दादू दयाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dadoo dayal
Dadu-Dayal.gif
janm snvath 1601 (sanh 1544 ee.)
janm bhoomi ahamadabad
mrityu snvath 1660 (sanh 1603 ee.)
abhibhavak lodiram aur basi baee
sntan putr- garibadas aur miskinadas, putriyan- nanibaee tatha matabaee
karm bhoomi gujarat
karm-kshetr samaj sudhakar kavy
mukhy rachanaen sakhi, pady, haradevani, angavadhoo
vishay dharmanirpesh, samaj sudharak
bhasha hindi, gujarati, rajasthani
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari bharat ke any bhakt aur snt ki tarah dadoo dayal ke jivan ke bare men bhi pramanik janakari ka abhav hai. inaka janm, mrityu, jivan aur vyaktitv kinvadantiyon, afavaho aur kapol-kalpanaon se dhaka hua hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

dadoo dayal (angrezi: Dadu Dayal, janm: 1544 ee.; mrityu: 1603 ee.) hindi ke bhaktikal men gyanashrayi shakha ke pramukh sant kavi the. inhonne ek nirgunavadi snpraday ki sthapana ki, jo 'dadoopnth' ke nam se gyat hai. ve ahamadabad ke ek dhuniya ke putr aur mugal samrath shahajahan (1627-58) ke samakalin the. unhonne apana adhikansh jivan rajapootana men vyatit kiya evn hindoo aur islam dharm men samanvay sthapit karane ke lie anek padon ki rachana ki. unake anuyayi n to moortiyon ki pooja karate hain aur n koee vishesh prakar ki veshabhoosha dharan karate hain. ve sirf ram ka nam japate hain aur shantimay jivan men vishvas karate hain, yadyapi dadoo pnthiyon ka ek varg sena men bhi bharti hota raha hai. bharat ke any bhakt aur snt ki tarah dadoo dayal ke jivan ke bare men bhi pramanik janakari ka abhav hai. inaka janm, mrityu, jivan aur vyaktitv kinvadantiyon, afavaho aur kapol-kalpanaon se dhaka hua hai. isaka ek karan yah hai ki ye snt am janata ke bich se ubhare the.

jivan parichay

dadoo peshe se dhuniya the aur bad men vah dharmik upadeshak tatha ghumakkad ban ge. vah kuchh samay tak sanbhar v anber aur antatah narayana men rahe, jahan unaki mrityu huee. ye sabhi sthan jayapur tatha ajamer (rajasthan rajy) ke asapas hai. unhonne vedon ki satta, jatigat bhedabhav aur pooja ke sabhi vibhedakari adnbaron ko asvikar kiya. isake badale unhonne jap (bhagavan ke nam ki punaravritti) aur atma ko eeshvar ki dulhan manane jaise mool bhavon par dhyan kendrit kiya. unake anuyayi shakahar aur madyatyag par zor dete hain aur sannyas dadoo pnth ka ek anivary ghatak hai. dadoo ke upadesh mukhyatah kavy sooktiyon aur eeshvar bhajan ke roop men hain, jo 5,000 chhndon ke sngrah men sngrahit hai, jise bani (vani) kaha jata hai. ye any snt kaviyon, jaise kabir, namadev, ravidas aur haridas ki rachanaon ke sath bhi kinchit parivartit chhnd sngrah pnchavani men shamil hain. yah grnth dadoo pnth ke dharmik grnthon men se ek hai. am janata ka vivaran am taur par kahin nahin milata. yahi karan hai ki in snton ke jivan ka pramanik vivaran hamen nahin milata. dadoo, raidas aur yahan tak ki kabir ka namollekh bhi us yug ke itihas-grnthon men yada-kada hi milata hai. snton ka ullekh unaki mrityu ke varshon bad milane lagata hai, jab unake shishy sngathit rajanitik-samajik shakti ke roop men ubhar kar ane lage the. itani upeksha ke bavajood, dadoo dayal un kaviyon men se nahin hain, jinhen bharatiy janata ne bhula diya ho. adhunik shodhakartaon ne anusndhan karake aise anek vismrit kaviyon ko khoj nikalane ka gaurav prapt kiya hai.

