नौटंकी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nautnki ki ek jhalak

'svang' aur 'lila' ke saman hi nautnki bhi lok-naty ka pramukh roop hai. isaka prarambh mugal kal se pahale ka hai. rasalila ke saman isaka rngamnch bhi asthir, kamachalaoo aur niji hota hai. nautnki atynt hi lokapriy aur prabhavashali lokakala hai. yah lokakala janamanas ke man se bhitar tak judi huee hai. nautnki ko ganvon valon ke lie janakari pradan karane, samajik kuritiyon se parichit karane aur sasta kintu svasth manornjan ka gyanavardhak aur manornjak sadhan mana jata hai. uttar pradesh ke lagabhag sabhi bade shaharon - lakhanoo, agara, merath, varanasi, gazipur, jaunapur, ajamagadh, mirzapur, gorakhapur, baliya, mathura adi men darjanon nautnki aur thiyetar kampaniyan thin.

nautnki ka arth

nautnki, svang, bhagat pray: paryayavachi hain.

bhagat

vastut:bhagat shabd batata hai ki yah kabhi bhakti ki abhivyakti ka madhyam hogi, kintu aj bhagat men bhakti ka athava dharmik tattv ka sthan usake arambhik anushthanon men athava arambhik mngalacharan men rah gaya hai. arambhik anushthan men sadharanat: shaktipooja ke avashesh dikhaee padate hain.

svang

svang ke sath vah anushthan bhi nahin, keval arambhik sarasvati vandana milati hai. shesh svang ka dharmikata se samanyat: koee sambandh nahin rahata. svang ya bhagat moolat: sngitaroopak hai. isamen yon to koee bhi prasiddh lokakatha kheli ja sakati hai, par shrringar ras pradhan athava premagatha ki koti ki rachanaen hi pradhanata pati rahi hain. premalila athava romanch ka snsparsh kisi n kisi roop men hona hi chahie.

nautnki

nautnki men yon to koee bhi prasiddh lokakatha kheli ja sakati hai kintu shrringar ras pradhan athava premagatha ki koti ki rachanaen hi pradhanata pati rahi hain. premalila athava romanch ka snsparsh kisi n kisi roop men hona hi chahie. isi ko nautnki bhi kaha jata hai. nautnki moolat: kisi prem kahani keval nau tnk taulavali komalangi nayika hogi. vahi sngit-roopak men prastut ki gayi aur vah roop aisa prachalit hua ki ab pratyek sngit-roopak ya svang hi nautnki kaha jane laga hai. bharat muni ne naty shastr men jis sattak ko natak ka ek bhed mana hai, isake vishay men jayashnkar prasad aur hazari prasad dvivedi ka kahana hai ki sattak nautnki ke dhng ke hi ek tamashe ka nam hai.

svaroop

nautnki men chhote-chhote balak striyon ka vesh dharan karate hain aur unaka abhinay kiya karate hain. drishyon ke abhav men sootradhar mnch par akar drishyon ke ghatit hone ke sthan evn samay aur patron ke vishay men darshakon ko soochana diya karata hai. inaki kathaon ka sambandh pauranik akhyanon se n hokar laukik vir, pranayi, sahasik, bhakt purushon ke karyon se hota hai. unhin ka pradarshan inamen kiya jata hai. pnjab men 'gopichand', 'pooran bhakt' aur 'hakikataray' ka sngit atyadhik lokapriy hai. ek or simit matra men nrity, gayan, kavy path, katha-path, mook abhinay evn hasy ke dhagon se buni aitihasik, pauranik athava samasamayik vishay par kendrit katha-vastu ki lokashaili men prastuti, nautnki ki visheshata rahi, to doosari or bhasha, sngit, kastayoom evn charitr ki drishti se hindoo evn muslim snskriti ka samanvay isaka svaroop. nautnki evn nakal ka svaroop dharmanirapeksh raha to ramalila, rasalila ka dharmik.[1]

adhunik svaroop

aj nautnki ka roop badala hua hai. isaka rngamnch pray: uthaoo aur sadharan hota hai, jisaka nirman khule maidan men latthon, banson aur kapadon ki chadaron se kiya jata hai. darshakon ke lie door tak chandani tan di jati hai aur rngabhoomi bade-bade takhton se banayi jati hai. pray: ek parade ka vyavahar kiya jata hai, jo abhinetaon ke rng-bhoomi men ane par uthata hai aur unake chale jane par girata hai. kabhi-kabhi kary vyapar chalate samay patron ka pravesh nepathy athava maidan se darshakon ke bich se hokar ho jata hai. isaka prekshagrih itana bada banaya jata hai ki chandani ke niche saikadon darshak baith jaen aur n baith sakane par pas ke khule maidan ko upayog men laya jata hai. ab isamen anek drishy hone lage hain, kintu pratyek drishy ki kary ki soochana sootradhar hi deta hai. vahi prarambh men lila ya kahani ke lekhak, patr tatha katha adi ke vishay men darshakon ko soochana deta hai aur unamen unake prati utsukata tatha jigyasa utpann kar deta hai.

