प्रताप नारायण मिश्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pratap narayan mishr
pratap narayan mishr
poora nam pandit pratap narayan mishr
janm 24 sitambar, 1856
janm bhoomi unnav, uttar pradesh
mrityu 6 julaee, 1894
abhibhavak pandit snkatadin
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr hindi sahity
bhasha hindi, urdoo, bngala, farasi, angrezi aur snskrit.
prasiddhi lekhak, kavi, patrakar, nibandhakar, natakakar.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh bharatendu harishchandr
any janakari mishr ji bharatendu mndal ke pramukh lekhakon men se ek the. unhonne hindi sahity ki vividh roopon men seva ki. ve kavi hone ke atirikt uchch koti ke maulik nibndh lekhak aur natakakar the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

pratap narayan mishr (angrezi: Pratap Narayan Mishra; janm- 24 sitambar, 1856, unnav, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 6 julaee, 1894) ko adhunik hindi nirmataon men se ek mana jata hai. ve hindi khadi boli aur bharatendu yug ke unnayak kahe jate hain. pratap narayan mishr ne ek lekhak, kavi aur patrakar ke roop men vishesh prasiddhi paee thi. mishr ji ki bharatendu harishchandr men anany shraddha thi. vah svayn ko unaka shishy kahate the tatha devata ke saman unaka smaran karate the. bharatendu jaisi rachana shaili, vishayavastu aur bhashagat visheshataon ke karan hi pratap narayan mishr ko 'pratibharatendu' ya 'dvitiyachandr' adi kaha jane laga tha. mishr ji dvara likhe hue nibndhon men vishay ki paryapt vividhata hai. desh-prem, samaj-sudhar evn sadharan manornjan adi unake nibndhon ke mukhy vishay the. unhonne 'brahman' namak masik patr men har prakar ke vishayon par nibndh likhe the.

janm tatha shiksha

pratap narayan mishr ka janm 24 sitambar, 1856 ee. men uttar pradesh ke unnav zile men vaije ganv men hua tha. ye katyayan gotriy aur kanyakubj brahman pandit snkatadin ke putr the. pita yuvavastha men hi kanapur men akar bas ge the aur ek jyotishi ke roop men apani jivika chalate the. mishr ji akshararnbh ke pashchath apane pita se hi jyotish padhane lage. kintu udhar ruchi n hone se pita ne unhen angrezi pathashala men bharti kara diya. tab se kee skoolon ka chakkar lagane par bhi vah pita ki lalasa ke viparit padhaee-likhaee se virat hi rahe aur pita ki mrityu ke pashchath 18-19 varsh ki avastha men unhonne skooli shiksha se apana pind chhuda liya. is prakar mishr ji ki shiksha adhoori hi rah gee. kintu unhonne pratibha aur svadhyay ke bal se apani yogyata paryapt badha li. ve hindi, urdoo aur bngala to achchhi janate hi the, isake sath hi farasi, angrezi aur snskrit men bhi unaki achchhi gati thi.[1]

hindi ke prati anurag

pratap narayan mishr chhatravastha se hi "kavivachanasudha" ke gady-pady-may lekhon ka niyamit path karate the, jisase hindi ke prati unaka anurag utpann hua. lavanau gayakon ki toli men ashu rachana karane tatha lalit ji ki ramalila men abhinay karate hue unase kavy rachana ki shiksha grahan karane se vah svayn maulik rachana ka abhyas karane lage. isi bich vah bharatendu harishchandr ke snpark men ae. unaka ashirvad tatha protsahan pakar ve hindi gady tatha pady rachana karane lage. 1882 ke as-pas "premapushpavali" prakashit hua aur bharatendu ji ne usaki prashnsa ki to pratap narayan mishr ka utsah bahut badh gaya.

