रैदास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(रविदास se punarnirdeshit)
raidas
raidas
poora nam snt ravidas
any nam ramadas, guru ravidas, snt ravidas
janm 1398 ee. (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi kashi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 1518 ee.
abhibhavak ragghu aur ghuraviniya
karm bhoomi kashi
karm-kshetr kavi
vishesh yogadan samaj sudharak
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddh vaky man chnga to kathauti men gnga
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
raidas ki rachanaen

raidas (angrezi: Raidas) athava snt ravidas kabir ke samasamayik kahe jate hain. madhyayugin snton men raidas ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. at: inaka samay sanh 1398 se 1518 ee. ke as pas ka raha hoga. ant: sakshy ke adhar par raidas ka charmakar jati ka hona siddh hota hai-

'niche se prabhu anch kiyo hai kah raidas chamara'

jivan parichay

snt raidas kashi ke rahane vale the. inhen ramanand ka shishy mana jata hai parntu ant:sakshy ke kisi bhi srot se raidas ka ramanand ka shishy hona siddh nahin hota. inake atirikt raidas ki kabir se bhi bhent ki anek kathaen prasiddh hain parntu unaki pramanikata sandigdh hai. nabhadas krit 'bhaktamal'[1] men raidas ke svabhav aur unaki charitrik uchchata ka pratipadan milata hai. priyadas krit 'bhaktamal' ki tika ke anusar chittaud ki 'jhalarani' unaki shishya thin, jo maharana sanga ki patni thin. is drishti se raidas ka samay sanh 1482-1527 ee. (sn. 1539-1584 vi.) arthat vikram ki solahavin shati ke ant tak chala jata hai. kuchh logon ka anuman ki yah chittaud ki rani mirabaee hi thin aur unhonne raidas ka shishyatv grahan kiya tha. mira ne apane anek padon men raidas ka guru roop men smaran kiya hai -

'guru raidas mile mohi poore, dhurase kalam bhidi.
sat guru sain dee jab ake jot rali.'

raidas ne apane poorvavarti aur samasamayik bhakton ke sambandh men likha hai. unake nirdesh se gyat hota hai ki kabir ki mrityu unake samane hi ho gayi thi. raidas ki avastha 120 varsh ki mani jati hai.[2]

janm

madhyayugin snton men prasiddh raidas ke janm ke snbndh men pramanik janakari upalabdh nahin hai. kuchh vidvanh kashi men janme raidas ka samay 1482-1527 ee. ke bich manate hain. raidas ka janm kashi men charmakar kul men hua tha. unake pita ka nam 'ragghu' aur mata ka nam 'ghuraviniya' bataya jata hai. raidas ne sadhu-santon ki sngati se paryapt vyavaharik gyan prapt kiya tha. joote banane ka kam unaka paitrik vyavasay tha aur unhonne ise saharsh apanaya. vah apana kam poori lagan tatha parishram se karate the aur samay se kam ko poora karane par bahut dhyan dete the. unaki samayanupalan ki pravritti tatha madhur vyavahar ke karan unake sampark men ane vale log bhi bahut prasann rahate the.

vyaktitv

raidas ke samay men svami ramanand kashi ke bahut prasiddh pratishthit sant the. raidas unaki shishy-mandali ke mahattvapoorn sadasy the. prarambh men hi raidas bahut paropakari tatha dayalu the aur doosaron ki sahayata karana unaka svabhav ban gaya tha. sadhu-santon ki sahayata karane men unako vishesh sukh ka anubhav hota tha. vah unhen pray: mooly liye bina joote bhent kar diya karate the. unake svabhav ke karan unake mata-pita unase aprasann rahate the. kuchh samay bad unhonne raidas tatha unaki patni ko apane ghar se alag kar diya. raidas pados men hi apane lie ek alag jhopadi banakar tatparata se apane vyavasay ka kam karate the aur shesh samay eeshvar-bhajan tatha sadhu-santon ke satsng men vyatit karate the. kahate hain, ye anapadh the, kintu snt-sahity ke grnthon aur guru-grnth sahab men inake pad pae jate hain.

vachanabaddhata

unake jivan ki chhoti-chhoti ghatanaon se samay tatha vachan ke palan sambandhi unake gunon ka gyan milata hai. ek bar ek parv ke avasar par pados ke log gnga-snan ke lie ja rahe the. raidas ke shishyon men se ek ne unase bhi chalane ka agrah kiya to ve bole, 'gnga-snan ke lie main avashy chalata kintu ek vyakti ko aj hi joote banakar dene ka mainne vachan de rakha hai. yadi aj main joote nahin de saka to vachan bhng hoga. gnga snan ke lie jane par man yahan laga rahega to puny kaise prapt hoga? man jo kam karane ke lie ant:karan se taiyar ho vahi kam karana uchit hai. man sahi hai to is kathauti ke jal men hi gngasnan ka puny prapt ho sakata hai.' kaha jata hai ki is prakar ke vyavahar ke bad se hi kahavat prachalit ho gayi ki - 'man chnga to kathauti men gnga.'

snt raidas

shiksha

raidas ne oonch-nich ki bhavana tatha eeshvar-bhakti ke nam par kiye jane vale vivad ko sarahin tatha nirarthak bataya aur sabako paraspar mil jul kar premapoorvak rahane ka upadesh diya. ve svayn madhur tatha bhaktipoorn bhajanon ki rachana karate the aur unhen bhav-vibhor hokar sunate the. unaka vishvas tha ki ram, krishn, karim, raghav adi sab ek hi parameshvar ke vividh nam hain. ved, quran, puran adi granthon men ek hi parameshvar ka gunagan kiya gaya hai.