itihas

16vin shatabdi ke prasidhd itihasakar abul phazal ki aine akabari men nautnki ka ullekh milata hai. yah aitihasik tathy hai ki nautnki namak shahajadi ke nam par, ek git natay shahajadi nautnki ki apar lokapriyata ne is vidha ko nautnki nam diya. kuchh vidvanh yah manate hain ki natak se nataki evn nataki se nautnki nam pada. ek drishtikon yah bhi hai ki isaka tikat nautnki hone ke karan isaka nam nautnki nam pad gaya. kuchh vidvanh yah manate hai ki mathura-vrindavan ke bhagat evn ras evn rajasthan ki khyal lok vidha se hi nautnki ka janm hua. svang ya sngit evn uttar bharat ki ramalila jaisi any lok vidhaon ki lokapriyata kam nahin rahi, lekin apane vividh ayami svaroop ke karan nautnki ne jo lokapriyata prapt ki, vah akalpaniy hai. aitihasik drishti se nautnki vidha ke 5 akhade hain. muzaffaranagar, saharanapur, kasagnj, kanapur evn hatharas, kintu nautnki ke do vishesh akhade hi mahattvapoorn mane jate hain. hatharas, mathura, pashchimi uttar pradesh men evn kanapur, lakhanoo madhy uttar pradesh men.[2]

  • prasiddh natakakar aur kavi jayashnkar prasad aur hazari prasad dvivedi ka manana hai ki 'sattak' nautnki ke bhanti ek tamashe ka nam hai. prasad ne apane nibndh 'rngamnch' men nautnki ko natak ka apabhrnsh mana hai. prasad ka kahana hai ki 'nautnki prachin ragakavy ya gitikavy ki hi smriti hai.'
  • hazari prasad dvivedi ke matanusar, 'nautnki ka vartaman roop chahe jitana adhunik ho, usaki jaden badi gahari hain.'
  • ramababoo saksena ne apani pustak 'tarikh-e-adab-e-urdoo' men likha hai ki 'nautnki lokagiton aur urdoo kavita ke mishran se panapi hai.'
  • kalika prasad dikshit 'kusumakar' ka manana hai ki 'nautnki ka janm snbhavatah gyarahavin-barahavin shatabdi men hua tha.' 13vin shatabdi men amir khusaro ke prayatn se nautnki ko age badhane ka avasar mila. khusaro ne apani rachanaon men jis bhasha ka prayog kiya hai, vaisi hi bhasha aur unhin ke chhndon se milate-julate chhndon ka prayog nautnki men badhane laga.

kathanak

nautnki ka kathanak pranay, virata, sahasapoorn ghatanaon se bhara rahata hai. vah kisi lokaprasiddh vir ya sahasi ya bhagavat purush ki jivan katha par avalambit rahata hai.

snbndhit lokakatha

nautnki, bengalor

sngit pradhan lokanaty ke nautnki nam ke vishay men ek lok premakatha prachalit hai. aisa kaha jata hai ki pnjab ke syalakot ke raja rajosinh ke chhote bete phoolasinh ne shikar khelakar lautane par bhabhi se pine ke lie pani manga. bhabhi ne pani dene ke sthan par vyngy kiya - 'jao, multan ki rajakumari nautnki se shadi kar lo.' phoolasinh multan pahunch gaya aur shahi malin ke dvara nautnki ke pas ek har bhej diya. nautnki ke poochhane par malin ne kah diya- 'mere bhanje ki vadhoo ne yah har banaya hai.' nautnki ne jab use bhanje ki vadhoo ko bhejane ke lie kaha, to phoolasinh stri ke vesh men nautnki ke shayanakaksh men pahunch gaya. rat men sath sone ke kram men phoolasinh ka yah bhed khul gaya aur antatah donon ki shadi ho gee.

patr chitran

nautnki men anek stri-purush patr hote hain. stri-patron ka abhinay ya to vivahita ya kumari striyan karati hain athava veshyaen karati hain. veshyaen drishyant men mnch par akar apane nrity-gan, hav-bhav, mudraon se janata ka manornjan karati hain aur nepathy men abhinetaon ko roopasajja adi karane ka avakash deti hain.

sngit

rngabhoomi men ek or gayakon, vady vadakon ka samooh bhi rahata hai, jo abhinay, snvad, nrity ki tivrata, utkatata badhata rahata hai. tabala aur nagade ka vishesh prayog hota hai. tabale ke talon aur nagade ki chobon ki goonj rat men milon sunaee padati hai, jisake akarshan se sote hue gramin bhi nautnki dekhane pahunch jate hain.

hasy aur snvad snyojan

ruchi-vaichitry ke samadhan, svad ke parivartan aur shanti vyavastha banaye rakhane ke lie hasyapoorn prasngon ki yojana rahati hai, jisamen nari-purush ke roop men patr prahasan prastut karate hain. pray: snvad padyapradhan hote hain. abhineta mnch par darshakon ki or ja-jakar uttar-pratyuttar deten hain aur prashn karate hain. is prakar snvad pray: prashnottaratmak hote hain. unamen uttejana, sahas aur darpapoorn ukti ka bahuly aur prem-prasngon ka adhiky rahata hai. adhikatar kisi vir nayak ko pyar ke phans men phnsa dikhaya jata hai, jisake karan usaka patan ho jata hai.

upadeshapoorn ant

ant men parinam upadeshapoorn dikhaya jata hai. 'sultan dakoo' ki nautnki udaharan ke roop men li ja sakati hai. jahan bhaktacharit ko dikhaya jata hai, vahan bhakt ke marg men anek kathinaiyan dikhaee jati hain. ant men usaki vijay pradarshit ki jati hai. yadyapi nautnki ke samapt hone tak uddeshy prakat kar diya jata hai, tathapi sootradhar ant men phir mnch par akar bhalaee karane aur buraee se bachane, saty-dharm ke nibahane ki shiksha deta hai. prakash ki yojana adyant ek saman rahati hai. nautnki ke prarambh hone ka samay rat ke 8 baje se aur samapt hone ka samay prat: panch baje tak hai. kabhi-kabhi katha ke vistar ya jami huee bhid ke karan karyakram sooryoday tak chalata rahata hai.

nautnki ke lie uchit samay

pray: nautnki kartik, margashirsh athava chaitr, vaishakh ke mahinon men hua karati hai. melon ke avasaron par inaka vishesh ayojan hota hai. uttar pradesh ke melon ka nautnki abhinn ang hoti hai. isake atirikt saptahik bazaron men bhi nautnki hoti hain.

prasiddh nautnki

nautnki ki janmasthali uttar pradesh hai. hatharas aur kanapur isake pradhan kendr hai. uttar pradesh ke pashchimi zilon - farrukhabad, shahajahanpur, kanapur, eta, itava, mainapuri, merath, saharanapur adi men isaka vishesh prachar hai. udhar 'chibhuvan-mandali' ki nautnki vishesh prasiddh hai. gvaliyar ki nautnki bhi prakhyat hai. rasamandaliyon ke sadrish nautnki ki bhi mandaliyan hoti hain, jo ek sthan se doosare sthanon par ghoom-ghoomakar nautnki ke pradarshan kiya karati hain. nautnki gramin janata ki natyavrittiyon ka samadhan karane vale mukhy sadhanon men atyadhik mahattvashali hai. is par 'parasi thiyetaron' tatha 'natakiy rngamnch' ka vishesh prabhav hai. parantu aj chalachitr ke vyapak prasar se isaki vriddhi aur isake prabhav men antar a gaya hai.

chhnd

'nautnki', 'bhagat' athava 'svang' ka mukhy chhand chaubola hai. is chaubole ke do roop milate hain, ek chhoti tan ka, doosari lambi tan ka. pratyek chaubole ka arambh dohe se hota hai, jisaka antim charan kundaliya ki bhanti age ke chaubole se kundalit rahata hai.

rngamnch

isake sahakari vadyavrindon men 'nagada' anivary hai. bhagat ka rngamnch balliyon ke stambh banakar adami se oonchi bad bandhakar banata hai. badon ki ek aisi vithika banayi jati hai, jisake bich men sthan khali rahata hai. in badon par abhineta ek sthan se chalakar charon aur ghoom ata hai. har or use chaubola duharana padata hai. svang ka rngamnch sada hota hai. bhoomi se kuchh ooncha ek lambe-chaude takht jaisa charon or khula hota hai. prasiddh svangon men syahaposh, amarasinh rathaur, pooranamal, harishchandr adi gine jate hain.

bhasha

nautnki ki bhasha men hindi, urdoo, lokabhasha evn kshetriy boliyon ke shabdon ka adhik prayog hota hai. nautnki ke snvad gady aur pady donon men bole jate hain. patron ke anusar bhasha ka roop bhinn nahin hota. nautnki ki bhasha lakshanik na hokar saral aur subodh hoti hai. nautnki men baharetabil, chaubola, doha, lavani, soratha, daud adi chhndon ka vishesh roop se prayog kiya jata hai. nautnki ke sngit men nagade ka vishesh sthan hota hai. isake atirikt dholak, daph aur haramoniyam ka bhi prayog kiya jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hamari lok vidha nautnki (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2012.
  2. hamari lok vidha nautnki (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2012.

dhirendr, varma “bhag- 1 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 357, 358.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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