vibhinn maton ke anusar

  • chndrika prasad tripathi ke anusar atharah varsh ki avastha tak ahamadabad men rahe, chhah varsh tak madhy pradesh men ghoomate rahe aur bad men sanbhar (rajasthan) men akar bas gaye. yadi dadoo ka janm ahamadabad men hi hua tha, to ve sanbhar kab aur kyon aye. sanbhar ane se pahale unhonne kya kiya tha aur kahan-kahan bhraman kar chuke the. isaki pramanik soochana hamen nahin milati.
  • jan gopal ki 'parachi' ke anusar dadoo tis varsh ki avastha men sanbhar men akar rahane lage the. sanbhar nivas ke dinon ke bad ki unaki gatividhiyon ki thodi bahut janakari milati hai. sanbhar ke bad vah kuchh dinon tak amer men (jayapur ke nikat) rahe. yahan par abhi bhi ek 'dadoo dvara' bana hua hai.
  • kuchh logon ka kahana hai, dadoo ne fatehapur sikari men akabar se bhent ki thi aur chalis dinon tak adhyatmik vishayon ki charcha bhi karate rahe the. yadyapi aitihasik dastavezon men yah janakari upalabdh nahin hai. yah anuman ka vishay hai.[1] vaise akabar ne us yug ke anek dharmik bhakton aur snton se vichar-vimarsh kiya tha. kee hindoo snt bhi unase milane gaye the. sambhav hai unamen dadoo bhi ek rahe hon aur apane jivan kal men itane prasiddh n hone ke karan unaki or dhyan kendrit n kiya gaya ho. any snton ki tarah dadoo dayal ne bhi kafi desh-bhraman kiya tha. visheshakar uttar bharat, kashi), bihar, bngal aur rajasthan ke bhitari bhagon men lambi yatraen ki thin. ant men, ye narana, rajasthan men rahane lage, jahan unhonne apani ihalila samapt ki.

janm

snt kavi dadoo dayal ka janm phagun sudi ath brihaspativar snvath 1601 (sanh 1544 ee.) ko hua tha. dadoo dayal ka janm bharat ke rajy gujarat ke ahamadabad shahar men hua tha, par dadoo ke janm sthan ke bare men vidvanh ekamat nahin hai. dadoo pnthi logon ka vichar hai ki vah ek chhote se balak ke roop men (ahamadabad ke nikat) sabaramati nadi men bahate hue paye gaye. dadoo dayal ka janm ahamadabad men hua tha ya nahin, isaki pramanik janakari prapt karane ke sadhan ab hamare pas nahin hain. phir bhi itana to nishchit hai ki unake jivan ka bada bhag rajasthan men bita.

parivarik jivan

unake parivar ka sambandh rajadarabar se nahin tha. tatkalin itihas lekhakon aur sngrahakarttaon ki drishti men itihas ke kendr rajagharane hi hua karate the. dadoo dayal ke mata-pita kaun the aur unaki jati kya thi. is vishay par bhi vidvanon men matabhed hai. pramanik janakari ke abhav men ye matabhed anuman ke adhar par bane hue hain. unake nivaran ke sadhan anupalabdh hain. ek kinvadnti ke anusar, kabir ki bhanti dadoo bhi kisi kavanri brahmani ki avaidh santan the, jisane badanami ke bhay se dadoo ko sabaramati nadi men pravahit kar diya. bad men, inaka lalan-palan ek dhuniya parivar men hua. inaka lalan-palan lodiram namak nagar brahman ne kiya. achary parashuram chaturvedi ke matanusar inaki mata ka nam basi baee tha aur vah brahmani thi. yah kinvadnti kitani pramanik hai aur kis samay se prachalit huee hai, isaki koee janakari nahin hai. sambhav hai, ise bad men gadh liya gaya ho. dadoo ke shishy rajjab ne likha hai—

dhuni grabhe utpanno dadoo yogandro mahamuniah.
utrim jog dharann, tasmath kyn nyani karanamh.. [2]

pinjara ruee dhunane vali jati-vishesh hai, isalie ise dhuniya bhi kaha jata hai. achary kshitijamohan sen ne inaka sambandh bngal se bataya hai. unake anusar, dadoo musalaman the aur unaka asali nam 'daood' tha. dadoo dayal ke jivan ki janakari dadoo pnthi raghodas 'bhaktamal' aur dadoo ke shishy janagopal dvara rachit 'shri dadoo janm lila parachi' men milata hai. isake alava dadoo ki rachanaon ke antahsakshy ke madhyam se bhi, ham unake jivan aur vyaktitv ke bare men anuman laga sakate hain.

