लॉर्ड लिटन प्रथम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd litan

laaurd litan pratham bharat ka 1876 ee. se 1880 ee.) tak vaisaray tatha gavarnar-janaral raha. isaka poora nam 'raaubart bulaver litan edavard' tha, jisaka janm-8 navambar, 1831 ko landan, inglaind men hua tha aur mrityu-24 navambar, 1891 ee. ko peris, frans men huee. isaka ek upanam 'oven meredith' bhi tha. apane jivanakal men ye ek kavi ke roop men bhi prasiddh raha. vah ek vidvan shasak tha aur usaka vyaktitv bahar se dekhate hi vishisht pratit hota tha.

rajanayik jivan

pratham bairan litan ke putr raaubart litan ne apana rajanayik jivan vanshigatan men mntri rahe apane chacha ke avaitanik sahayak ke roop men shuroo kiya. unaki pahali vaitanik niyukti (1858 ee.) viyana men huee aur 1874 ee. men unhen lisban men mntri banaya gaya. 1873 ee. men unhen virasat ke roop men apane pita ki bairan ki upadhi mili. navambar 1875 ee. men pradhanamntri benjamin dizarayali ne litan ko bharat ka gavarnar-janaral niyukt kiya.

shasanakal

litan pratham ka shasanakal ujjval nahin kaha ja sakata. jis samay usane shasan-bhar sambhala, desh men bhaynkar akal phaila tha. sara dakshin bharat do varsh, 1876 ee. se 1878 ee. tak bhaynkar roop se pidit raha. doosare varsh akal madhy bharat tatha pnjab men bhi phail gaya. isase lagabhag pachas lakh vyaktiyon ka jivan prabhavit ho gaya. sarakar ne akal ke munh se logon ki jan bachane ke lie jo upay kie ve aparyapt the.

akal kamishan

akal ke hi samay vaisaray ne 1877 ee. men dilli men ek atyant shanadar darabar kiya, jisamen maharani viktoriya ko bharat ki samragyi ghoshit kiya gaya. bad men usane janaral richard straichi ki adhyakshata men akal ke karanon tatha sahayata ke prashn par vichar karane ke lie akal kamishan niyukt kiya. isaki riport ke adhar par ek akal kod ka nirman kiya gaya. jisamen bhavishy men akal ka samana karane ke lie kuchh thos siddhant nirdharit kiye gaye.

nitiyan

laaurd litan ke shasanakal men sare british bharat tatha deshi riyasaton men ek saman namak kar nirdharit kiya gaya. isase namak ki taskari band ho gee aur sindhu nadi par sthit atak se lekar dakshin men mahanadi tak 2500 mil ki doori men nagaphani ki katili jhadi chungi ke bad ke roop men khadi ki gee thi, use hatana sambhav ho gaya. vastut: lnkashayar ki sooti kapada milon ke hit men, parantu prakat roop men mukt vyapar ke nam laaurd litan ne apani ekjikyootiv kaunsil ki avahelana karake, sooti kapadon ke ayat par lagaya gaya 5 pratishat kar hata diya aur is prakar bharat ke sooti vastr udyog ka vistar rok diya. 1878 ee. men usane bharatiyon ke dvara apane deshi bhasha ke patron men sarakar ke karyon ki pratikool alochanaon ko rokane ke lie 'varnakyoolar pres ekt' pas kiya. yah pratikriyavadi qanoon tha, jise char varsh ke bad usake uttaradhikari laaurd ripan ne radd kar diya.

anuchit ghoshana

laaurd litan ka sabase durbhagyapoorn aur anuchit kary tha, 1878 ee. men afaganistan ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar dena. vahan apane karyakal ke dauran litan ne mukhy roop se afaganistan ke sath bharat ke sambandhon par dhyan kendrit kiya. usaki niyukti ke samay afaganistan men roosi prabhav badh raha tha aur litan ko adesh mila tha ki, vah isako prabhavahin kare ya sena niyukt kar simaon ko sudridh kare. jab roosiyon ko nikalane ke lie afaganon ko razi karane ki varta viphal ho gee, to litan ne bal ka prayog kiya. jisase 1878-1880 ee. ka dvitiy afagan-yuddh hua. doosara afagan-yuddh (1878-88 ee.) samrajyavadi uddeshyon ki poorti ke lie chheda gaya tha. isamen dhan v jan ki bhari hani huee thi. is yuddh ka bhari kharcha adhikanshat: bharatiy karadata ko uthana pada, jo laaurd litan ke prashasan par ek kala dhabba chhod gaya.

litan ka istifa

1880 men litan ne apane pad se istifa de diya aur use usi varsh litan ka arl evn vaikaunt nebavarth banaya gaya. litan ke vaisaray kal men afaganistan par zyada dhyan diya gaya, lekin usane bharatiy prashasan ke lie bhi kafi kam kiya. usane akal rahat ke karagar upayon ki nigarani ki, antarik sima shulk badhaon ko door kiya, vittiy vyavastha ka vikendrikaran kiya, maharani viktoriya ko bharat ki samragyi ghoshit kiya aur indiyan sivil sarvis ke 1/6 pratishat pad bharatiyon ke lie arakshit kie. litan ne frans men british rajadoot (1887-91 ee.) ke roop men apana karyakal samapt kiya.

kavi roop

litan ke samakalin unhen rajanayik ya prashasak ke bajay kavi ke roop men zyada janate the. usake pratham sngrah-klaitemnestra end adar poyams (1855 ee) shirshak se varnanatmak chhandon ki pustak aur d vandarar (1858 ee.) shirshak se atmakathatmak giton ki pustak saphal rahi. vinodapoorn evn romani chhandabaddh upanyas lyoosail (1860 ee.) bhi lokapriy hua. 1883 ee. men unhonne 'd laif end litareri rimens aauf edabard bulaver, laaurd litan' shirshak se do khandon men ek pustak prakashit ki.

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