भारत में समाचार पत्रों का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat men samachar patron ka itihas
vibhinn samachar patr
vivaran 'samachar patr' athava 'akhabar' samaj aur desh men ho rahi ghatanaon par adharit ek prakashan hai. isamen mukhyat: taji ghatanaen, khel-kood, vyaktitv, rajaniti, vigyapan ki janakariyan saste kagaz par chhapi hoti hai.
itihas bharat men pratham samachar patr nikalane ka shrey 'jems aaugastas hikki' ko mila. usane 1780 ee. men 'bngal gajat' ka prakashan kiya, kintu isamen kampani sarakar ki alochana ki gee thi, jis karan usaka pres jabt kar liya gaya.
pratham bharatiy samachar patr pahala bharatiy samachar patr angrezi men 1816 ee. men kalakatta men gngadhar bhattachary dvara 'bngal gajat' nam se nikala gaya. yah saptahik samachar patr tha.
pratham hindi samachar patr udant martand hindi ka pratham samachar patr tha. isaka prakashan 30 mee, 1826 ee. men kalakatta se ek saptahik patr ke roop men shuroo hua tha.
snbndhit lekh samachar patr, patrika
any janakari samachar patr prayah dainik hote hain lekin kuchh samachar patr saptahik, masik evn chhamahi bhi hote hain. adhikatar samacharapatr sthaniy bhashaon men aur sthaniy vishayon par kendrit hote hain.

bharat men samachar patron ka itihas yooropiy logon ke bharat men pravesh ke sath hi prarambh hota hai. sarvapratham bharat men printig pres lane ka shrey purtagaliyon ko diya jata hai. 1557 ee. men gova ke kuchh padari logon ne bharat ki pahali pustak chhapi. 1684 ee. men angrez eest indiya kampani ne bhi bharat ki pahali pustak ki chhapaee ki thi. 1684 ee. men hi kampani ne bharat men pratham printig pres (mudranalay) ki sthapana ki.

pratham samachar patr

bharat men pahala samachar patr kampani ke ek asntusht sevak 'viliyam volts' ne 1766 ee. men nikalane ka prayas kiya, lekin apane is kary men vah asaphal raha. isake bad bharat men pratham samachar patr nikalane ka shrey 'jems aaugastas hikki' ko mila. usane 1780 ee. men 'bngal gajat' ka prakashan kiya, kintu isamen kampani sarakar ki alochana ki gee thi, jis karan usaka pres jabt kar liya gaya.

is dauran kuchh any angrezi akhabaron ka prakashan bhi hua, jaise- bngal men 'kalakatta kairiyar', 'eshiyatik mirar', 'oriyntal star'; madras men 'madras kairiyar', 'madras gajat'; bambee men 'herald', 'banbe gajat' adi. 1818 ee. men british vyapari 'jems silk barkigham' ne 'kalakatta janaral' ka sampadan kiya. barkigham hi vah pahala prakashak tha, jisane pres ko janata ke pratibimb ke svaroop men prastut kiya. pres ka adhunik roop jems silk barkigham ka hi diya hua hai. hikki tatha barkigham ka patrakarita ke itihas men mahatpoorn sthan hai. in donon ne tatasth patrakarita evn svatntr lekhan ka udaharan prastut kar patrakaron ko patrakarita ki or akarshit kiya.

pratham saptahik akhabar

pahala bharatiy angrezi samachar patr 1816 ee. men kalakatta men gngadhar bhattachary dvara 'bngal gajat' nam se nikala gaya. yah saptahik samachar patr tha. 1818 ee. men marshamain ke netritv men bngali bhasha men 'digdarshan' masik patr prakashit hua, lekin yah patr alpakalik siddh hua. isi samay marshamain ke snpadan men ek aur saptahik samachar patr 'samachar darpan' prakashit kiya gaya. 1821 ee. men bngali bhasha men saptahik samachar patr 'snvad kaumudi' ka prakashan hua. is samachar patr ka prabandh raja ramamohan ray ke hathon men tha. raja ramamohan ray ne samajik tatha dharmik vicharon ke virodhasvaroop 'samachar chndrika' ka march, 1822 ee. men prakashan kiya. isake atirikt ray ne aprail, 1822 men farasi bhasha men 'miratul' akhabar evn angrezi bhasha men 'brahmanikal maigajin' ka prakashan kiya.