hindoo samaj men paramparagat roop se vyakti ka parichay usake kul aur usaki jati se diya jata raha hai. jat-pat ki vyavastha madhy kal men bahut sudridh thi. adhikansh nirgun snt kavi nichi samajhi jane vali jatiyon men hue the aur ve jat-pat ki vyavastha ke virodhi the. lekin unake apaman ka abhijat samaj jat-pat ka kattar samarthak tha. is kroor yatharth ko snt kavi janate the. phir bhi, unake man men apani jati sambandhi koee hin bhavana nahin thi. atah unhonne n to apani jati ko chhipaya aur n ise charam saty manakar hi poojate rahe. kee bar svayn inake jigyasu bhakt bhi yah poochh hi lete the ki maharaj, apaki jati kya hai.

aise jigyasu bhakton ko sambodhit karate hue dadoo ne likha-

dadoo kul hamare kesava, sagat sirajanahar.
jati hamari jagatagur, parameshvar parivar..
dadoo ek saga snsar men, jin ham sinraje soi..
manasa bacha kramanan, aur n dooja koee.. [3]

yahan dadoo ne apani vichar pranali ko vyakt karate hue kaha hai ki mere sachche sambandh to eeshvar se hain. aur isi sambandh se mera parichay hai. parivar men apane-paraye ki bhavana a jati hai. dadoo ise snsar ki 'maya' aur snsar ke 'moh' ki sngya dete hain. dadoo apane apako inase mukt kar chuke the, vah snsar men rahate hue bhi sansarik bndhanon ko kat chuke the. atah nirarthak jat-pat ki laukik bhasha men apana vastavik parichay kaise dete.

phir bhi, kee sthanon par unhonne spasht ullekh kiya hai ki ve ek pinjara hain. ek pad men unhonne likha hai—

kaun adami kamin vichara, kisakaun poojai garib pinjara..tek
main jan yek anek pasara, bhaujil bhariya adhik apara..1
ek hoi tau kahi samijhaoon, anek arujhai kyaun surajhaun..2
main haun nibal sabal e sare, kyaun kari poojaun bahut pasare..3
piv pukarau samajhat nahi, dadoo deshi disi jahi..4[4]

dadoo ne is pad men apane apako 'kamin' kahakar pukara hai. yah unhonne namratavash hi nahin kaha hai. balki savarnon dvara nichi samajhi jane vali jatiyon ke vyaktiyon ko pukare jane vale nam ko prakat kiya hai aur prakarantar se savarnon ki samajh ki apgyapoorvak ninda bhi kar di hai.
dadoo ne ek aur pad men kaha hai—

tahan mujh kamin ki kaun chalavai.
jaka ajahoon muni jan mahal n pavai..tek
syau virnchi narad muni gabe, kaun bhanti kari nikati bulavai..1
deva sakal tetisau kodi, rahe darabar thade kar jodi..2
sidh sadhak rahe lyau laee, ajahoon mote mahal n pai..3
savatain nich main nanv n jannan, kahai dadoo kyon mile sayana..4[5]

