मलिक मुहम्मद जायसी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

malik muhammad jayasi
Jayasi.jpg
poora nam malik muhammad jayasi
any nam jayasi
janm san 1397 ee॰ aur 1494 ee॰ ke bich
janm bhoomi rayabareli zila, uttar pradesh
mrityu '5 rajjab 949 hijari' (san 1542 ee.)
abhibhavak malik raje asharaf
mukhy rachanaen padmavat, akharavat, akhiri kalam, chitrarekha, kaharanama aadi
bhasha avadhi
chhnd doha-chaupaee
shaili alnkarik shaili, pratikatmak shaili, shabd chitratmak shaili tatha atishayokti-pradhan shaili
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

malik muhammad jayasi (angrezi: Malik Muhammad Jayasi, janm- 1397 ee॰ aur 1494 ee॰ ke bich, mrityu- 1542 ee.) bhaktikal ki nirgun premashrayi shakha v malik vnsh ke kavi hai. jayasi atynt uchchakoti ke saral aur udar soofi mahatma the. hindi ke prasiddh soofi kavi, jinake lie keval 'jayasi' shabd ka prayog bhi, unake upanam ki bhanti, kiya jata hai. yah is bat ko bhi soochit karata hai ki ve jayas nagar ke nivasi the. is snbndh men unaka svayn bhi kahana hai,

jayas nagar mor asthanoo.
nagarak nanv adi udayanoo.
tahan devas das pahune aeoon.
bha vairag bahut sukh paeoon॥[1]

isase yah bhi pata chalata hai ki us nagar ka prachin nam 'udayan' tha, vahan ve ek 'pahune' jaise das dinon ke lie aye the, arthath unhonne apana nashvar jivan prarnbh kiya tha athava janm liya tha aur phir vairagy ho jane par vahan unhen bahut sukh mila tha.

janm

jayas nam ka ek nagar uttar pradesh ke rayabareli zile men aj bhi vartaman hai, jisaka purana nam 'udyan nagar' 'udyanagar' ya 'ujjalik nagar' batalaya jata hai tatha usake 'knchana khurd' namak muhalle men malik muhammad jayasi ka janm sthan hona kaha jata hai. kuchh logon ki dharana hai ki jayasi ki janm bhoomi gajipur men kahin ho sakati hai kintu isake lie koee praman nahin milata. jayas ke vishay men kavi ne anyatr bhi kaha hai,

jayas nagar dharam asthanoo.
tahavan yah kavi kinh bakhanoo.[2]

isase jan padata hai ki vah us nagar ko 'dharm ka sthan' samajhata tha aur vahan rahakar usane apane kavy 'padmavat' ki rachana ki thi. yahan par nagar ka 'dharm sthan' hona kadachit yah bhi soochit karata hai ki janashruti ke anusar vahan upanishadakalin uddalak muni ka koee ashram tha. garsan d tasi namak french lekhak ka to yah bhi kahana hai ki jayasi ko pray: 'jayasidas' ke nam se abhihit kiya jata raha hai.

janm ko lekar matabhed

jayasi ki kisi upalabdh rachana ke antargat usaki nishchit janm-tithi athava janm-snvat ka koee spasht ullekh nahin paya jata. ek sthal par ve kahate hain,

bha avatar mor nau sadi.
tis barikh oopar kavi badi.[3]

jisake adhar par keval itana hi anuman kiya ja sakata hai ki unaka janm sambhavat: 800 hijari evn 900 hijari ke madhy, arthath sanh 1397 ee॰ aur 1494 ee॰ ke bich kisi samay hua hoga tatha tis varsh ki avastha pa chukane par unhonne kavy-rachana ka prarambh kiya hoga.

