अमीर ख़ुसरो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

amir khusaro
Amir-Khusro.jpg
poora nam abul hasan yamin-uddin khusaro
any nam amir saifuddin khusaro
janm 1253 ee.
janm bhoomi eta, uttar pradesh
mrityu 1325 ee.
abhibhavak saifuddin aur daulat naz
karm bhoomi dilli
karm-kshetr sngitgy, kavi
mukhy rachanaen masanavi kiranusasadain, mallol anavar, shirin khusaro, majanoo laila, aeene-e-sikandari, hasht vihish
vishay gazal, khayal, kavvali, rubaee
bhasha braj bhasha, hindi, farasi
vishesh yogadan mridng ko kat kar tabala banaya, sitar men sudhar kie
any janakari hazarat nizam-udh-din auliya ke shishy rahe.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
amir khusaro ki rachanaen

amir khusaro (angrezi: Amir Khusrow; janm- 1253 ee., eta, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 1325 ee.) hindi khadi boli ke pahale lokapriy kavi the, jinhonne kee gazal, khayal, kavvali, rubaee aur tarana adi ki rachanaen ki thin.

jivan parichay

amir khusaro ka janm san 1253 ee. men eta (uttarapradesh) ke patiyali namak qasbe men gnga kinare hua tha. ve madhy eshiya ki lachan jati ke turk saifuddin ke putr the. lachan jati ke turk chngez khan ke akramanon se pidit hokar balaban (1266-1286 ee.) ke rajyakal men sharanarthi ke roop men bharat akar base the.

prarnbhik jivan

amir khusaro ki man daulat naz hindoo (rajapoot) thin. ye dilli ke ek rees ami imadulmulk ki putri thin. ami imadulmulk badashah balaban ke yuddh mantri the. ye rajanitik davab ke karan ne-ne musalaman bane the. islam dharm grahan karane ke bavajood inake ghar men sare riti-rivaj hinduon ke the. khusaro ke nanihal men gane-bajane aur sngit ka mahaul tha. khusaro ke nana ko pan khane ka behad shauq tha. is par bad men khusaro ne 'tambola' namak ek masanavi bhi likhi. is mile-jule gharane evn do paramparaon ke mel ka asar kishor khusaro par pada. ve jivan men kuchh alag hat kar karana chahate the aur vaqee aisa hua bhi. khusaro ke shyam varn rees nana imadulmulk aur pita amir saifuddin donon hi chishtiya soofi sampraday ke mahanh soofi sadhak evn snt hazarat nizamuddin auliya urf sultanul mashayakh ke bhakt athava murid the. unake samast parivar ne auliya sahab se dharmadiksha li thi. us samay khusaro keval sat varsh ke the. sat varsh ki avastha men khusaro ke pita ka dehant ho gaya, kintu khusaro ki shiksha-diksha men badha nahin ayi. apane samay ke darshan tatha vigyan men unhonne vidvatta prapt ki, kintu unaki pratibha balyavastha men hi kavyonmukh thi. kishoravastha men unhonne kavita likhana prarambh kiya aur 20 varsh ke hote-hote ve kavi ke roop men prasiddh ho gaye.

vyavaharik buddhi

janmajat kavi hote hue bhi khusaro men vyavaharik buddhi ki kami nahin thi. samajik jivan ki unhonne kabhi avahelana nahin ki. jahan ek or unamen ek kalakar ki uchch kalpanashilata thi, vahin doosari or ve apane samay ke samajik jivan ke upayukt kootanitik vyavahar-kushalata men bhi daksh the. us samay briddhijivi kalakaron ke lie ajivika ka sabase uttam sadhan rajyashray hi tha. khusaro ne bhi apana sampoorn jivan rajyashray men bitaya. unhonne gulam, khilaji aur tugalaq-tin afagan raj-vnshon tatha 11 sultanon ka utthan-patan apani ankhon se dekha. ashchary yah hai ki nirantar rajadarabar men rahane par bhi khusaro ne kabhi bhi un rajanitik shadyantron men kinchinmatr bhag nahin liya jo pratyek uttaradhikar ke samay anivary roop se hote the. rajanitik danv-pench se apane ko sadaiv anasakt rakhate hue khusaro nirantar ek kavi, kalakar, sngitgy aur sainik hi bane rahe. khusaro ki vyavaharik buddhi ka sabase bada praman yahi hai ki ve jis ashrayadata ke kripapatr aur sammanabhajak rahe, usake hatyare uttaradhikari ne bhi unhen usi prakar adar aur samman pradan kiya.