is pad men samajik snvedana aur adhyatmik anubhav ka mishran hua hai. dadoo eeshvar se milana chahata hai, lekin yah samaj badhak bana hua hai. eeshvar ki drishti men sabhi manushy barabar hon bhi to kya hota hai. samaj to mujhe sabase nich aur kamin kahakar hi pukarata hai. yahan eeshvar se n mil pane ki nirasha ke sath-sath samajik anyay se ahat hriday ka dard bhi abhivyakt ho gaya hai. is antah sakshy ke adhar par nissnkoch roop se yah kaha ja sakata hai ki dadoo pinjara the. brahman siddh karane vali kinvadntiyon ka janm bad men hua. vah musalaman the ya nahin, ya unhonne islam men nayi-nayi diksha le li thi, jisake karan unamen kuchh hindoo snskar bach ge the, par vah the musalaman hi. isaka koee praman nahin milata. sambhav hai, yah un par arop lagane ke lie kaha jata raha ho. nirgun snton ki varnashram virodhi chetana ke prabhav ko khatm karane ke lie un par islam ke prabhav ko pracharit kiya jata raha hai. islam choonki us yug ka raj-dharm tha, atah inako bhi tatkalin sattadhariyon se jodakar inake jan-adhar ko snkuchit karane ka prayas kiya gaya tha. aisa anuman isalie lagaya ja sakata hai kyonki yahi arop kabir par bhi lagaya gaya tha. unhonne apani rachanaon men hindoo aur turk donon ke margon ko galat bataya hai. unake shishy hindoo aur musalaman donon the. phir bhi, unake islam men dikshit ho jane ka koee tark-sammat karan nahin dikhayi deta.
dadoo ki patni kaun thi, aur usaka kya nam tha, isaki pramanik janakari nahin milati. inake garibadas aur miskinadas namak do putr aur nanibaee tatha matabaee nam ki do putriyan thin. kuchh vidvanh is bat se asahamat hain. unake anusar ye unake varad putr the. kuchh logon ke anusar ye unake shishy the. janagopal ke anusar dadoo tis varsh ki avastha men sanbhar men bas gaye aur do varsh ke bad, unake jyeshth putr garibadas ka janm hua.

dadoo ke guru

dadoo ne apani vani men guru ki mahima ka gan to bahut kiya hai, lekin unaka kahin nam nahin liya hai, jinake gyan ke prabhav se dadoo ka vyaktitv laukik badha-bndhanon ko kat saka. dadoo ne apani rachanaon men guru ki mahima ka vistar se bakhan kiya hai. atah yah janana bhi hamare lie avashyak hai ki inake guru kaun the. lekin is tathy ki pramanik janakari anupalabdh hai. jan gopal ki 'shri dadoo janm lila parachi' ke anusar gyarah varsh ki avastha men bhagavan ne ek buddh ke roop men darshan dekar inase ek paisa manga. phir inase prasann hokar inake sir par hath rakha aur inake sare sharir ka sparsh karate hue inake mukh men 'saras pan' bhi diya. dadoo pnthiyon ke anusar buddhan namak ek agyat snt inake guru the. jan gopal ke anusar bachapan ke gyarah varsh bit jane ke bad, inhen buddhe ke roop men guru ke darshan hue.
ve sakshar the ya nahin, isake bare men ab bhi sndeh bana hua hai. inake guru, jo ab tak agyat hain, yadi ve thode bahut sakshar rahe bhi hon to bhi itana nishchit hai ki inhonne dharm aur darshan ka adhyayan nahin kiya tha. unaki rachanaon ka vastugat vishleshan isaki pushti nahin karata ki unhonne dharm ka shastriy adhyayan kiya tha. any nirgun snton ki tarah inhen bhi satsng se dharm-adhyatm ka gyan mila tha. unhonne likha hai—

hari keval ek adhara, so taran tiran hamara..tek
na main pndit padhi guni janau, na kuchh gyan vichara..1
na main agam jontig jannau, na mujh roop singara..2[6]

yahan padh-likhakar pndit hone ka tatpary shastriy vidya se liya ja sakata hai. madhy yug men yah suvidha sirf savarnon ko mili huee thi. yahan ek taraf to un tathakathit savarnon ki sthiti par vyngy kiya gaya hai. doosari taraf shastriy gyan ke abhav ki kasak ko bhi snpreshit kiya gaya hai. dharm-shastron ke shastrgyon ne nishchay hi unake gyan ko chunauti di thi aur dadoo jaise shant svabhav ke snt ne is kami ko svikar kar liya—

agam mo pai janyau n jai, ihai vimasani jiyade mahi..[7]

yah bhi ek sarvasvikrit tathy hai ki apani rachanaon ka sngrah svayn dadoo dayal ne nahin balki unake shishyon ne kiya tha. isase bhi yah sndeh pusht hota hai ki shayad dadoo sakshar nahin the. bhaktikal ke in nirgun snton ki badi visheshata yah bhi thi ki inamen se adhikansh snt grihasth the. ve sansarik moh-maya ko tyagane ka upadesh dete the. lekin snsar ke tyag ka nahin. isaka tatpary yah hai ki snsar men rahate hue bhi snsar se oopar utha jae. snsar ka bahishkar karane vale to qayar hote hain. unhen mukti kaise mil sakati hai. sanbhar se hi dadoo dayal ki bhakti-sadhana arambh hoti hai. yahin se unhonne upadesh dene shuroo kie the aur yahin par unhonne 'par brahm sampraday' ki sthapana ki thi. jo dadoo ki mrityu ke bad 'dadoo pnth' kaha jane laga. dadoo ne apani rachanaon men apane parivar aur parivarik sthiti ka zikr kiya hai. unhonne likha hai—