angrezon dvara sampadit samachar patr
samachar patr sthan varsh
taims aauf indiya bambee 1861 ee.
stetsamain kalakatta 1878 ee.
inglish main kalakatta -
frend aauf indiya kalakatta -
madras mel madras 1868 ee.
payaniyar ilahabad 1876 ee.
sivil end militari gajat lahaur -

pratibandh

samachar patr par lagane vale pratibndh ke antargat 1799 ee. men laaurd velezali dvara patron ka 'patrekshan adhiniyam' aur jaaun edams dvara 1823 ee. men 'anugypti niyam' lagoo kiye gaye. edams dvara samachar patron par lage pratibandh ke karan raja ramamohan ray ka miratul akhabar band ho gaya. 1830 ee. men raja ramamohan ray, dvarakanath taigor evn prasann kumar taigor ke prayason se bngali bhasha men 'bngadoot' ka prakashan arambh hua. bambee se 1831 ee. men gujarati bhasha men 'jame jamashed' tatha 1851 ee. men 'rast goftar' evn 'akhabare saudagar' ka prakashan hua.

laaurd viliyam baintik pratham gavarnar-janaral tha, jisane pres ki svatntrata ke prati udaravadi drishtikon apanaya. karyavahak garvanar-janaral charls metakaauf ne 1823 ee. ke pratibandh ko hatakar samachar patron ko mukti dilavaee. yahi karan hai ki use 'samachar patron ka muktidata' bhi kaha jata hai. laaurd maikale ne bhi pres ki svatntrata ka samarthan kiya. 1857-1858 ke vidroh ke bad bharat men samachar patron ko bhashaee adhar ke bajay prajatiy adhar par vibhajit kiya gaya. angrezi samachar patron evn bharatiy samachar patron ke drishtikon men antar hota tha. jahan angrezi samachar patron ko bharatiy samachar patron ki apeksha dher sari suvidhaye upalabdh thin, vahi bharatiy samachar patron par pratibandh laga tha.

  • sabhi samachar patron men 'inglish main' sarvadhik roodhivadi evn pratikriyavadi tha. 'payaniyar' sarakar ka poorn samarthak samachar-patr tha, jabaki 'stetsamain' kuchh tatasth drishtikon rakhata tha.

pnjikaran adhiniyam

1857 ee. men hue vidroh ke parinamasvaroop sarakar ne 1857 ee. ka 'laeesensig ekt' lagoo kar diya. is ekt ke adhar par bina sarakari laisens ke chhapakhana sthapit karane evn usake prayog karane par rok laga di gee. yah rok matr ek varsh tak lagoo rahi.

1867 ee. ke 'pnjikaran adhiniyam' ka uddeshy tha, chhapakhanon ko niyamit karana. ab har mudrit pustak evn samachar patr ke lie yah avashyak kar diya ki ve us par mudrak, prakashak evn mudran sthan ka nam likhen. pustak ke chhapane ke bad ek prati niahshulk sthaniy sarakar ko deni hoti thi. vahabi vidroh se jude logon dvara sarakar virodhi lekh likhane ke karan sarakar ne 'bharatiy dand snhita' ki dhara 124 men 124-k jod kar aise logon ke lie ajivan nirvasan, alp nirvasan v jurmane ki vyavastha ki.

vibhinn samachar patr adhiniyam
adhiniyam varsh vyakti
samachar patron ka patrekshan adhiniyam 1799 ee. laaurd velezali
anugypti niyam 1823 ee. jaaun edams
anugypti adhiniyam 1857 ee. laaurd kening
pnjikaran adhiniyam 1867 ee. jaaun laaurens
deshi bhasha samachar patr adhiniyam 1878 ee. laaurd litan
samachar patr adhiniyam 1908 ee. laaurd minto dvitiy
bharatiy samachar patr adhiniyam 1910 ee. laaurd minto dvitiy
bharatiy samachar patr (snkatakalin shaktiyan) adhiniyam 1931 ee. laaurd iravin