tabale ka avishkar

kaha jata hai ki tabala hazaron sal purana vadyayntr hai kintu navinatam aitihasik varnan men bataya jata hai ki 13vin shatabdi men bharatiy kavi tatha sngitgy amir khusaro ne pakhavaj ke do tukade karake tabale ka avishkar kiya.[1]

rajyashray

sabase pahale sanh 1270 ee. men khusaro ko samrath gayasuddin balaban ke bhatije, kada (ilahabad) ke hakim alauddin muhammad kulish khan (malik chhajjoo) ka rajyashray prapt hua. ek bar balavan ke dvitiy putr bugara khan ki prashnsa men qasida likhane ke karan malik chhajjoo unase aprasann ho gaya aur khusaro ko bugara khan ka ashray grahan karana pada. jab bugara khan lakhanauti ka hakim niyukt hua to khusaro bhi usake sath chale gaye. kintu ve poorvi pradesh ke vatavaran men adhik din nahin rah sake aur balavan ke jyeshth putr sultan muhammad ka nimantran pakar dilli laut aye. khusaro ka yahi ashrayadata sarvadhik susnskrit aur kala-premi tha. sultan muhammad ke sath unhen multan bhi jana pada aur mugalon ke sath usake yuddh men bhi sammilit hona pada.

bandi khusaro

is yuddh men sultan muhammad ki mrityu ho gayi aur khusaro bandi bana liye gaye. khusaro ne bade sahas aur kushalata ke sath bandi-jivan se mukti prapt ki. parantu is ghatana ke parinamasvaroop khusaro ne jo marasiya likha vah atyant hridayadravak aur prabhavashali hai. kuchh kuchh dinon tak ve apani man ke pas patiyali tatha avadh ke ek hakim amir ali ke yahan rahe. parantu shighr hi ve dilli laut aye.

nizamuddin auliya ke shishy

khusaro ki antim aitihasik masanavi 'tugalaq' namak hai jo unhonne gayasuddin tugalaq ke rajy-kal men likhi aur jise unhonne usi sultan ko samarpit kiya. sultan ke sath khusaro bngal ke akraman men bhi sammilit the. unaki anupasthiti men hi dilli men unake guru shekh nizamuddin mrityu ho gayi. is shok ko amir khusaro sahan nahin kar sake aur dilli lautane par 6 mas ke bhitar hi san 1325 ee. men khusaro ne bhi apani ihalila samapt kar di. khusaro ki samadhi shekh ki samadhi ke pas hi banayi gayi.

shekh nizamuddin auliya afagan-yug ke mahanh soofi sant the. amir khusaro ath varsh ki avastha se hi unake shishy ho gaye the aur sambhavat: guru ki prerana se hi unhonne kavy-sadhana prarambh ki. yah guru ka hi prabhav tha ki raj-darabar ke vaibhav ke bich rahate hue bhi khusaro hriday se rahasyavadi soophi sant ban gaye. khusaro ne apane guru ka mukt knth se yashogan kiya hai aur apani masanaviyon men unhen samrat se pahale smaran kiya hai.

