sakati. kathanak ke char ang mane jate hain- 'arambh', 'aroh', 'charam sthiti' evn 'avaroh'.

sarvashreshth kathapith 'bharat'

yah kahana pramanik aur uchit hi hai ki bharat snsar ka pratham aur sarvashreshth kathapith raha hai. yah desh kahani ki janmabhoomi hai. vaise yah kahana anuchit nahin hoga ki vishv ki samast arvachin, lupt-vilupt aur prachinatam sabhyataon ke niche se yadi kahaniyon ke adhar stambh hata diye jaen to sari sabhyataen bharabharakar kachchi mitti ki tarah gir padengi. sabhyataon ke astitv aur unaki snrachana ki pahachan ka ek mahattvapoorn srot bhi kahaniyan hi hain. kahani ke bina badi se badi manav sabhyata ke itihas ke shubharambh ko nahin jana ja sakata. yahan ki tak snsar ke adi granthon ki sari snrachana, kahaniyon par hi tiki huee hai. vaidik snhitaen (rigved, yajurved, samaved aur atharvaved) vishv-sahity ke prachinatam granth hain. inake daur men bhi kathaon, kinvadantiyon, mithak prasngon aur akhyanon ki kami nahin hai. pratyek vaidik devata kahani se hi janmata hai. vah kisi n kisi kahani ki hi den hai. sabhi sabhyataon ka yah saty hai. vah chahe ameriki adivasiyon ki ajatek-maya sabhyata rahi ho ya chin ki, misr ki, sumeri ya akkadi. bharatiy sabhyata to ved, brahman, puran, upanishad, mahabharat, ramayan adi ki asnkhy kahaniyon ka khajana hai, jisake dvara laukik aur alaukik jivan ke tathyon aur satyon ko roopayit kiya gaya. dharmagranthon ke jitane bhi alaukik prasng ya vivaran hain, ve to kahani ke bina poore hi nahin ho pate, yahan tak ki adhyatm aur darshan men bhi katha drishtanton ki mahattvapoorn upasthiti bani hi rahati hai.[1]

lok-kathapith

bharat men aj bhi lok-kathapithon ki kami nahin hai. yah lokakathaen hi sahity men bhi pahunchin, kyonki kahaniyon ka mool srot lokadharmi katha pratibha hi hai. vaidik katha sahity ke sath hi bharat bauddh aur jain kathaon ka bhi adi desh hai. jatak kathaen to aj bhi shrilnka, kambodiya, myanmar adi deshon men behad lokapriy hain aur bhagavan gautam buddh ke poorvajanmon ke ve vivaran rat-ratabhar baithakar sune aur sunaye jate hain. yah ramakatha ki hi tarah ghar-ghar men prachalit hain. isake alava jatak kathaon ka yah khajana duniya bhar men kahaniyon ka sabase bada kosh hai. 'pnchatntr' ki pashu-pakshi kathaen to snsar bhar men bemisal hain hi. yah kahaniyan matr lok smriti men hi maujood nahin hain balki inake drishy sanchi aur bharahut adi ke bauddh stoopon par bhi ankit hain.

manasarovar, premachnd ki kahaniyon ka snkalan

vaidik kathaen

vaidik kathaen to bahut prachin hain hi. abhi tak puran-kathaon, mahabharat aur ramayan ke rachana samay ka antim nirdharan nahin ho paya hai, par bauddh-kathaon ka samay eesa ke janm se panch sadi pahale se lekar eesa ke bad ki pahali aur doosari sadi tak phaila hua hai. mahavir svami aur gautam buddh samakalin hain. jain shraman sahity bhi kahaniyon se aplavit hai, par jain-kalin prakrit bhasha ke katha granth surakshit nahin rahe, jabaki bauddhakalin pali bhasha ke dhamm aur katha granth aj bhi kaphi-kuchh surakshit hain. vaidik, bauddh aur jain kathaon ka adan-pradan, len-den aur snvardhan bhi chalata raha hai. bauddh vidvanh bhadant anand kausalyayan ne jatak granthon ki jo tika likhi hai, usamen unhonne likha hai ki "prachin bauddh kathaon men se kee ek kahaniyan apane vikasit roop men mahabharat aur ramayan men milati hain." vaise kausalyayan ji ki sthapana ko vad-vivad ka vishay nahin banana chahie, par yah sahaj hi mana ja sakata hai ki kahaniyon ka len-den lagatar jari raha hai. yah matr snskrit, pali aur prakrit bhashaon ke bich hi jari nahin raha hai, balki kshetriy aur janapadiy boliyon aur bhashaon men to lok-kathaon ka len-den jari tha.[1]