dadoo roji ram hai, rajik rijak hamar.
dadoo us parasad saun, poshya sab parivar..[8]

dadoo sahib mere kapade, sahib mera pan.
sahib sir ka naz hai, sahib pynd parann..
sanee sat sntosh de, bhav bhagati besas.
sidak saboori sach de, mangai dadoo das..[9]

aisa lagata hai ki kisi jigyasu vyakti ne dadoo se sidha saval poochha tha ki apaka khana-pina kaise chalata hai. ap apane parivar ka bharan-poshan kaise karate hain. arthath apaki ay ke sadhan kya hain. yahan to charon taraf abhav hi abhav dikhaee de raha hai. is jigyasa ko shant karane ke lie dadoo ne kaha ki ram hi mera rozagar hai, vahi meri sampatti hai, usi ram ke prasad se parivar ka poshan ho raha hai. in pnktiyon se yah anuman sahaj hi lagaya ja sakata hai ki yahan par aishvary ka bolabala nahin, garibi ka samrajy hai. yah bat yahan rekhankit karane ke layaq hai ki dadoo ko apani garibi se koee shikayat nahin hai. ise sahaj jivan sthiti manakar unhonne svikar kar liya hai. garibi ki pida ka bodh aur usase utpann akrosh dadoo ki rachanaon men kahin bhi nahin milata. yahan kavi ram par nirbhar hai, kyonki laukik sthiti anishchit hai. jise eeshvar ne man ke garbh men bachche ke lie nau mahine tak bhojan pahuncha diya hai aur jisane jatharagni ke bich usaki komal kaya ko bachae rakha hai, vah ram n kabhi itana nirdayi ho sakata hai aur n itana ashakt hi ki vah vyakti ko is snsar men bhookh se mar dale. atah manushy ko khane-pine ki abhav ki hay-tauba nahin machani chahiye. dadoo ke anusar apane vyaktigat jivan ki chinta manushy ko nahin karani chahiye, svayn ram apane ap manushy ki chinata karata hai aur karega. dadoo ne ek sakhi men kaha hai—

dadoo hoonna tha so hoi rahh ya, aur n hovai ai.
lena tha so le rahh ya, aur n liya jai..[10]

dadoo ki in pnktiyon men samajik jivan bhi vyakt ho gaya hai. isase tatkalin rajy vyavastha men janata ki ashakti prakat hoti hai. vah manate hain ki apani chinta svayn karane se samasya ka samadhan nahin ho sakata. isaka phal hanikarak hai. atah dadoo kahate hain ki adami ko anutpadak chinta nahin karani chahiye. us yug ke bhakton aur snton ne yah anubhavaparak nishkarsh nikala tha ki adami ko apane bhojan-pani ki chinta nahin karani chahiye. vah to mil hi jayega. isase adhik sampatti snchit karane ki ichchha manushy ko nirantar kasht deti hai. vah sampatti snchay to nahin kar pata, ulte apane bhojan se hi hath dho baithata hai. atah sntosh dharan karake adami ko ram ka nam lete rahana chahiye. apane samay ke samaj ka sarvekshan karate hue dadoo ne kaha hai—

dadoo sab jag nidhana, dhanavnta nahin koee.
so dhanavnta janiy, jakai ram padarath hoee..[11]

isi samajik sthiti ko dhyan men rakhate hue snt kavi moolakadas ne kaha tha ki ajagar kisi ki chakari nahin karata aur pakshi koee bhi kam nahin karate. phir bhi unako ahar to milata hi hai. sab jivon ke data ram hain. atah manushy ko khane-pine ke lie apani atma ko giravi nahin rakhana chahiye.