svatntrata sngram ka prabhav

1857 ee. ke sngram ke bad bharatiy samachar patron ki snkhya men abhootapoorv vriddhi huee aur ab ve adhik mukhar hokar sarakar ke alochak ban gaye. isi samay bade bhayanak akal se lagabhag 60 lakh log kal ke gras ban gaye the, vahin doosari or janavari, 1877 men dilli men hue 'dilli darabar' par angrez sarakar ne bahut zyada phijoolakharchi ki. parinamasvaroop laaurd litan ki samrajyavadi pravritti ke khilaf bharatiy akhabaron ne ag ugalana shuroo kar diya. lintan ne 1878 ee. men 'deshi bhasha samachar patr adhiniyam' dvara bharatiy samachar patron ki svatantrata nasht kar di.

varnakyoolar pres ekt

'varnakyoolar pres ekt' tatkalin lokapriy evn mahattvapoorn rashtravadi samachar patr 'som prakash' ko lakshy banakar laya gaya tha. doosare shabdon men yah adhiniyam matr 'som prakash' par lagoo ho saka. litan ke varnakyoolar pres ekt se bachane ke lie 'amrit bazar patrika' (samachar patr), jo bngala bhasha ki thi, angrezi saptahik men parivartit ho gayi. som prakash, bharat mihir, dhaka prakash, sahachar adi ke khilaf mukadamen chalaye gaye. is adhiniyam ke tahat samachar patron ko nyayalay men apil ka koee adhikar nahin tha. varnakyoolar pres ekt ko 'munh band karane vala adhiniyam' bhi kaha gaya hai. is ghrinit adhiniyam ko laaurd ripan ne 1882 ee. men radd kar diya.

samachar patr adhiniyam

laaurd karzan dvara 'bngal vibhajan' ke karan desh men utpann ashanti tatha 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' men charamapnthiyon ke badhate prabhav ke karan akhabaron ke dvara sarakar ki alochana ka anupat badhane laga. atah sarakar ne is sthiti se nipatane ke lie 1908 ee. ka samachar patr adhiniyam lagoo kiya. is adhiniyam men yah vyavastha ki gee ki jis akhabar ke lekh men hinsa v hatya ko prerana milegi, usake chhapakhane v sampatti ko jabt kar liya jayega. adhiniyam men di gee nee vyavastha ke antargat 15 din ke bhitar uchch nyayalay men apil ki suvidha di gee. is adhiniyam dvara nau samachar patron ke virudv mukadamen chalaye gaye evn sat ke mudranalay ko jabt karane ka adesh diya gaya.

1910 ee. ke 'bharatiy samachar patr adhiniyam' men yah vyavastha thi ki samachar patr ke prakashak ko kam se kam 500 rupaye aur adhik se adhik 2000 rupaye pnjikaran jamanat ke roop men sthaniy sarakar ko dena hoga, isake bad bhi sarakar ko pnjikaran samapt karane evn jamanat jabt karane ka adhikar hoga tatha dobara pnjikaran ke lie sarakar ko 1000 rupaye se 10000 rupaye tak ki jamanat lene ka adhikar hoga. isake bad bhi yadi samachar patr sarakar ki nazar men kisi apattijanak samragi ko prakashit karata hai to sarakar ke pas usake pnjikaran ko samapt karane evn akhabar ki samast pratiyan jabt karane ka adhikar hoga. adhiniyam ke shikar samachar patr do mahine ke andar speshal tribyoonal ke pas apil kar sakate the.

any adhiniyam

pratham vishvayuddh ke samay 'bharat suraksha adhiniyam' pas kar rajanitik andolan evn svatantr alochana par pratibandh laga diya gaya. 1921 ee. sar tej bahadur saproo ki adhyakshata men ek 'pres inkvayari kameti' niyukt ki gee. samiti ke hi sujhavon par 1908 aur 1910 ee. ke adhiniyamon ko samapt kiya gaya. 1931 ee. men 'indiyan pres imarajensi ekt' lagoo hua. is adhiniyam dvara 1910 ee. ke pres adhiniyam ko punah lagoo kar diya gaya. is samay gandhi ji dvara chalaye gaye savinay avgya andolan ke prachar ko dabane ke lie is adhiniyam ko vistrit kar 'kriminal amaindament ekt' athava 'aparadhik snshodhit adhiniyam' lagoo kiya gaya. march, 1947 men bharat sarakar ne 'pres inkvayari kameti' ki sthapana samachar patron se jude hue qanoon ki samiksha ke lie kiya.