parivar

jayasi ke nam ke pahale 'malik' upadhi lagi rahane ke karan kaha jata hai ki unake poorvaj eeran se aye the aur vahin se unake namon ke sath yah zamindar soochak padavi lagi a rahi thi kintu unake poorvapurushon ke namon ki koee talika abhi tak prapt nahin ho saki hai. unake pita ka nam malik raje asharaf bataya jata hai aur kaha jata hai ki ve mamooli zamindar the aur kheti karate the. inake nana ka nam shekh al-hadad khan tha. svayn jayasi ko bhi kheti karake jivika-nirvah karana prasiddh hai. kuchh logon ka anuman karana ki 'malik' shabd ka prayog unake kisi nikat sambandhi ke 'barah hazar ka risaladar' hone ke karan kiya jata hoga athava yah ki sambhavat: svayn bhi unhonne kuchh samay tak kisi sena men kam kiya hoga, pramanon ke abhav men sndigdh ho jata hai. saiyad ale ka mat hai ki "mohalla gaunriyana ke nigalami malik khanadan se the" aur "unake purane sambandhi muhalla knchana men base the."[4] unhonne yah batalaya hai ki jayasi ka malik kabir nam ka ek putr bhi tha. malik muhammad jayasi kuroop aur ek ankh se kane the. kuchh log unhen bachapan se hi kane manate hain jabaki adhikansh logon ka mat hai ki chechak ke prakop ke karan ye kuroop ho gaye the aur usi men inaki ek ankh chali gayi thi. usi or ka bayan kan bhi nakam ho gaya. apane kane hone ka ullekh unhonne svayn hi kiya hai :-

ek nayan kavi muhammad gumi.

soi bimoho jei kavi suni.. chand jis jag vidhi otara. dinh kalnk kinh ujiyara..

jag sujha ekah nainahan. uva sook as nakhatanh manhan.. jo lahin anbahin dabh n hoee. to lahi sugndh basaee n soee..

kinh samudr pani jon khara. to ati bheu asujh apara.. jo sumeru tirasool bina sa. bha knchanagiri lag akasa..

jaun lahi ghari kalnk n para. kanch hoee nahin knchan kara.. ek nain jas dapan, aur tehi niramal bhaoo. sab rupavnt panv jahi, mukh jobahin kai chau..

muhammad kavi jo prem ya, na tan rakat n mans.

jein mukh dekha tin hnsa, suna to aye anhu..

uparyukt pnktiyon se anuman hota hai ki baen kan se bhi unhen kam sunaee padata tha. ek bar jayasi sherashah ke darabar men ge, to badashah ne isaka munh dekhakar hns diya. jayasi ne shant bhav se poochha -

mohi kan isasi ki koharahi?

arthath too mujh par hnsa ya us kumhar par,

is par sherashah ne lajjit hokar kshama mangi.[5]

jayasi ek sant prakriti ke grihasthi the. inake sat putr the lekin divar gir jane ke karan sabhi usamen dab kar mar gaye the. tabhi se inamen vairagy jag gaya aur ye fakir ban gaye.

shiksha

jayasi ki shiksha bhi vidhivath nahin huee thi. jo kuchh bhi inhonen shiksha-diksha prapt ki vah musalaman fakiron, gorakhapanthi aur vedanti sadhu-santon se hi prapt ki thi. [6]

guru-parampara

jayasi ne apani kuchh rachanaon men apani guru-parampara ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. unaka kahana hai, "saiyad asharaph, jo ek priy sant the mere lie ujjval panth ke pradarshak bane aur unhonne prem ka dipak jalakar mera hriday nirmal kar diya. unaka chela ban jane par main apane pap ke khare samudri jal ko unhin ki nav dvara par kar gaya aur mujhe unaki sahayata se ghat mil gaya, ve jahangir chishti chand jaise nishkalnk the, snsar ke makhadoom (svami) the aur main unhin ke ghar ka sevak hoon".[2] "saiyad asharaph jahangir chishti ke vnsh men nirmal ratn jaise hazi hue tatha unake anantar shekh mubarak aur shekh kamal hue".[2]

char mitron ka varnan

jayasi ne 'padmavat' (22) men apane char mitron ki charcha ki hai, jinamen se yusuf malik ko 'pandit aur gyani' kaha hai, salar evn miyan salone ki yuddh-priyata evn virata ka ullekh kiya hai tatha bade shekh ko bhari siddh kahakar smaran kiya hai aur kaha hai ki ye charon mitr unase milakar ek chihn ho ge the parantu unake poorvajon evn vnshajon ki bhanti in logon ka bhi koee pramanik parichay upalabdh nahin hai.