nirgun snt

dadoo dayal ne apane poorvavarti nirgun snton ka nam bade adar aur samman ke sath liya hai. vishesh roop se unhonne namadev, kabir aur raidas ke prati agadh shraddha prakat ki hai. kabir to dadoo ke adarsh the. unhonne ek pad men likha—

anmrit ranm rasain piya, tathain amar kabira kiya..
ranm ranm kahi ranm samannan, jan raidas mile bhagavana..[12]

arthath kabir ne ram ras ka pan kiya tha, isase vah amar ho gaye. jan raidas ram ka nam lekar ram ke saman ho gaye. unake padon aur sakhiyon ka prabhav dadoo-vani par spasht dekha ja sakata hai. kee sakhiyan to thodi bahut her-pher ke bad kabir aur dadoo donon ke nam se prachalit hain. kabir ki rachanaon par bhi poorvavarti nathon aur siddhon ki rachanaon ka bahut gahara asar pada hai. atah inake sahity ko dekhakar yah nishchay poorvak nahin kaha ja sakata ki inaka kaun-sa pad maulik hai aur kaun-sa nahin.

dadoo ke shishy

dadoo ke jivan kal men hi unake anek shishy ban chuke the. unhen ek sootr men bandhane ke vichar se ek prithakh sampraday ki sthapana honi chahiye, yah vichar svayn dadoo ke man men a gaya tha. aur isalie unhonne sanbhar men 'par brahm sampraday' ki sthapana kar di thi. dadoo ki mrityu ke bad unake shishyon ne is sampraday ko 'dadoo pnth' kahana shuroo kar diya. arambh men inake kul ek sau bavan shishy mane jate rahe. inamen se ek sau shishy (bitaragi) the aur bhagavat bhajan men hi lage rahe. bavan shishyon ne ekant bhagavat-chintan ke sath lok men gyan ke prachar-prasar ka sngathanatmak kary karana bhi avashyak samajha. in bavan shishyon ke thanbhe prachalit hue. inake thanbhe ab bhi adhikatar rajasthan, pnjab v hariyana men hain. is kshetr men anek sthano par dadoo-dvaron ki sthapana ki gee thi. unake shishyon men garibadas, badhana, rajjab, sundaradas, janagopal adi prasiddh hue. inamen se adhikatar snton ne apani maulik rachanaen bhi prastut ki thin.
achary parashuram chaturvedi ne likha hai--

dadoo dayal ji ke dehant ho jane ke lagabhag sau varshon ke andar dadoo pnth ke anuyayiyon ki vicharadhara, vesh bhoosha, rahan-sahan tatha upasana pranali men kramashah nyoonadhik parivartan arambh ho gaya aur yah bat pradhan kendr tak men dikh padane lagi. narana ke mahanton ka jaitaram ji (sn0 1750-1789) se avivahit raha karana avashyak ho gaya, dadoo vani ko uchch sthan par padharakar usaka poojan arambh ho gaya. vidhivat arati evn bhajanon ka gan hone laga, svargiy sadaguru ke prati paramatmavad bhav pradarshit kiya jane laga tatha sampradayikata ke bhav men uttarottar vriddhi hoti chali gayi. jab tak dadoo dayal ji ke rajjab ji, sundaradas ji, banavaridas ji jaise shishy jivit rahe unaki mool baton ki or logon ka dhyan adhik akrisht raha. kintu inake bhi mar jane par jab prithak-prithakh thanbhon ki pratishtha ho chali aur ukt vichar dhara ka door-door tak prachar ho chala to, kuchh sthaniy visheshataon ke karan aur kuchh vyaktigat matabhedon ke bhi a jane se, upasampradayon tak ki srishti arambh ho gayi. dadoo mat ka maulik sarvabhaumaroop kramashah tirohit-sa hota chala gaya aur usaki jagah ek nyoonadhik 'hindoo dharm prabhavit pnth' nirmit ho gaya.

dadoo dayal ke virodhi

dadoo dayal ke jahan itane shishy aur samarthak the, vahan unake virodhi aur nindak bhi kam nahin the. dadoo dayal apane nindakon ko janate the. isalie ek pad men un par halka-sa vyngy kiya hai. usamen dadoo ne kaha hai ki nindak to mujhe bhaee ke saman priy hain, jo karodon karmon ke bndhan ko katata hai. jo svayn bhavasagar men doobakar bhi doosare ko bacha leta hai. vah unako yugon tak jivit rahane ka ashirvad bhi dete hain—

nyndak vava bir hamara, bin hi kaude vahe vichara..tek
karam koti ke kusamal katai, kaj savare binahi sate..1
apan boodai aur kaun tarai, aisa pritam par utare..2
jugi jugi jive nindak mora, ramadev tum karaun nihora..3
nyndak bapura par upagari, nadoo nyndya karen hamari..4[13]

doosari or dadoo ne apane shishyon ko upadesh diya hai ki ve paraninda n kiya karen, kyonki ninda to vah vyakti karata hai, jinake hriday men ram ka nivas nahin hai. dadoo ko bada ashchary hota hai ki log kaise nissnkoch roop se doosare ki ninda kar dete hain.