bharat men samachar patron evn pres ke itihas ke vishleshan se spasht ho jata hai ki jahan ek or laaurd velezali, laaurd minto, laaurd edams, laaurd kaining tatha laaurd litan jaise prashasakon ne pres ki svatntrata ka daman kiya, vahin doosari or laaurd baintik, laaurd hestings, charls metakaauf, laaurd maikale evn laaurd ripan jaise logon ne pres ki azadi ka samarthan kiya. 'hindoo paitriyat' ke sampadak 'kristodas pal' ko 'bharatiy patrakarita ka ‘rajakumar’ kaha gaya hai.

19vin shatabdi men bharatiyon dvara prakashit samachar patr
samachar patr snsthapak/sampadak bhasha prakashan sthan varsh
amrit bazar patrika motilal ghosh bngala kalakatta 1868 ee.
amrit bazar patrika motilal ghosh angrezi kalakatta 1878 ee.
som prakash eeshvarachandr vidyasagar bngala kalakatta 1859 ee.
bngavasi jogindar nath bos bngala kalakatta 1881 ee.
snjivani ke.ke. mitra bngala kalakatta
hindoo vir raghavachari angrezi madras 1878 ee.
kesari bal gngadhar tilak marathi bambee 1881 ee.
maratha bal gngadhar tilak[1] angrezi - -
hindoo em.ji. ranade angrezi bambee 1881 ee.
netiv opiniyan vi.en. mandalik angrezi bambee 1864 ee.
bngali surendranath banarji angrezi kalakatta 1879 ee.
bharat mitr balamukund gupt hindi - -
hindustan madan mohan malaviy hindi - -
hind-e-sthan ramapal sinh hindi kalakankar (uttar pradesh) -
bambee darpan bal shastri marathi bambee 1832 ee.
kavivachan sudha bharatendu harishchandr hindi uttar pradesh 1867 ee.
harishchandr maigajin bharatendu harishchandr hindi uttar pradesh 1872 ee.
hindustan staindard sachchidanand sinha angrezi - 1899 ee.
gyan pradayini navin chandr ray hindi - 1866 ee.
hindi pradip balakrishn bhatt hindi uttar pradesh 1877 ee.
indiyan rivyoo ji.e. nateshan angrezi madras -
maaudarn rivyoo ramanand chatarji angrezi kalakatta -
yng indiya mahatma gandhi angrezi ahamadabad 8 aktoobar, 1919 ee.
nav jivan mahatma gandhi hindi, gujarati ahamadabad 7 aktoobar, 1919 ee.
harijan mahatma gandhi hindi, gujarati poona 11 faravari, 1933 ee.
inadipendes motilal neharoo angrezi - 1919 ee.
aj shivaprasad gupt hindi - -
hindustan taims ke.em.panikkar angrezi dilli 1920 ee.
neshanal herald javaharalal neharoo angrezi dilli agast, 1938 ee.
uddand martand jugal kishor hindi (pratham) kanapur 1826 ee.
d tribyoon sar dayal sinh majithiya angrezi chandigadh 1877 ee.
al hilal abul kalam azad urdoo kalakatta 1912 ee.
al bilag abul kalam azad urdoo kalakatta 1913 ee.
kamared maulana muhammad ali angrezi - -
hamadard maulana muhammad ali urdoo - -
pratap patr ganesh shnkar vidyarthi hindi kanapur 1910 ee.
gadar gadar parti dvara urdoo/gurumukhi saaun fransisko 1913 ee.
gadar gadar parti dvara pnjabi - 1914 ee.
hindoo paitriyat harishchandr mukharji angrezi - 1855 ee.
madras staindard, kaauman vil, nyoo indiya eni besent angrezi - 1914 ee.
soshalist es.e.dange angrezi - 1922 ee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (arambh men agarakar ne 'kesari' ka evn kelakar ne 'maratha' ka sampadan kiya)

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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