dharm prachar men bhoomika

bauddh aur jain kathaon ne dharm ke prachar men badi bhoomika ada ki hai. yah kahaniyan adhikanshatah us samay ki hain, jab vaidik snskrit ka lop ho raha tha. yah pali, prakrit aur apabhrnsh bhashaon aur sahity ka uday kal tha. vaidik snskrit laukik snskrit men paryavasit ho chuki thi aur brahmanavadi vaidik dharm ke prati jan-sadharan vitarag ho chuka tha ya ho raha tha. laukik snskrit vikasit hoti pali aur prakrit ke samane nahin tik payi. vaidik samaj varnavadi brahmanon ke hathon men chala gaya, atah usaki samajik snrachana aur karyashreni vibhajan am janata ko ras nahin a raha tha. unake pauranik pravachan aur adhyatmik vimarsh logon ke sansarik jivan aur usaki samasyaon se virakt the. ary-adhyatmikata aur apane-apane para-jivan, eeshvar aur atma ke astitv ke prashn samaj ki samoohikata ko nakar kar vyakti ki niji vyaktivadita ko prashray de rahe the...varnavad ne jo shram-vibhajan ka siddhant pratipadit kiya tha, vah samaj men shram karane aur jine ke adhikar ke niyamon se adhik varn-vishesh ki varchasvata aur shreshthata ka pratipadan karata tha, atah jan-sadharan ki bahusnkhya vaidik puran, janmagat samajik shoshan ke siddhant, pakhand aur purohitavad se oobakar brahmanavadi ary vyavastha ki virodhi ho rahi thi.

vaidik snskrit ka avasan kal

snskrit, jise dev aur daivi bhasha mana jata tha, vah logon ke man se utar gayi thi. yah vaidik snskrit ka avasan kal tha. is samay bolachal ki badi sashakt bhashaen pali, prakrit aur apabhrnsh panap rahi thin. lagabhag samast bauddh sahity aur bhikshuon ke apasi vyavahar ki bhasha pali thi aur jain dharm aur shramanon ki bhasha prakrit! yahi karan hai ki bharatiy katha kathan aur katha rachana ki bhasha bhi mukhyatah pali aur prakrit ho gayi. pali men bauddhon ka lagabhag samast sahity racha gaya aur prakrit men jain tatha any sahity. bauddhon ka pali men likhit sahity ki tarah jain sampraday ka dharmik aur katha sahity prakrit men likha gaya. isamen bhi kahaniyon ka vipul bhandar hai. bauddh bhikshuon ki tarah jain sadhu bhi apane dharm-prachar ke lie door-door deshon men bhraman karate the. unake lie yah avashyak bhi tha. dharmon men snhitaon aur dharmik adeshon ke niyam maujood hain. jainiyon ke aise hi ek granth ‘brihatkalpabhashy’ men bataya gaya hai ki jain sadhu ko atmashuddhi ke lie tatha doosaron ko dharm men sthir karane ke lie lagatar janapad vihar karana chahie tatha janapad vihar karane vale sadhu ko magadh, malava, maharashtr, karnatak, gaud, dravid, vidarbh adi deshon ki bhasha men janasadharan ko upadesh dena chahie. use desh-desh ke riti-rivajon aur achar-vichar ka gyan hona chahie, jisase use hasyabhajan n banana pade. jahir hai ki in yatraon se kshetriy boliyon ka nishchay hi adan-pradan hua aur ek-ek kshetr ki lokoktiyon aur lokakathaon ki apasi samajikata bhi nishchay hi sthapit huee hogi.[1]

agam sahity

jain sahity ki prachinatam katha sampada 'agam sahity' ke nam se pahachani jati hai. yah kathaen paishachi-prakrit bhasha men likhi gayin. pali, prakrit aur laukik snskrit ke sammishran se banati apabhrnsh bhi tab maujood thi aur in bhashaon ka janasadharan men bahut prachalan tha. vaidik snskrit janasadharan ki bhasha nahin rah gayi thi. svayn vaidik brahman rachana to vaidik snskrit men karate the, par unaki bolachal ki bhasha pali ya prakrit hi thi. vaidik snskrit ko lekar janasadharan men bhashayi aruchi utpann ho chuki thi. isaka ek drishtant marathi shodhakarta daau. madhav muralidhar deshapande aur hindi vidvanh daau. rajamal bora ne pesh kiya hai-