masik patr ka sampadan

15 march, 1883 ko thik holi ke din apane kee mitron ke sahayog se mishr ji ne 'brahman' namak masik patr nikala. yah apane roop-rng men hi nahin, vishay aur bhasha-shaili ki drishti se bhi bharatendu yug ka vilakshan patr tha. sajivata, sadagi bankapan aur phakkadapan ke karan bharatendu kalin sahityakaron men jo sthan pratap narayan mishr ji ka tha, vahi tatkalin hindi patrakarita men is patr ka tha, kintu yah kabhi niyat samay par nahin nikalata tha. do-tin bar to isake bnd hone tak ki naubat a gee thi. isaka karan mishr ji ka vyadhimndir sharir or arthabhav tha. kintu ramadin sinh adi ki sahayata se yah kisi-n-kisi prakar snpadak ke jivan kal tak nikalata raha. unaki mrityu ke bad bhi ramadin sinh ke snpadakatv men kee varshon tak nikala, parntu pahale jaisa akarshan ve usamen nahin la paye the.[1]

sahayak snpadak

age ke samay men san 1889 men pratap narayan mishr 25 rupaya masik ke vetan par "hindisthan" ke sahayak snpadak hokar kalakankar ae. un dinon pandit madanamohan malaviy usake snpadak the. yahan balamukund gupt ne mishr ji se hindi sikhi. madanamohan malaviy ke hatane par mishr ji apani svachchhnd pravritti ke karan vahan n tik sake. kalakankar se lautane ke bad vah pray: rugn rahane lage. phir bhi samajik, rajanitik, dharmik karyon men poorvavath ruchi lete aur "brahman" ke liye lekh adi prastut karate rahe. 1891 men unhonne kanapur men "rasik samaj" ki sthapana ki. kangres ke karyakramon ke atirikt 'bharatadharmamndal', 'dharmasabha', 'gorakshini sabha' aur any sabha samitiyon ke sakriy karyakarta aur sahayak bane rahe. kanapur ki kee naty sabhaon aur gorakshini samitiyon ki sthapana pratap narayan mishr ji ke prayatnon se hi huee thi.

rachanaen

  • kavy - 'kanapur mahatmy', 'tripyantamh‌', 'tarapati pachisi', 'dngal khand', 'prarthana shatak', 'prem pushpavali', 'phalgun mahatmy', 'braidala svagat', 'man ki lahar', 'yuvaraj kumar svagatante', 'lokokti shatak', 'shokashru', 'shrringar vilas', 'shri prem puran', 'holi hai', 'divane barahaman' aur 'sphut kavitaen'.[2]

uparyukt rachanaon men se 'tripyantamh‌', 'tarapati pachisi', 'prem pushpavali', 'braidala svagat', 'man ki lahar', 'yuvarajakumar svagatanten', 'shokashru', 'prem puran' tatha 'holi' 'pratap narayan mishr kavitavali' men sngrahit hain.

  • naty-sahity - 'kali kautuk' (roopak), 'juari khuari' (prahasan, apoorn), 'hathi hamir', 'sngit shakuntal' ('abhigyan shakuntalamh' ke adhar par rachit giti roopak), 'bharat durdasha' (roopak), 'kali pravesh' (gitiroopak), 'doodh ka doodh aur pani ka pani' (bhan, apoorn).
  • nibandh - 'pratap narayan grnthavali bhag ek' - isamen mishr ji ke lagabhag 200 nibandh sngrahit hain.
  • atmakatha - 'pratap charitr' (apoorn) - yah pratap narayan grnthavali bhag ek men snkalit hai.
  • upanyas (anoodit) - 'amarasinh', 'indira', 'kapal kundala', 'devi chaudharani', 'yugalanguliy' aur 'rajasinh radharani' - sabhi upanyas prasiddh kathakar bnkim chandr ke upanyason ke anuvad hain.
  • kahani (anoodit) - 'katha bal sngit', 'katha mala', 'charitashtak'.
  • sngrahit rachanaen - 'manas vinod' (pady), 'rasakhan shatak' (pady), 'rahiman shatak' (pady), aur 'sati charit' (gady).