jayasi ka khud ke bare men kathan

jayasi saiyyad asharaf ko pyare pir manate hain aur svayn ko unake dvar ka murid batate hain. unaki kavy shaili men --

so mora guru tinh hon chala.

dhova pap panisir mela.. pem piyalaya pnth lakhava. arapu chakhi mohin boond chakhava.. jo madhu chadha n utari kava.

pareu mati pasun pheri arava..

ek sthan par vo apane bare men kafi vinamr bhav se kahate hain:-

muhammad malik pem madhubhora.

naun badera darapan thora.. jev- jenv budha tevn- tevn nava. khudi kee khyal n kava.. hath piyala sath suranee. pem pitilee are nibahi.. budhi khoee aur laj gnvaee. ajahoon ais dhari larikaee.. pata n rakha duhavee anta. mata kalalin ke ras manta.. doodh piyasavavi tes udhara. balak hoee paratinh bara.. khun latun chahun khela. bheu ajan char sir mela..
pem katori naike mata piyavi doodh.

balak piya chahi, kya magar kya boodh..

is pnktiyon se lagata hai ki ye prem- madhu ke bhramar the. jayasi snsar ko asthir manate the, unake hisab se prem aur sadbhav hi sthir hai ya rahega, jabaki snsar ki tamam vastuen asthir hai. jayasi ne snsar ki asthirata ka varnan any sthal par is prakar kiya hai --

yah snsar jhooth thir nahin.

taruvar pnkhi tar parachhahin.. mor mor ki raha n koee. jaai uva jag athava soee..

samudr tarng uthai ady koopa. pani jas bulabula hoee. phoot bismadi milahn jal soee.. malik muhammad pnthi ghar hi mahin udas.

kabahoon snvarahi man kai, kavahoon tapak ubas..

ek sthan par chitrarekha men unhonne apane bare men likha hai:-

muhamad sayar din duni, mukh anbrit benan. badan jis jag chnd sapooran, ek jis nenan.[7]

kritiyan

jayasi ki 21 rachanaon ke ullekh milate hain jisamen padmavat, akharavat, akhiri kalam, kaharanama, chitrarekha adi pramukh hain par unaki khyati ka adhar padmavat grnth hi hai. isaki bhasha avadhi hai aur isaki rachana shaili par adikal ke jain kaviyon ki doha chaupaee paddhati ka prabhav pada hai. 'padmavat' ka rachanakal unhonne 147 hijari ('san nau se saintalis ahai'- padmavat 24). arthath 1540 ee॰ batalaya hai. 'padmavat' ke antim ansh (653) ke adhar par yah bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki use likhate samay tak ve vriddh ho chuke the, "unaka sharir kshin ho gaya tha, unaki drishti mand pad gayi thi, unake dant jate rahe the unake kanon men sunane ki shakti nahin rah gayi thi, sir jhuk gaya tha, kesh shvet ho chale the tatha vichar karane tak ki shakti kshin ho chali thi" kintu isaka koee snket nahin hai ki is samay ve kitane varsh ki avastha tak pahunch chuke the. jayasi ne 'akhiri kalam' ka rachanakal dete samay bhi keval itana hi kaha hai:-

nau se baras chhatis jo bhe.
tab yah kavita akhar kahe'.[8]