unhonne svayn kaha hai-main hindustan ki tooti hoon. agar tum vastav men mujhase janana chahate ho to hindavi men poochho. main tumhen anupam baten bata sakoonga khusaro ko hindi khadi boli ka pahala lokapriy kavi mana jata hai. ek bar ki bat hai. tab khusaro gayasuddin tugalaq ke dilli darabar men darabari the. tugalaq khusaro ko to chahata tha magar hazarat nizamuddin ke nam tak se chidhata tha. khusaro ko tugalaq ki yahi bat nagavar guzarati thi. magar vah kya kar sakata tha, badashah ka mizaj. badashah ek bar kahin bahar se dilli laut raha tha tabhi chidhaqar usane khusaro se kaha ki hazarat nizamuddin ko pahale hi age ja kar yah sndesh de den ki badashah ke dilli pahunchane se pahale hi ve dilli chhod qar chale jaen.. khusaro ko badi taqalif huee, par apane sant ko yah sndesh kaha aur poochha ab kya hoga?

kuchh nahin khusaro! tum ghabarao mat. hanooj dilli doorast-yani abhi dilli bahut door hai. sachamuch badashah ke liye dilli bahut door ho gee. raste men hi ek padav ke samay vah jis kheme men thahara tha, bhaynkar andhad se vah toot-kar gir gaya aur phalasvaroop usaki mrityu ho gee. tabhi se yah kahavat "abhi dilli door hai" pahale khusaro ki shayari men aee phir hindi men prachalit ho gee. amir khusaro kisi kam se dilli se bahar kahin ge hue the vahin unhen apane khvaja nizamuddin auliya ke nidhan ka samachar mila. samachar kya tha? khusaro ki duniya lutane ki khabar thi. ve sannipat ki avastha men dilli pahunche, dhool-dhoosarit khanaqah ke dvar par khade ho ge aur sahas n kar sake apane pir ki mrit deh ko dekhane ka. akhirakar jab unhonne sham ke dhalate samay par unaki mrit deh dekhi to unake pairon par sar patak-patak kar moorchhit ho ge. aur usi besudh hal men unake honthon se nikala,

gori sove sej par mukh par dare kes.
chal khusaro ghar apane sanjh bhee chahun des..

apane priy ke viyog men khusaro ne snsar ke mohajal kat phenke. dhan-sampatti dan kar, kale vastr dharan kar apane pir ki samadhi par ja baithe-kabhi n uthane ka dridh nishchay karake. aur vahin baith kar pran visarjan karane lage. kuchh din bad hi poori tarah visarjit hokar khusaro ke pran apane priy se ja mile. pir ki vasiyat ke anusar amir khusaro ki samadhi bhi apane priy ki samadhi ke pas hi bana di gee.

rachanaen

dilli men pun: unhen mueejuddin kaikabad ke darabar men rajakiy samman prapt hua. yahan unhonne sanh 1289 ee. men 'masanavi kiranusasadain' ki rachana ki. gulam vnsh ke patan ke bad jalaluddin khilaji dilli ka sultan hua. usane khusaro ko amir ki upadhi se vibhooshit kiya. khusaro ne jalaluddin ki prashnsa men 'miphtolafatah' namak granth ki rachana ki. jalaluddin ke hatyare usake bhatije alauddin ne bhi sultan hone par amir khusaro ko usi prakar sammanit kiya aur unhen rajakavi ki upadhi pradan ki alauddin ki prashnsa men khusaro ne jo rachanaen ki ve abhootapoorv thin. khusaro ki adhikansh rachanaen alauddin ke rajakal ki hi hai. tugalaqanama amir khusaro dvara rachit antim kriti hai. 1298 se 1301 ee. ki avadhi men unhonne panch romantik masanaviyan-

  1. 'mallol anavar'
  2. 'shirin khusaro'
  3. 'majanoo laila'
  4. 'aeene-e-sikandari
  5. 'hasht vihisht'

ye pnch-gnj nam se prasiddh hain. ye masanaviyan khusaro ne apane dharm-guru shekh nizamuddin auliya ko samarpit kin tatha unhen sultan alauddin ko bhent kar diya. pady ke atirikt khusaro ne do gady-granthon ki bhi rachana ki-