"ek rajapootr ped ke niche baitha hua tha. us samay usane ek sambhashan[2] suna. vah ukt bhasha ke sambandh men tark karane laga. pratham to vah kahata hai ki sambhashan snskrit men nahin hai, kyonki snskrit to atyant durbodh bhasha hai aur kathin bhi hai, durjanon ke hriday sadrish kathor hai. yah sambhashan prakrit men bhi nahin hai, kyonki prakrit sajjanon ke hriday ki tarah sukhad rahati hai aur usamen prakriti ka sundar varnan rahata hai aur prakrit shabd snskrit jaise ek-doosare se sandhi se yukt nahin rahate. yah sambhashan apabhrnsh men bhi nahin hai, kyonki apabhrnsh men shuddh-ashuddh snskrit aur prakrit ka mishran rahata hai. vah to badh ane vale pani sadrish aniyantrit rahati hai kintu yah sambhashan to premi aur premika ki baton ke sadrish sundar hai. ye sambhashan in tinon prakar ki bhashaon men thik se baithata nahin isalie ise paishachi kahana adhik thik hoga. rajapootr ka nirnay tha ki yah sambhashan paishachi men hoga."

yadi bharatiy prakrit ko paishachi man liya jae to paishachi ka bhaugolik vistar chini turkistan tak manana padata hai. doosari or sindhu nadi ke tat tak to usaka vistar tha hi. sindhu nadi ke poorv men jamuna tak shauraseni ka vistar tha. is tarah paishachi, shauraseni ka snskar prapt kar rahi thi. udisa ke vidvanh bhashavidh markandey ke anusar paishachi ke tin pradhan bhed batalae gaye hain, unamen kaikey ke bad doosara bhed shauraseni paishachi ka hai. tisara bhed panchal paishachi ka hai. paishachi ko snskrit hi nahin, prakriton ke roopon se sambaddh manane ka prayatn vyakaran-granthon men kyon hue, isake karan bhasha-samudayon ke apasi sambandhon men khojane honge. eesa ki athavin sadi men jain sahityakar udyotan soori ne ‘kuvalayamala’ granth men prakrit ki katha di hai. us katha ka snkshipt vivaran daau. madhav muralidhar deshapande ne ‘snskrit ani prakrit bhasha’ (marathi granth) men diya hai. usamen ek katha snkalit hai, jisamen paishachi ka vishad ullekh hai. vishesh dhyan dene ki bat yah hai ki paishachi ko any bhashaon se alag batalaya gaya hai. gunadhy ki paishachi ko isi tarah alag mana gaya hai. prakriton men usaki ganana nahin hai.[1]

prakrit ke roopon ka jaisa samman hua hai, vah samman bhi paishachi ko nahin mila. peshavar, chini turkistan, eeran men jo samman paishachi ko mila, vah samman paishachi ko bharat men nahin mila. vishesh roop se gunadhy ke kal men use samman nahin mila. bad men vidvanh bhool gaye ki paishachi kaikey ki bhasha hai. ve use vindhyachal ke pas ki bhasha manane lage. pishach bhasha kahane lage. rajashekhar ne to use ‘bhoot-bhasha’ kah diya hai. yah sab kyon hua? jis paishachi bhasha ke madhyam se bauddh aur jain dharm ka vistar madhy eshiya ke deshon evn bhasha men hua, us bhasha ko bharat men anadekha kar diya gaya.

upanyas aur kahani

kahani akar men upanyas se chhoti hoti hai, lekin akar men chhota hona bhar kahani ko kahani nahin bana sakata. upanyas ka koee adhyay kahani nahin ho sakata aur n kahani upanyas ka koee adhyay. at: kahani upanyas ki jati ki hote hue bhi svatntr vidha hai. usake chhote hone ke karan lekhak ki prerana aur grahan ki gee jivan ki samagri men nihit snbhavana hoti hai. upanyas men jahan jivan ki sampoornata lekhak ka sarokar hai vahan kahani men koee ek bhav, ghatana ya charitr ka koee ek marmik prasng ka varnan hota hai. upanyas ki tarah jivan ke vibhinn prasngon ko kholate-goonthate hue vistar karane ki svatntrata kahani men nahin hoti. kahani ki moolabhoot visheshata ko premachnd ne bataya hai. unaka kahana hai ki-

jab tak ve kisi ghatana ya charitr men koee dramaee pahaloo nahin pahachan lete tab tak kahani nahin likhate.[3]
bharatakosh par upalabdh kahaniyan
shreni vriksh
lekh soochi
kahani


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 katha snskriti (hindi) archiv tude. abhigaman tithi: 08 navambar, 2014.
  2. apas ki batachit
  3. upanyas aur kahani (hindi) sahityalochan. abhigaman tithi: 25 faravari, 2013.

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