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ramanaresh tripathi
Ram-Naresh-Tripathi.jpg
poora nam ramanaresh tripathi
janm 4 march, 1881
janm bhoomi jaunapur, uttar pradesh
mrityu 16 janavari, 1962
mrityu sthan prayag
abhibhavak pndit ramadatt tripathi
karm bhoomi prayag
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen milan, pathik, svapn, manasi, anveshan, he prabho anandadata.... adi.
vishay upanyas, natak, alochana, git, balopayogi pustaken
bhasha khadi boli, hindi, urdoo
puraskar-upadhi hindustan akadami puraskar
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

ramanaresh tripathi (angrezi: Ramnaresh Tripathi, janm- 4 march, 1881, koiripur, jaunapur, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 16 janavari, 1962, prayag) prakchhayavadi yug ke mahattvapoorn kavi the, jinhonne rashtraprem ki kavitaen bhi likhin. inhonne kavita ke alava upanyas, natak, alochana, hindi sahity ka snkshipt itihas tatha balopayogi pustaken bhi likhin. inaki mukhy kavy kritiyan hain- 'milan, 'pathik, 'svapn tatha 'manasi. ramanaresh tripathi ne lok-giton ke chayan ke lie kashmir se kanyakumari aur saurashtr se guvahati tak sare desh ka bhraman kiya. 'svapn' par inhen hindustan akadami ka puraskar mila.[1]

jivan parichay

"he prabho! anandadata gyan hamako dijie" jaisa preranadayi git rachakar, prarthana ke roop men skoolon men chhatron v shikshakon ki vani men base, mahakavi pndit ramanaresh tripathi sahity ke akash ke chamakile nakshatr the. ramanaresh tripathi ka janm zila jaunapur ke koiripur namak ganv men 4 march, sanh 1881 ee. men ek krishak parivar men hua tha. unake pita 'pndit ramadatt tripathi' param dharm v sadachar parayan brahman the. pndit ramadatt tripathi bharatiy sena men soobedar ke pad par rah chuke the, unaka rakt pndit ramanaresh tripathi ki ragon men dharmanishtha, kartavyanishtha v rashtrabhakti ki bhavana ke roop men bahata tha. unhen apane parivar se hi nirbhikata aur atmavishvas ke gun mile the. pndit tripathi ki prarambhik shiksha ganv ke praimari skool men huee. jooniyar kaksha uttirn kar haeeskool vah nikatavarti jaunapur zile men padhane ge magar vah haeeskool ki shiksha poori nahin kar sake. pita se anaban hone par attharah varsh ki ayu men vah kalakatta chale ge.

he prabho anandadata ki rachana

pndit tripathi men kavita ke prati ruchi prathamik shiksha prapt karate samay jagrat huee thi. vah kalakatta men snkramak rog ho jane ki vajah se adhik samay tak nahin rah sake. vah svasthy sudhar ke lie ek vyakti ki salah manakar jayapur ke sikar thikana sthit phatehapur gram men 'seth ramavallabh nevariya' ke pas chale ge. yah ek snyog hi tha ki maranasann sthiti men vah apane ghar parivar men n jakar sudoor aparichit sthan rajapootana ke ek ajanabi parivar men ja pahunche jahan shighr hi ilaj v svasthyaprad jalavayu pakar rogamukt ho ge. pndit tripathi ne seth ramavallabh ke putron ki shiksha-diksha ki zimmedari ko kushalatapoorvak nibhaya. is dauran unaki lekhani par man sarasvati ki meharabani huee aur unhonne “he prabho! anandadata..” jaisi bejod rachana kar dali jo aj bhi anek skoolon men prarthana ke roop men gaee jati hai.[2]

sahity sadhana ki shuruat

pndit tripathi ki sahity sadhana ki shuruat phatehapur men hone ke bad unhonne un dinon tamam chhote-bade balopayogi kavy sngrah, samajik upanyas aur hindi mahabharat likhe. unhonne hindi tatha snskrit ke sampoorn sahity ka gahan adhyayan kiya. pndit tripathi gyan evn anubhav ki snchit poonji lekar varsh 1915 men punyatirth evn gyanatirth prayag ge aur usi kshetr ko unhonne apani karmasthali banaya. unhonne thodi poonji se prakashan ka vyavasay bhi arambh kiya. pndit tripathi ne gady aur pady donon men rachanaen ki tatha maulikata ke niyam ko dhyan men rakhakar rachanaon ko anjam diya. hindi jagat men vah margadarshi sahityakar ke roop men avarit hue aur sare desh men lokapriy ho ge.