'krisn, karim, ram, hari, raghav, jab lag ek n pekha.
ved kateb quran, puranan, sahaj ek nahin dekha..'

unaka vishvas tha ki eeshvar ki bhakti ke lie sadachar, parahit - bhavana tatha sadavyavahar ka palan karana atyavashyak hai. abhiman tyag kar doosaron ke sath vyavahar karane aur vinamrata tatha shishtata ke gunon ka vikas karane par unhonne bahut bal diya. apane ek bhajan men unhonne kaha hai -

'kah raidas teri bhagati doori hai, bhag bade so pavai.
taji abhiman meti apa par, pipilak havai chuni khavai.'

unake vicharon ka ashay yahi hai ki eeshvar ki bhakti bade bhagy se prapt hoti hai. abhiman shoony rahakar kam karane vala vyakti jivan men saphal rahata hai jaise ki vishalakay hathi shakkar ke kanon ko chunane men asamarth rahata hai, jabaki laghu sharir ki 'pipilika' [3] in kanon ko saralatapoorvak chun leti hai. isi prakar abhiman tatha badappan ka bhav tyag kar vinamratapoorvak acharan karane vala manushy hi eeshvar ka bhakt ho sakata hai.

satsng

shaishavavastha se hi satsng ke prati unamen tivr abhiruchi thi. at: ramajanaki ki moorti banakar poojan karane lage the. pita ne kisi karanavash unhen apane se alag kar diya tha aur ve ghar ke pichhavade chhappar dalakar rahane lage. ye param sntoshi aur udar vyakti the. ve apane banaye huye joote bahudha sadhu-santo men bant diya karate the. inaki virakti ke sambandh men ek prasng milata hai ki ek bar kisi mahatma ne unhe 'paras' patthar diya jisaka upayog bhi usane bata diya. pahale to sant raidas ne use lena hi asvikar kar diya. kintu bar - bar agrah karane par unhonne grahan kar liya aur apane chhappar men khons dene ke liye kaha. terah din ke bad lautakar ukt sadhu ne jab paras patthar ke bare men poochha to snt raidas ka uttar tha ki jahan rakha hoga, vahin se utha lo aur sachamuch vah paras patthar vahin pada mila.[2]

saty

sant raidas ne saty ko anupam aur anivarchaniy kaha hai. vah sarvatr ek ras hai. jis prakar jal men tarnge hai usi prakar sara vishv usamen lakshit hota hai. vah nity, nirakar tatha sabake bhitar vidyaman hai. saty ka anubhav karane ke liye sadhak ko snsar ke prati anasakt hona padega. snt raidas ke anusar premamoolak bhakti ke liye ahnkar ki nivritti avashyak hai. bhakti aur ahnkar ek sath snbhav nahin hai. jab tak sadhak apane sadhy ke charanon men apana sarvasv arpan nahin karata tab tak use lakshy ki siddhi nahin ho sakati.

sadhana

sant raidas madhyayugin itihas ke snkraman kal men hue the. brahmanon ki paishavik manovritti se dalit aur upekshit pashuvat jivan vyatit karane ke liye badhy the. yah sab unaki manasikata ko udvelit karata tha. sant raidas ki samanvayavadi chetana isi ka parinam hai. unaki svanubhootimayi chetana ne bharatiy samaj men jagriti ka snchar kiya aur unake maulik chintan ne shoshit aur upekshit shoodro men atmavishvas ka snchar kiya. parinamat: vah brahmanavad ki prabhuta ke samane sahasapoorvak apane astitv ki ghoshana karane men saksham ho gaye. sant raidas ne manavata ki seva men apana sarvasv samarpit kar diya. sant raidas ke man men islam ke lie bhi astha ka saman bhav tha. kabir ki vani men jahan akrosh ki abhivyakti hai, vahin doosari or sant raidas ki rachanatmak drishti dono dharmo ko saman bhav se manavata ke mnch par lati hai. sant raidas vastut: manav dharm ke snsthapak the.

dharm

varnashram dharm ko samool nasht karane ka snkalp, kul aur jati ki shreshthata ki mithya siddhi sant raidas dvara apanaye gaye samanvayavadi manavadharm ka hi ek ang hai jise unhonne manavatavadi samaj ke roop men snkalpit kiya tha. janm jat mat poochhiye , ka jat aroo pat. ravidas poot sabh prabh ke kou nahi jat kujat॥

bhakti

upanishadon se lekar maharshi narad aur shandily ne bhakti tatv ki anek prakar se vyakhya ki hai. raidas ne bhakti men ragatmika vritti ko hi mahatv diya hai. nam marg aur prem bhakti unaki ashtang sadhana men hi hai. raidas ki ashtang sadhana padhdati unaki svatntr v svachhnd chetana ka pravah hai. yah sadhana poornat: maulik hai.

samaj par prabhav

raidas ke padachihn, medata, rajasthan

raidas ki vani, bhakti ki sachchi bhavana, samaj ke vyapak hit ki kamana tatha manav prem se ot-prot hoti thi. isalie unaki shikshaon ka shrotaon ke man par gahara prabhav padata tha. unake bhajanon tatha upadeshon se logon ko aisi shiksha milati thi jisase unaki shnkaon ka santoshajanak samadhan ho jata tha aur log svat: unake anuyayi ban jate the. unaki vani ka itana vyapak prabhav pada ki samaj ke sabhi vargon ke log unake prati shraddhalu ban gaye. kaha jata hai ki mirabaee unaki bhakti-bhavana se bahut prabhavit hueen aur unaki shishya ban gayi thin.

'varnashr abhiman taji, pad raj bndahijasu ki.
sandeh-granthi khandan-nipan, bani vimul raidas ki..'

rachanaen

raidas anapadh kahe jate hain. snt-mat ke vibhinn sngrahon men unaki rachanaen snkalit milati hain. rajasthan men hastalikhit grnthon men roop men bhi unaki rachanaen milati hain. raidas ki rachanaon ka ek sngrah 'belavediyar pres', prayag se prakashit ho chuka hai. isake atirikt inake bahut se pad 'guru grnth sahib' men bhi snkalit milate hain. yadyapi donon prakar ke padon ki bhasha men bahut antar hai tathapi prachinata ke karan 'guru grnth sahab' men sngrahit padon ko pramanik manane men koee apatti nahin honi chahie. raidas ke kuchh padon par arabi aur farasi ka prabhav bhi parilakshit hota hai. raidas ke anapadh aur videshi bhashaon se anabhigy hone ke karan aise padon ki pramanikata men sandeh hone lagata hai. at: raidas ke padon par arabi-farasi ke prabhav ka adhik snbhavy karan unaka lokaprachalit hona hi pratit hota hai.

mahatv

aj bhi sant raidas ke upadesh samaj ke kalyan tatha utthan ke lie atyadhik mahattvapoorn hain. unhonne apane acharan tatha vyavahar se yah pramanit kar diya hai ki manushy apane janm tatha vyavasay ke adhar par mahanh nahin hota hai. vicharon ki shreshthata, samaj ke hit ki bhavana se prerit kary tatha sadavyavahar jaise gun hi manushy ko mahanh banane men sahayak hote hain. inhin gunon ke karan sant raidas ko apane samay ke samaj men atyadhik samman mila aur isi karan aj bhi log inhen shraddhapoorvak smaran karate hain. snt kavi raidas un mahanh santon men agrani the, jinhonne apani rachanaon ke madhyam se samaj men vyapt buraiyon ko door karane men mahattvapoorn yogadan kiya. inaki rachanaon ki visheshata lok-vani ka adbhut prayog rahi hain jisase janamanas par inaka amit prabhav padata hai.

madhur evn sahaj snt raidas ki vani gyanashrayi hote hue bhi gyanashrayi evn premashrayi shakhaon ke madhy setu ki tarah hai. grihasthashram men rahate hue bhi raidas uchch-koti ke virakt snt the. unhonne gyan-bhakti ka ooncha pad prapt kiya tha. unhonne samata aur sadachar par bahut bal diya. ve khndan-mndan men vishvas nahin karate the. saty ko shuddh roop men prastut karana hi unaka dhyey tha. raidas ka prabhav aj bhi bharat men door-door tak phaila hua hai. is mat ke anuyayi raidasi ya ravidasi kahalate hain.

raidas ki vicharadhara aur siddhanton ko snt-mat ki parampara ke anuroop hi pate hain. unaka satyapoorn gyan men vishvas tha. unhonne bhakti ke lie param vairagy anivary mana jata hai. param tattv saty hai, jo anivarchaniy hai - 'yah paramatattv ekaras hai tatha jad aur chetan men saman roop se anusyoot hai. vah akshar aur avinashvar hai aur jivatma ke roop men pratyek jiv men avasthit hai. snt raidas ki sadhanapaddhati ka kramik vivechan nahin milata hai. jahan-tahan prasngavash snketon ke roop men vah prapt hoti hai.' vivechakon ne raidas ki sadhana men 'ashtang' yog adi ko khoj nikala hai. snt raidas apane samay ke prasiddh mahatma the. kabir ne sntani men ravidas snt' kahakar unaka mahattv svikar kiya isake atirikt nabhadas, priyadas, mirabaee adi ne raidas ka sasamman smaran kiya hai. snt raidas ne ek pnth bhi chalaya, jo raidasi pnth ke nam se prasiddh hai. is mat ke anuyayi pnjab, gujarat, uttar pradesh adi men paye jate hain.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhaktamal prishth sn. pri.452
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 hindi sahity kosh, bhag do, prishth sn. 539
  3. chinti

snbndhit lekh


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