nyndat sab log vichara, hamakaun bhave ram piyara..
narasnsai nridosh rahataje, tasani kahat gaye re ye..
niravairi nihakami sadh, tasiri det bahut aparadh..
loha knchan ek saman, tasani kahain karat abhiman..
nynda stuti ek kari taule, tasaun kahain apavad hi bolen..
dadoo ninda takaun bhavain, jakai hirade ram n avain..[14]

dadoo ki rachanaon ka vastugat adhyayan karane se pata chalata hai ki unamen vad-vivad ki pravritti kam thi. unhonne khandan kam aur mandan adhik kiya hai. isase lagata hai ki unaka virodh ya to unaki anupasthiti men hota tha, jisaki janakari unhen bad men milati thi ya vah svayn itane shant svabhav ke the ki kisi vivad men ulajhe hi nahin. ninda-stuti ko unhonne samabhav se grahan kar liya tha. jo bhi ho, unhonne apane virodhiyon se bahas kam ki hai aur samarthakon ko salah zyada di hai.

pramukh upasampraday

kalantar men dadoo pnth ke panch pramukh upasampraday nirmit hue :-

  • khalasa
  • virakt tapasvi
  • utaradhen ya sthanadhari
  • khaki
  • naga

inake manane vale alag-alag sthanon par milate hain. inamen apas men thodi bahut mat bhinnata bhi payi jati hai. lekin sab upasampradayon men dadoo ke mahattv ko svikar kiya jata hai. snt dadoo dayal ke vibhinn smarakon ka ullekh karate hue achary parashuram chaturvedi ne likha hai-

snt dadoo dayal ke smarak roop vishisht sthanon men sarvapratham sthan karadala v kalyanapur prasiddh hai. jahan unhonne pahali bar kafi samay tak sadhana ki thi. is bat ka parichay dilane ke lie vahan unaki ek 'bhajan shila, vartaman hai. vahan par pahadi ke niche ki or ek dadoo dvara bhi bana diya gaya hai jise, usi karan mahattv diya jata hai. karadala ke atirikt sanbhar men bhi dadoo ji ki ek chhatari bani huee hai. jo unake rahane ki purani kutiya ka pratinidhitv karati hai aur pichhe vahan par ek vishal mandir bhi bana diya gaya hai. sanbhar ke anantar adhik samay tak unake nivas karane ka sthan amer samajha jata hai, jahan par ek sundar dadoo dvara nirmit hai. parantu in sabhi se adhik mahattv narane ko diya jata hai, jahan par abhi tak vah khejade ka vriksh bhi dikhalaya jata hai, jahan par ve baitha karate the. usi ke samip ek 'bhajanashala' hai, tatha ek vishal mandir bhi bana hua hai. yahan ka dadoo dvara sarvapratham mana jata hai. dadoo ji ka shav, jahan unaka dehant ho jane par, dal diya gaya tha, vah bharane ka sthan bhi unake antim smarak ke roop men vartaman hai. vahan par bhi ek chabootara bana diya gaya hai aur poora sthan 'dadoo khol' ke nam se bhi abhihit kiya jata hai. kahate hain ki yahin kahin par unake kuchh bal, toonba, chola tatha khadaoon bhi abhi tak surakshit hai. kalyanapur, sanbhar, amer, narana v bhairana 'pnchatirth' bhi mane jate hain.[15]

unake smarak ke roop men do mele bhi laga karate hain. inamen se ek narane men prati varsh phagun sudi panch se lekar ekadashi tak laga karata hai. jinamen prayah sabhi sthanon ke dadoo pnthi ikatthe hote hain. doosara mela bhairane men phagun krishn tin se phagun sudi tin tak chalata rahata hai.[16]

dadoo ki rachanaen

  • sakhi
  • pady
  • haradevani
  • angavadhoo

dadoo ne kee sakhi aur pady likhe hai. dadoo ki rachanaon ka sngrah unake do shishyon sntadas aur jaganadas ne 'haradevani' nam se kiya tha. kalantar men rajjab ne isaka sampadan 'angavadhoo' nam se kiya. dadoo ki kavita jan samany ko dhyan men rakhakar likhi gee hai, atev saral evn sahaj hai. dadoo bhi kabir ki tarah anubhav ko hi praman manate the. dadoo ki rachanaon men bhagavan ke prati prem aur vyakulata ka bhav hai. kabir ki tarah unhonne bhi nirgun nirakar bhagavan ko vaiyaktik bhavanaon ka vishay banaya hai. unaki rachanaon men islami sadhana ke shabdon ka bahut prayog hua hai. unaki bhasha pashchimi rajasthani se prabhavit hindi hai. isamen arabi-farasi ke kafi shabd ae hain, phir bhi vah sahaj aur sugam hai.

angavadhoo

dadoo dayal ki vani angavadhoo satik achary chandrika prasad tripathi dvara sampadit hai jo ajamer se prakashit huee hai. yah kee hastalipiyon ke anukaran ke adhar par sampadit ki gee hai. isi kram men rajjab ne inaki vani ko kramabaddh tatha alag-alag bhagon men vibhajit karake angavadhoo ke nam se inaki vaniyon ka snkalan kiya. angavadhoo men harade vani ki sabhi trutiyon ko door karane ka prayas parilakshit hota hai. angavadhoo ko 37 bhagon men vibhajit karane ka prayas hai. isi ke adhar par hi alag-alag vidvanon ne dadoo vani ko apane-apane dhng se sampadit kiya hai. 59 dadoo vani ko kee logon ne sampadit kiya hai. jinamen chandrika prasad, baboo baleshvari prasad, svami narayan das, svami jivannd, bharat bhikshu adi pramukh hain. sanh‌ 1907 men sudhakar dvivedi ne kashi nagari pracharini sabha se inaki rachanaon ko dadoo dayal ki bani ke nam se prakashit karavaya. inhonne isako do bhagon men vibhajit kiya hai. pahale khand men dohe tatha doosare men pad hai, jinhen rag-raginiyon ke sandarbhon men vargikrit kiya hai.

mrityu

dadoo dayal ki mrityu jeth vadi ashtami shanivar snvath 1660 (sanh 1603 ee.) ko huee. janm sthan ke sambandh men matabhed ki gunjaish ho sakati hai. lekin yah tay hai ki inaki mrityu ajamer ke nikat narana namak ganv men huee. vahan 'dadoo-dvara' bana hua hai. inake janm-din aur mrityu ke din vahan par har sal mela lagata hai. narana unaki sadhana bhoomi bhi rahi hai aur samadhi bhoomi bhi. is sthan ka paramparik mahattv aj bhi jyon-ka-tyon bana hua hai. dadoo pnthi snton ke lie yah sthan tirth ke saman hai. choonki inake janm-sthan ke bare men vishesh janakari nahin milati, atah dadoo-pnthi log bhi kisi sthan vishesh ki pooja nahin karate. ant men, ye narana (rajasthan) men rahane lage, jahan unhonne apani ihalila samapt ki. dadoo ki ichchhanusar unake sharir ko bhairana ki pahadi par sthit ek gufa men rakha gaya, jahan inhen samadhi di gayi. isi pahadi ko ab 'dadoo khol' kaha jata hai. jahan unaki smriti men ab bhi mela laga karata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

pustak sandarbh:- dadoo dayal, lekhak- ramabaksh, prakashak- sahity akadami

  1. doosari parampara ki khoj, pri. 55
    namavar sinh, rajakamal prakashan, nayi dilli, 1982
  2. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 3
  3. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 97
  4. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri.455
  5. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 470-471
  6. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 400
  7. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 469
  8. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 214
  9. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 215
  10. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 214
  11. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 25
  12. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 325
  13. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 453
  14. dadoo dayal grnthavali, pri. 477
  15. dadoo dayal grnthavali, bhoomika, pri. 12
  16. dadoo dayal grnthavali, bhoomika, pri. 12-13

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