arthath 936 hijari athava sanh 1529 ee. ke a jane par maine is kavy ka nirman kiya. 'padmavat' ('padmavat' 13-17), men sultan sherashah soor (san 1540-1545 ee.) tatha 'akhiri kalam'[9] men mugal badashah babar (san 1526-1530 ee.) ke nam shahe vaqt ke roop men avashy liye hain aur unaki nyoonadhik prashnsa bhi ki hai, jisase soochit hota hai ki ve unake samakalin the. nerasharif (zila patana, bihar) vale khanakah ke pustakalay men farasi aksharon men likhit purani pratiyon ka ek sngrah mila hai, jisamen jayasi ki 'akharavat' ki bhi ek prati mili hai. usamen usaka lipikal juma 8 julkad sanh 911 hijari arthath sanh 1505 ee. diya gaya jan padata hai, jo pratyakshat: purana samay hai. prophesar saiyad hasan asakari ka anuman hai ki vah vastut: 'akharavat' ka rachanakal hoga, jo pratilipi karate samay mool prati se jyon ka tyon uddhrit kar liya hoga. tadanusar unaka kahana hai ki yadi vah jayasi ki sarvapratham rachana siddh ki ja sake to unake janm snvat ka pata laga lena hamare lie asambhav nahin rah jata. sanh 911 hijari arthath sanh 1505 ee. men uparyukt 30 varsh ka samay ghatakar sanh 881 hijari arthath 1475 ee. laya ja sakata hai aur yah saralatapoorvak batalaya ja sakata hai ki jayasi ka janm isake as-pas hua hoga. in prasng men 910-11 hijari ke us prachand bhookamp ka bhi ullekh kiya gaya hai, jisaki charcha abdullah ki 'tarikh daoodi' tatha badayooni ki 'muntakhabuattarikh' jaise itihas-granthon men ki gayi hai aur usake sath jayasi dvara 'akhiri kalam' (4) men varnit bhookamp ki samanata dikhalakar uparyukt anuman ki pushti ka prayatn bhi kiya gaya hai parantu yahan uparyukt "tis baris oopar kavi badi" ke anantar aye hue "avat udyatabhar badahana" ke 'avat' shabd ki or kadachit yathesht dhyan nahin diya gaya hai. yadi usaka abhipray 'janm lete samay' mana jaye to usase granth-rachana ke samay ka arth nahin liya ja sakata. at: jab tak any spasht praman upalabdh n hon, janmasambandhi uparyukt dharana sndigdh bani rahati hai. apaki anek rachanaain bataee jati hain. sarvasammat rachanaen nimnalikhit hain:-

padmavat

yah mahakavy jayasi ki kavy-pratibha ka sarvottam pratinidhi hai. isamen chittaud ke raja ralasen aur sinhaladvip ki rajakumari padmavati ki premakatha varnit hai. kavi ne kathanak itihas se liya hai parantu prastutikaran sarvatha kalpanik hai. bhav aur kala-paksh, donon hi drishtiyon se yah ek utkrisht rachana hai. padmavat inaka khyati ka sthayi stambh hai. 'padmavat' masanavi shaili men rachit ek prabndh kavy hai. yah mahakavy 57 khndo men likha hai. jayasi ne donon ka mishran kiya hai. padmavat ki bhasha avadhi hai. chaupaee namak chhnd ka prayog isame milata hai. inaki prabndh kushalata kamal ki hai. jayasi ke mahattv ke sambandh men baboo gulabaray likhate hai:- jayasi mahanh kavi hai ,unamen kavi ke samast sahaj gun vidman hai. unhonne samayik samasya ke lie prem ki pir ki den di. us pir ko unhonne shaktishali mahakavy ke dvara upasthit kiya . ve amar kavi hai. [10]

akharavat

akharavat srishti ki rachana ko varny vishay banaya gaya hai. akharavat ke vishay men jayasi ne isake kal ka varnan kahin nahin kiya hai. saiyyad kalb mustapha ke anusar yah jayasi ki antim rachana hai.