  1. 'khazainul fatah', jisamen alauddin ki vijayon ka varnan hai
  2. 'ejazayekhusaravi', jo alnkaragranth hain. alauddin ke shasan ke antim dinon men khusaro ne devalarani khijrakhan namak prasiddh aitihasik masanavi likhi.

alauddin ke uttaradhikari usake chhote putr qutubaddin mubarakashah ke darabar men bhi khusaro sasamman rajakavi ke roop men bane rahe, yadyapi mubarakashah khusaro ke guru shekh nizamuddin se shatruta rakhata tha. is kal men khusaro ne noohasipahar nam granth ki rachana ki jisamen mubarakashah ke rajy-kala ki mukhy mukhy ghatanaon ka varnan hai. hindi men amir khusaro ne mukari lokakavy-roop ko sahityik roop diya.

hindi ki tooti

amir khusaro mukhy roop se farasi ke kavi hain. farasi bhasha par unaka apratim adhikar tha. unaki ganana mahakavi firadausi, shekh sadihq aur nizami faras ke mahakaviyon ke sath hoti hai. farasi kavy ke lality aur mardav ke karan hi amir khusaro ko 'hindi ki tooti' kaha jata hai. khusaro ka farasi kavy char vargo men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. aitihasik masanavi‌‌:- jisamen kiranusasadain, mifatolafatah, devalarani khizrakhan, noohasipahar aur tugalaqanama namaki rachanaen ati hain;
  2. romantik masanavi:-jisamen mataloo lanavar, shirin khusari, aeen-e-sikandari, majanoo-laila aur hasht vihasht gini jati hai;
  3. divan:- jisamen tuhf tum sigahar, vastulahayat adi granth ate hain;
  4. gady rachanaen:- 'ejazayekhusaravi' aur 'khazainulafatah tatha mishrit' – jisamen vedoolajaib' , 'masanavi shaharasub', 'chishtan' aur 'khalitabari' nam ki rachanaen pariganit hain.

yadyapi khusaro ki mahatta unake farasi kavy par ashrit hai, parantu unaki lokapriyata ka karan unaki hindavi ki rachanaen hi hain. hindavi men kavy-rachana karanevalon men amir khusaro ka nam sarvapramukh hai. arabi, farasi ke sath-sath amir khusaro ko apane hindavi gyan par bhi garv tha. unhonne svayn kaha hai- 'main hindustan ki tooti hoon. agar tum vastav men mujhase janana chahate ho to hindavi men poochho! main tumhen anupam baten bata sakoonga. "amir khusaro ne kuchh rachanaen hindi ya hindavi men bhi ki thin, isaka sakshy svayn unake is kathan men prapt hota hai-" jujave chand nazmen hindi nazare dostan karadan ast." unake nam se hindi men paheliyan, mukariyan, do sukhane aur kuchh gazalen prasiddh hain. isake atirikt unaka faras-hindi kosh 'khalikabari' bhi is prasng men ullekhaniy hai.

