पत्रकारिता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

patrakarita (angrezi:Journalism) adhunik sabhyata ka ek pramukh vyavasay hai jisamen samacharon ka ekatrikaran, likhana, riport karana, sampadit karana aur samyak prastutikaran adi sammilit hain. aj ke yug men patrakarita ke bhi anek madhyam ho gaye hain; jaise - akhabar, patrikaen, rediyo, dooradarshan, veb-patrakarita adi.

patrakarita ka itihas

vishv men patrakarita ka arnbh san 131 eesvi poorv rom men hua tha. us sal pahala dainik samachar-patr nikalane laga. us ka nam tha – “Acta Diurna” (din ki ghatanaen). vastav men yah patthar ki ya dhatu ki patti hota tha jis par samachar ankit hote the. ye pattiyan rom ke mukhy sthanon par rakhi jati thin aur in men varishth adhikariyon ki niyukti, nagarikon ki sabhaon ke nirnayon aur gledietaron ki ladaiyon ke parinamon ke bare men soochanaen milati thin. madhyakal men yoorop ke vyaparik kendron men ‘soochana-patr‘ nikalane lage. un men karobar, kray-vikray aur mudra ke mooly men utar-chadhav ke samachar likhe jate the. lekin ye sare ‘soochana-patr ‘ hath se hi likhe jate the. 15vin shatabdi ke madhy men yohan gutinabarg ne chhapane ki mashin ka avishkar kiya. asal men unhonne dhatu ke aksharon ka avishkar kiya. is ke phalasvaroop kitabon ka hi nahin, akhabaron ka bhi prakashan snbhav ho gaya.[1]

bharat men hindi patrakarita

vastav men hindi patrakarita ka tarkik aur vaigyanik adhar par kal vibhajan karana kuchh kathin kary hai. sarvapratham radhakrishn das ne aisa prarnbhik prayas kiya tha. usake bad ‘vishal bharat’ ke navnbar 1930 ke ank men vishnudatt shukl ne is prashn par vichar kiya, kintu ve kisi antim nirnay par nahin pahunche. gupt nibndhavali men balamukund gupt ne yah vibhajan is prakar kiya –

  • pratham charan – sanh 1845 se 1877
  • dvitiy charan – sanh 1877 se 1890
  • tritiy charan – sanh 1890 se bad tak

daau. ramaratan bhatanagar ne apane shodh prabndh ‘d raij end groth aph hindi jarnalijm’ kal vibhajan is prakar kiya hai–

  • arnbhik yug 1826 se 1867
  • utthan evn abhivriddhi
    • pratham charan (1867-1883) bhasha evn svaroop ke samekan ka yug
    • dvitiy charan (1883-1900) pres ke prachar ka yug
  • vikas yug
    • pratham yug (1900-1921) avadhik patron ka yug
    • dvitiy yug (1921-1935) dainik prachar ka yug
  • samayik patrakarita – 1935-1945

uparokt men se tin yugon ke arnbhik varshon men tin pramukh patrikaon ka prakashan hua, jinhonne yugin patrakarita ke samaksh adarsh sthapit kie. sanh 1867 men ‘kavivachan sudha’, sanh 1883 men ‘hindustan’ tatha sanh 1900 men ‘sarasvati’ ka prakashan hai.[1]

hindi samachar patr-patrikaen

is samay hindi ke saptahik patron men saptahik hindustan, dharm-yug, dinaman, ravivar evn sahara samay pramukh hain. hindustan ka sampadan, sampadika mrinal pandey ji ne kiya evn dharmayug ka sarvapratham sampadan daau. dharmavir bharati ji ne kiya. dharmayug ne jan samany men apani lokapriyata itani bana rakhi thi ki har prabuddh pathak varg ke draing roop men isaka paya jana garv ki bat mane jane lagi thi. kuchh dinon tak ganesh mntri (bambee) ne bhi isaka sampadan kiya. kuchh arthik evn apasi kamiyon ke abhav ke karan isaka sampadan kary rook gaya. `dinaman´ ka sampadan ghanashyam pnkaj ji kar rahe the sath hi ravivar ka sampadan uday sharma ke nirdeshan men akarshak dhng se ho raha tha. isi samay vyngy ke kshetr men `hindi shnkars vikali´ ka sampadan ho raha tha. `vama´ hindi ki masik patrika mahilapayogi ka sampadan vimala patil ke nirdeshan men ho raha tha. `indiya tude´ pahale pakshik thi, parantu aj yahi saptahik roop men apani khyati banaye huye hai. any masik patrikaon men `kalpana´, `ajanta´, `parag´, `nandan´, `spatunik´, `madhyam´, `yoonesko doot´, `navanit (daijest)´, `gyanoday´, `kadambini´, `achhoote´, `sandarbh´, `akhir kyon´, `yooth indiya´, `jan samman´, `ambedakar in indiya´, `rashtrabhasha-vivaran patrika´, `paryavaran´, `daijest akhir kab tak?´, `vartavahak´ adi anek mahattvapoorn patrikaon ka prakashan ho raha hai. `ajanta´ ab prakashit nahin ho rahi hai parantu `kalpana´ ab bhi jari hai. isi tarah se `yooth indiya´ pharrookhabad se raghavendr sinh `rajoo´ ke kushal nirdeshan men apana vishisht sthan masik patrika ke roop men banaye huye hai. `achhoote sandarbh´ dilli se kamalesh chaturvedi ke disha nirdeshan evn sampadakatv men sahity evn vividh samajik pahaluon ko rekhankit karane men sahayak ho rahi hai. `jan-samman´ muradabad se `mohar sinh´ ke sampadakatv men samaj men dalit logon ki disha evn dasha ko nirdharit karane men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada kar rahi hai. rashtrabhasha ko samman dilane ki haisiyat se `rashtrabhasha´, vardha se shri anantaram tripathi ke sampadakatv men prakashit ho rahi hai. udisa se vartavahak braj sundar padhi evn `vivaran patrika´, haidarabad se chandradev bhagavantarav kavade ke sahayog se apani nirantarata banaye huye hai.[2]

bharat men samachar patron ka itihas

bharat men samachar patron ka itihas yooropiy logon ke bharat men pravesh ke sath hi prarambh hota hai. sarvapratham bharat men printig pres lane ka shrey purtagaliyon ko diya jata hai. 1557 ee. men gova ke kuchh padari logon ne bharat ki pahali pustak chhapi. 1684 ee. men angrez eest indiya kampani ne bhi bharat ki pahali pustak ki chhapaee ki thi. 1684 ee. men hi kampani ne bharat men pratham printig pres (mudranalay) ki sthapana ki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 vishv men patrakarita ka itihas (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) aiye sikhen patrakarita (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 3 sitambar, 2012.
  2. hindi sahity ke itihas men patr-patrika ki pransagikata (hindi) srijanagatha. abhigaman tithi: 3 sitambar, 2012.

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