samalochana

mishr ji bharatendu mndal ke pramukh lekhakon men se ek the. unhonne hindi sahity ki vividh roopon men seva ki. ve kavi hone ke atirikt uchch koti ke maulik nibndh lekhak aur natakakar the. hindi gady ke vikas men mishr ji ka bada yogadan raha hai. achary ramachandr shukl ne pandit balakrishn bhatt ke sath mishr ji ko bhi mahatv dete hue apane hindi sahity ke itihas men likha hai- "pandit pratap narayan mishr' aur pandit balakrishn bhatt ne hindi gady sahity men vahi kam kiya, jo angrezi gady sahity men edisan aur stil ne kiya."

shaili

pratap narayan mishr ki shaili men varnanatmak, vicharatmak tatha hasy vinod shailiyon ka saphal prayog kiya gaya hai. inaki shaili ko do pramukh prakaron men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. vicharatmak shaili
  2. vyngyatmak shaili

vicharatmak shaili

sahityik aur vicharatmak nibndhon men mishr ji ne is shaili ko apanaya hai. kahin-kahin is shaili men hasy aur vyngy ka put milata hai.[1] is shaili ki bhasha snyat aur gnbhir hai. 'manoyog' shirshak nibndh ka ek ansh is prakar hai- "isi se logon ne kaha hai ki man sharir roopi nagar ka raja hai. aur svabhav usaka chnchal hai. yadi svachchh rahe to bahudha kutsit hi marg men dhavaman rahata hai."

vyngyatmak shaili

is shaili men mishr ji ne apane hasy aur vyngy poorn nibndh likhe hain. yah shaili mishr ji ki pratinidhi shaili hai, jo sarvatha unake anukool hai. ve hasy aur vinod priy vyakti the. atah pratyek vishay ka pratipadan hasy aur vinod poorn dhng se karate the. hasy aur vinod ke sath-sath is shaili men vyngy ke darshan hote hain. vishay ke anusar vyngy kahin-kahin bada tikha aur marmik ho gaya hai. is shaili men bhasha saral, saras aur pravahamayi hai. usamen urdoo, farasi, angrezi aur gramin shabdon ka prayog hua hai. lokoktiyan aur muhavaron ke karan yah shaili adhik prabhavapoorn ho gee hai.

bhasha

khadi boli ke roop men prachalit janabhasha ka prayog pratap narayan mishr ne apane sahity men kiya. prachalit muhavaron, kahavaton tatha videshi shabdon ka prayog inaki rachanaon men hua hai. bhasha ki drishti se mishr ji ne bharatendu harishchandr ka hi anusaran kiya aur jan sadharan ki bhasha ko apanaya. bharatendu ji ke saman hi mishr ji bhasha kritimata se door hain. vah svabhavik hain. pnditaoopan aur poorvipan adhik hai. usamen gramin shabdon ka prayog svachchhndata poorvak hua hai. snskrit, arabi, farasi, urdoo, angrezi, adi ke prachalit shabdon ko bhi grahan kiya gaya hai. bhasha vishay ke anukool hai. gnbhir vishayon par likhate samay aur gnbhir ho gee hai. kahavaton aur muhavaron ke prayog men mishr ji bade kushal the. muhavaron ka jitana sundar prayog unhonne kiya hai, vaisa bahut kam lekhakon ne kiya hai. kahin-kahin to unhonne muhavaron ki jhadi-si laga di hai.

nidhan

pratap narayan mishr jitane parihas priy aur jindadil vyakti the, utane hi aniyamit, aniyntrit, laparavah aur kahil the. rog ke karan unaka sharir yuvavastha men hi jarjar ho gaya tha. to bhi svasthy raksha ke niyamon ka vah sada ullnghan karate rahe. isase unaka svasthy dinon din girata gaya. 1892 ke ant men vah gnbhir roop se bimar pade aur lagatar dedh varshon tak bimar hi rahe. ant men 38 varsh ki avastha men 6 julaee, 1894 ko das baje rat men 'bharatendumndal' ke is nakshatr ka avasan ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 sv. pandit pratap narayan mishr (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 agast, 2013.
  2. hindi ke gaurav pratap narayan mishr (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 25 sitambar, 2013.

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