akhiri kalam

'akhiri kalam' granth men islami manyata ke anusar pralay ka varnan hai. jayasi rachit mahanh grnth ka sarvapratham prakashan farasi lipi men hua tha. is kavy men jayasi ne masanavi- shaili ke anusar eeshvar- stuti ki hai.

chitrarekha

yah bhi ek premakatha hai kintu 'padmavat' ki tulana men yah ek dvitiy shreni ki rachana hai. jayasi ne padmavat ki hi bhanti "chitrarekha' ki shuruat bhi snsar ke srijanakarta ki vndana ke sath kiya hai. isamen jayasi ne srishti ki udbhav ki kahani kahate hue karatar ki prashnsa men bahut kuchh likha hai. isake alava isamen unhonne paigambar muhammad sahab aur unake char mitron ka varnan sundarata ke sath kiya hai. is prashnsa ke bad jayasi ne is kavy ki asal katha arnbh kiya hai.

kaharanama

kaharanama ka rachana kal 947 hijari bataya gaya hai. yah kavy grnth kaharava ya kahar git uttar pradesh ki ek lok- git par adharit men kavi ne kaharanam ke dvara snsar se doli jane ki bat ki hai.[11]

inake atirikt 'mahari baeesi' tatha 'masalanama' bhi apaki hi rachanaen mani jati hain parantu jayasi ki prasiddhi ka adhar to 'padmavat' mahakavy hi hai.

any kritiyan

jayasi ki mukhy kritiyon ke alava inaki atirikt 'masada', 'kaharanama', 'mukaharanama' v 'mukharanama', 'muharanama', ya 'holinama', 'khurvanama', 'snkaranama', 'champavat', 'matakavat', 'itaravat', 'lakharavat', 'makharavat' ya 'sukharavat' 'laharavat', 'nainavat', 'ghanavat', 'paramarth jayasi' aur 'pusinama' rachanaen bhi jayasi ki batayi jati hain. kintu inake vishay men kuchh bhi gyat nahin hai.

bhav paksh

jayasi rasasiddh kavi hain. apake kavy ka bhav-paksh tatha kala-paksh donon hi saman roop se prabhavashali hain. apaki rachanaon ki kavyagat visheshataen is prakar hain- jayasi ne bharatiy premakhyanon ko apane kavy ka vishay banaya aur unake madhyam se adhyatmik rahasyon ko prastut kiya. 'padmavat' kavy ke roop men ek prem katha hai kintu usamen atma-paramatma ka madhur sambandh tatha soophi upasana-paddhati ki vividh manyataen pratikatmak roop men varnit hain. 'padmavat' ke roopak-paksh ko svayn kavi ne spasht kiya hai-

tan chitur man raja kinha. hiy sinhal budhi padmini chinha॥
guru sua jehi pnth dikhava. bin guru jagath ko niragun pava॥

bharatiy saundary-varnan ki paramparagat shaili ko hi jayasi ne apanaya hai. yah shaili 'nakh-shikh varnan' kahalati hai. kavi ne padmavati ke saundary-varnan men apane parampara-parichay aur mohak bimb-vidhan ka parichay diya hai-

bhnvar kes vah malati rani. bisahar lurahin lehin araghani॥

sasi-mukh, ang malayagiri basa. nagin jhanpi linh chahun pasa॥

prakriti-varnan ki jayasi ke kavy men kami hai kintu vah shrringar ka sahayak hokar aya hai. vah svatntr prakriti-chitran n hokar ras ke uddipan hetu hi prayukt hua hai; yatha

katik sarad chnd ujiyari. jag sital haun birahai jari॥
bha baisakh tapani ati lagi. choa chir chndan bha agi.