hindi kavitaen

durbhagy hai ki amir khusaro ki hindavi rachanaen likhit roop men prapt nahin hotin. lokamukh ke madhyam se chali a rahin unaki rachanaon ki bhasha men nirantar parivartan hota raha hoga aur aj vah jis roop men prapt hoti hai vah usaka adhunik roop hai. phir bhi ham nissandeh yah vishvas kar sakate hain ki khusaro ne apane samay ki khadi boli arthath hindavi men bhi apani paheliyan, mukariyan adi rachi hongi. kuchh logon ko amir khusaro ki hindi kavita ki pramanikata men sandeh hota hai. sv. prophesar sherani tatha kuchh any alochak vidvanh khalikabori ko bhi prasiddh amir khusaro ki rachana nahin manate. parantu khusaro ki hindi kavita ke sambandh men itani prabal lokaparampara hai ki usapar avishvas nahin kiya ja sakata. yah parampara bahut purani hai. 'araphatulasiti' ke lekhak takiohadijo 1606 ee. men jahangir ke darabar men aye the khusaro ki hindi kavita ka zikr karate hain. mirat ki 'mir' apane 'nikatusasvara' men likhate hain ki unake samay tak khusaro ke hindi git ati lokapriy the.[2] is sambandh men sandeh ko sthan nahin hai ki amir khusaro ne hindavi men rachana ki thi. yah avashy hai ki usaka roop samay ke pravah men badalata aya ho. avashyakata yah hai ki khusaro ne hindavi men rachana ki thi. yah avashy hai ki usaka roop samay ke pravah men badalata aya ho. avashyakata yah hai ki khusaro ki hindi-kavita ka yathasambhav vaigyanik sampadan karake usake prachinatam roop ko prapt karane ka yatn kiya jay. kavy ki drishti se bhale hi usamen utkrishtata n ho, sanskritik aur bhasha vaigyanik adhyayan ke lie usaka mooly nissandeh bahut adhik hai.

kuchh rachanaen

zihal-e miskin makun tagaful,
duraye naina banaye batiyan .
ki tab-e-hijaran nadaram ऎ jan,
n leho kahe lagaye chhatiyan ..
shaban-e-hijaran daraz choon zulf
va roz-e-vaslat cho umr kotah,
sakhi piya ko jo main n dekhoon
to kaise katoon andheri ratiyan ..
yakayak az dil, do chashm-e-jadoo
b sad farebam baburd taskin,
kise padi hai jo ja sunave
piyare pi ko hamari batiyan ..
cho shama sozan, cho zarra hairan
hamesha girayan, be ishq an meh .
n nind naina, na ang chaina
na ap aven, n bhejen patiyan ..
bahakk-e-roze, visal-e-dilabar
ki dad mara, garib khusarau .
sapet man ke, varaye rakhoon
jo jaye panv, piya ke khatiyan ..

chhap tilak sab chhini re mose naina milaike
prem bhati ka madava pilaike
matavari kar linhi re mose naina milaike
gori gori beeyan, hari hari choodiyan
beeyan pakad dhar linhi re mose naina milaike
bal bal jaoon main tore rng rajav
apani si rng dinhi re mose naina milaike
khusaro nijam ke bal bal jae
mohe suhagan kinhi re mose naina milaike
chhap tilak sab chhini re mose naina milaike॥

khusaro dariya prem ka, ulati va ki dhar,
jo utara so doob gaya, jo dooba so par.
sej vo sooni dekh ke rovun main din rain,
piya piya main karat hoon paharon, pal bhar sukh na chain॥

amir khusaro ne vaidyaraj khusaro ke roop men kavyatmak ghareloo nuskhe bhi likhe hain-

1. harad-baheda anvala, ghi sakkar men khae!
hathi dabe kankh men, sath kos le jae!!
 
2. maran chaho kaoo ko, bina chhuri bin ghav!
to vase kah dijiyo, doodh se poori khae!!
 
3. pratidin tulasi bij ko, pan sng jo khae!
rakt-dhatu donon badhe, namardi mit jay!!
 
4. mati ke nav patr men, triphala rain men dari!
subah-savere-dhoe ke, ankh rog ko hari!!
 
5. chana-choon ke-non din, chaunsath din jo khae!
dad-khaj-aroo sehuva-jari mool so jae!!
 
6. sau-dava ki ek dava, rog koee n ave!
khusaro-vako-sarir suhave, nit taji hava jo khave!![3]

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tabale ka itihas (angrezi), 6. abhigaman tithi: 1 joon, 2011.
  2. de. yoosuph husan: 'glimpsej av midival indiyan kalchar', pri. 195
  3. sabhar : pradip sharma, amir khusaro akadami, nee dilli

snbndhit lekh

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