hindi ke pratham evn sarvotkrisht rashtriy khandakavypathik” ki rachana unhonne varsh 1920 men 21 din men ki. isake atirikt unake prasiddh maulik khandakavyon men “milan” aur “svapn” bhi shamil hain. unhonne bade parishram se 'kavita kaumudi' ke sat vishal evn anupam sngrah-grnthon ka bhi sampadan evn prakashan kiya. pndit tripathi kalam ke dhani hi nahin balki karmashoor bhi the. mahatma gandhi ke nirdesh par tripathi ji hindi sahity sammelan ke prachar mntri ke roop men hindi jagat ke doot banakar dakshin bharat ge the. vah pakke gandhivadi deshabhakt aur rashtr sevak the. svadhinata sngram aur kisan andolanon men bhag lekar vah jel bhi ge. pndit tripathi ko apane jivan kal men koee rajakiy samman to nahin mila par usase bhi kahi zyada gauravapad lok samman tatha akshay yash un par avashy barasa.[2]

svachchhandatavadi kavi

ramanaresh tripathi svachchhandatavadi bhavadhara ke kavi ke roop men pratishthit hue hain. inase poorv shridhar pathak ne hindi kavita men svachchhandatavad (romantisijm) ko janm diya tha. ramanaresh tripathi ne apani rachanaon dvara ukt parampara ko vikasit kiya aur sampann banaya. desh prem tatha rashtriyata ki anubhootiyan inaki rachanaon ka mukhy vishay rahi hain. hindi kavita ke mnch par ye rashtriy bhavanaon ke gayak ke roop men bahut lokapriy hue. prakriti-chitran men bhi inhen adabhut saphalata prapt huee hai.

kavy kritiyan

inaki char kavy kritiyan ullekhaniy hain-

  • 'milan' (1918 ee.)
  • 'pathik' (1921 ee.)
  • 'manasi' (1927 ee.)
  • 'svapn' (1929 ee.). inamen 'manasi' phutakar kavitaon ka sngrah hai aur shesh tinon kritiyan premakhyanak khandakavy hai.

khand kavy

ramanaresh tripathi ne khand kavyon ki rachana ke lie kinhin pauranik athava aitihasik katha sootron ka ashray nahin liya hai, varanh apani kalpana shakti se maulik tatha marmik kathaon ki srishti ki hai. kavi dvara nirmit hone ke karan in kavyon ke charitr bade akarshak hain aur jivan ke sanche men dhale hue jan padate hain. in tinon hi khand kavyon ki ek samany visheshata yah hai ki inamen deshabhakti ki bhavanaon ka samavesh bahut hi sarasata ke sath kiya gaya hai. udaharan ke lie 'svapn' namak khand kavy ko liya ja sakata hai. isaka nayak vasant namak navayuvak ek or to apani priya ke pragadh prem men lin rahana chahata hai, manoram prakriti ke krod men usake sahachary-sukh ki abhilasha karata hai aur doosari or samaj ka dukh-dard door karane ke lie rashtroddhar ki bhavana se andolit hota rahata hai. usake man men is prakar ka antardvand bahut samay tak chalata hai. antat: vah apani priya ke dvara prerit kiye jane par rashtr prem ko prathamikata deta hai aur shatruon dvara padakrant svedash ki raksha evn uddhar karane men saphal ho jata hai. is prakar ki bhavanaon se paripoorn hone ke karan ramanaresh tripathi ke kavy bahut dinon tak rashtrapremi navayuvakon ke kanthahar ban hue the.

prakriti chitran

ramanaresh tripathi apani kavy kritiyon men prakriti ke saphal chitere rahe hain. inhonne prakriti chitran vyapak, vishad aur svatntr roop men kiya hai. inake sahaj-manoram prakriti-chitron men kahin-kahin chhayavad ki jhalak bhi mil jati hai. udaharan ke lie 'pathik' ki do pnktiyan drashtavy hain-

“prati kshan nootan vesh banakar rng-virng nirala.
ravi ke sammukh thirak rahi hai nabh men varid mala”

bhasha

prakriti chitr hon, ya anyany prakar ke varnan, sarvatr ramanaresh tripathi ne bhasha ka bahut khyal rakha hai. inake kavyon ki bhasha shuddh, sahaj khadi boli hai, jo is roop men hindi kavy men pratham bar prayukt dikhaee deti hai. inamen vyakaran tatha vaky-rachana sambandhi trutiyan nahin milatin. inhonne kahin-kahin urdoo ke prachalit shabdon aur urdoo-chhandon ka bhi vyavahar kiya hai-

“mere lie khada tha dukhiyon ke dvar par too.
main bat johata tha teri kisi chaman men..
banakar kisi ke ansoo mere lie baha too.
main dekhata tujhe tha mashook ke badan men”..

kritiyan

upanyas tatha natak

ramanaresh tripathi ne kavy-rachana ke atirikt upanyas tatha natak likhe hain, alochanaen ki hain aur tika bhi. inake tin upanyas ullekhaniy hain-

  • 'viragnna' (1911 ee.),
  • 'virabala' (1911 ee.),
  • 'lakshmi' (1924 ee.)
naty kritiyan

tin ullekhaniy naty kritiyan hain-

  • 'subhadra' (1924 ee.),
  • 'jayant' (1934 ee.),
  • 'premalok' (1934 ee.)
rachanaain
anveshan

main dhoondhata tujhe tha, jab kunj aur van men.
too khojata mujhe tha, tab din ke sadan men॥
too 'ah' ban kisi ki, mujhako pukarata tha.
main tha tujhe bulata, sngit men bhajan men॥

mere lie khada tha, dukhiyon ke dvar par too.
main bat johata tha, teri kisi chaman men॥
banakar kisi ke ansoo, mere lie baha too.
ankhe lagi thi meri, tab man aur dhan men॥

baje bajabaja kar, main tha tujhe rijhata.
tab too laga hua tha, patiton ke sngathan men॥
main tha virakt tujhase, jag ki anityata par.
utthan bhar raha tha, tab too kisi patan men॥

bebas gire huon ke, too bich men khada tha.
main svarg dekhata tha, jhukata kahan charan men॥
toone diya anekon avasar n mil saka main.
too karm men magan tha, main vyast tha kathan men॥

tera pata sikndar ko, main samajh raha tha.
par too basa hua tha, pharahad kohakan men॥
krisas ki 'hay' men tha, karata vinod too hi.
too ant men hnsa tha, mahamud ke rudan men॥

prahalad janata tha, tera sahi thikana.
too hi machal raha tha, mnsoor ki ratan men॥
akhir chamak pada too gandhi ki haddiyon men.
main tha tujhe samajhata, suharab pile tan men.

kaise tujhe miloonga, jab bhed is qadar hai.
hairan hoke bhagavan, aya hoon main saran men॥
too roop kai kiran men saundary hai suman men.
too pran hai pavan men, vistar hai gagan men॥

too gyan hinduon men, eeman muslimon men.
too prem krishchiyan men, too saty hai sujan men॥
he dinabndhu aisi, pratibha pradan kar too.
dekhoon tujhe drigon men, man men tatha vachan men॥

kathinaiyon dukhon ka, itihas hi suyash hai.
mujhako samarth kar too, bas kasht ke sahan men॥
dukh men n har manoon, sukh men tujhe n bhooloon.
aisa prabhav bhar de, mere adhir man men॥[3]

he prabhu anndadata

he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye,
shighr sare durgunon ko door hamase kijie,

lijiye hamako sharan men, ham sadachari banen,
brahmachari dharm-rakshak vir vrat dhari banen,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

ninda kisi ki ham kisi se bhool kar bhi n karen,
eershya kabhi bhi ham kisi se bhool kar bhi n karen,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

saty bolen, jhooth tyagen, mel apas men karen,
divya jivan ho hamara, yash tera gaya karen,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

jaye hamari ayu he prabhu lok ke upakar men,
hath dalen ham kabhi n bhool kar apakar men,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

kijie ham par kripa aisi he paramatma,
moh mad matsar rahit hove hamari atma,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

prem se ham guru janon ki nity hi seva karen,
prem se ham snskriti ki nity hi seva karen,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...

yog vidya brahm vidya ho adhik pyari hamen,
brahm nishtha prapt kar ke sarv hitakari banen,
he prabhu anndadata gyan hamako dijiye...[4]

vah desh kaun-sa hai

man mohani prakriti ki god men jo basa hai.
sukh svarg-sa jahan hai vah desh kaun-sa hai..

jisaka charan nirntar ratanesh dho raha hai.
jisaka mukut himalay vah desh kaun-sa hai..

nadiyan jahan sudha ki dhara baha rahi hain.
sincha hua salona vah desh kaun-sa hai..

jisake bade rasile phal knd naj meve.
sab ang men saje hain vah desh kaun-sa hai..

jisamen sugndh vale sundar prasoon pyare.
din rat hns rahe hai vah desh kaun-sa hai..

maidan giri vanon men hariyaliyan lahakati.
anndamay jahan hai vah desh kaun-sa hai..

jisake annt dhan se dharati bhari padi hai.
snsar ka shiromani vah desh kaun-sa hai..[5]

any kritiyan

alochanatmak kritiyon ke roop men inaki do pustaken 'tulasidas aur unaki kavita' tatha 'hindi sahity ka snkshipt itihas' vicharaniy hain. tikakar ke roop men apani 'ramacharitamanas ki tika' ke karan smaran kiye jate hain. 'tis din malaviy ji ke sath' tripathi ji ki utkrisht snsmaranatmak kriti hai. inake sahityik krititv ka ek mahattvapoorn bhag sampadan karyon ke antargat ata hai. sanh 1925 ee. men inhonne hindi, urdoo, snskrit aur bangla ki lokapriy kavitaon ka snkalan aur sampadan kiya. inaka yah kary ath bhagon men 'kavita kaumudi' ke nam se prakashit hua hai. isi men ek bhag gram-giton ka hai. gram-giton ke snkalan, sampadan aur unake bhavatmak bhashy prastut karane ki drishti se inaka kary vishesh roop se ullekhaniy raha hai. ye hindi men is disha men kary karane vale pahale vyakti rahe hain aur inhen paryapt saphalata tatha kirti mili hai. 1931 se 1941 ee. tak inhonne 'vanar' ka sampadan tatha prakashan kiya tha. inake dvara sampadit aur maulik roop men likhit balakopayogi sahity bhi bahut adhik matra men upalabdh hai.

prasiddhi

ramanaresh tripathi ki prasiddhi mukhyat: inake kavi-roop ke karan huee. ye 'dvivediyug' aur 'chhayavad yug' ki mahattvapoorn kadi ke roop men ate hain. poorv chhayavad yug ke khadi boli ke kaviyon men inaka nam bahut adar se liya jata hai. inaka prarambhik kary-kshetr rajasthan aur ilahabad raha. inhonne antim jivan sultanapur men bitaya.

mrityu

ramanaresh tripathi ne 16 janavari, 1962 ko apane karmabhoomi prayag men hi antim sans li. pndit tripathi ke nidhan ke bad aj unake grih janapad sulatanapur men ek matr sabhagar sthapit hai jo unaki smritiyon ko taja karata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • pustak- hindi sahity kosh bhag-2, prishth- 516-517, lekhak- daau. dhirendr varma, prakashak- gyanamandal limited, varanasi
  1. ramanaresh tripathi (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) brand bihar. abhigaman tithi: 10 faravari, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 ramanaresh tripathi (hindi) (ech ti em el) kavita kosh. abhigaman tithi: 18 aprail, 2011.
  3. ramanaresh tripathi (hindi) kavyalay. abhigaman tithi: 18 aprail, 2011.
  4. ramanaresh tripathi (hindi) (ech ti em el) satsng paauint. abhigaman tithi: 18 aprail, 2011.
  5. ramanaresh tripathi (hindi) (ech ti em) anubhooti. abhigaman tithi: 18 aprail, 2011.

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