alnkarik evn namaparigananatmak prakar ka prakriti-varnan bhi 'padmavat' men vidyaman hai. jayasi ka rahasyavad hindi-sahity ki amooly nidhi hai. anchalik snsparsh evn manav-manovigyan ke sahayog se jayasi ne bharatiy nari ka bhavy chitr ubhara hai; yatha-

barasai megh chuvahin nainaha. chhapar chhapar hoi rahi binu naha॥
koraun kahan that nav saja. tum binu knt n chhajani chhaja॥

jayasi soophi sampraday ke anuyayi hain, jisamen sadhak prem ki sadhana se hi sadhy ko pa sakata hai. yahi paralaukik prem jayasi ke granthon men laukik prem banakar avatarit hua hai. jivatma ke eeshvar se milan ka yah roopak, rahasy-bhavana ke sath kavi ne prastut kiya hai. achary shukl ke mat men to shuddh rahasyavad keval jayasi ke kavy men hi prapt hota hai.

kala paksh

jayasi ki rachanaon men vividh rason ka samavesh badi hi saphalata ke sath kiya gaya hai. shrringar ke atirikt vir, raudr, vibhats rason ka marmik chitran bhi jayasi ki kavita men upalabdh hai.

bhasha

jayasi ki bhasha theth avadhi hai. unhonne usake vyakaran sammat svaroop par vichar n karake usamen madhury aur mridulata ke snvarddhan par hi adhik dhyan diya hai. yahi karan hai ki usamen vyakaran-sambandhi ashuddhiyan hain parantu shruti-madhury aur hriday ko chhoone ki adbhut shakti hai.

shaili

jayasi ne prabandh shaili ko apane uddeshy ke adhik anukool samajha. unhonne lok-prachalit bharatiy premakathaon ka adhar lekar mahakavy ki rachana ki aur sath hi videsh masanavbi shaili ko bhi sthan diya. kavy-rachana men apane alnkarik shaili, pratikatmak shaili, shabd chitratmak shaili tatha atishayokti-pradhan shailiyon ka prayog kiya hai.

chhnd

jayasi ne doha-chaupaee, chhndon ka prayog kiya hai. isi chhnd-yojana ka charam vikas tulasi ke 'ramacharitamanas' men prapt hota hai.

alnkar

jayasi ne alnkaron ke prayog men poorn udarata se kam liya hai. roop-varnan, yuddh, prakriti-chitran tatha adhyatmik tatvon ki rahasy-yojana men alnkaron ki poori sahayata li gee hai. apake priy alnkaron men upama, roopak, utpreksha, roopakatishayokti adi ka vishesh roop se prayog hua hai.

jayasi hindi ke pratham mahakavy ke rachayita hain. apaki rasamayi prem-paddhati hindi kavy sahity ki moolyavan nidhi hai. ek sahityakar ke roop men to ap pratishtha-prapt hain hi, apako sampradayik saumanasy ka sndesh-vahak bhi mana jana chahie.

mrityu

muhammad jayasi ke janm ki tarah hi inaki mrityu ke bhi matabhed mile hai. saiyad ale muhammad mehar jayasi ne kisi qazi saiyad husen ki apani notabuk men di gayi jis tarikh '5 rajjab 949 hijari' (san 1542 ee.) ka malik muhammad jayasi ki mrityu tithi ke roop men ullekh kiya hai[12], use bhi tab tak svikar nahin kiya ja sakata, jab tak usaka kahin se samarthan n ho jae. kaha jata hai ki inaka dehant amethi ke asapas ke jngalo men hua tha. amethi ke raja ne inaki samadhi banava di, jo abhi bhi hai. [10]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 'akhiri kalam' 10
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 (‘padmavat’) 18, 19, 23
  3. akhiri kalam, 4
  4. nagari pracharini patrika, varsh 45, prishth 49
  5. malik muhammad jayasi (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 16 aktoobar, 2010.
  6. shabdon ka dngal (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 16 aktoobar, 2010.
  7. malik muhammad jayasi (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 16 aktoobar, 2010.
  8. akhiri kalam 13
  9. akhiri kalam' 8
  10. 10.0 10.1 hindi kunj (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 16 aktoobar, 2010.
  11. kavita kosh (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 16 aktoobar, 2010.
  12. nagari pracharini patrika, varsh 45 prishth 58

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah