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laaurd kaaurnavaaulis

laaurd kaaurnavaaulis (angrezi: Lord Cornwallis, janm- 31 disnbar, 1738; mrityu- 5 aktoobar, 1805) fort viliyam presidensi ke gavarnar janaral rahe. 1786 ee. men eest indiya kampani ne ek uchch vnsh evn kulin vritti ke vyakti laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ko pits indiya ekt ke antargat rekhakint shanti sthapana tatha shasan ke punargathan hetu gavarnar-janaral niyukt karake bharat bheja. laaurd kaaurnavaaulis do bar bharat ke gavarnar-janaral banaye gaye the. pahali bar ve 1786-1793 ee. tak tatha doosari bar 1805 ee. men gavarnar-janaral banaye gaye. kintu apane doosare karyakal 1805 ee. men laaurd kaaurnavaaulis adhik samay tak gavarnar-janaral nahin rah sake, kyonki kuchh samay bad hi unaki mrityu ho gee. kaaurnavaaulis ne apane karyon se sudharon ki ek kadi sthapit kar di thi.

sudhar kary

laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne apane shasan kal men nimnalikhit sudhar kiye-

qanoon ki vishishtata

sarvapratham apane ‘nyayik sudharon’ ke antargat kaaurnavaaulis ne zile ki samast shakti kalektar ke hathon men kendrit kar di, v 1787 ee. men zile ke prabhari kalektaron ko 'divani adalat' ka 'divani nyayadhish' niyukt kar diya. 1790-1792 ee. ke madhy bharatiy nyayadhishon se yukt zila faujadari adalaton ko samapt kar usake sthan par char bhraman karane vali adalaten- tin bngal hetu v ek bihar hetu niyukt ki gee. in adalaton ki adhyakshata yooropiy vyakti dvara bharatiy qazi v mufti ke sahayog se ki jati thi. kaaurnavaaulis ne ‘qanoon ki vishishtata’ ka niyam, jo isase poorv nahin tha, bharat men lagoo kiya.

any qanooni sudhar

laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne 1793 ee. men prasiddh ‘kaaurnavaaulis kod’ ka nirman karavaya, jo ‘shaktiyon ke prithakikaran’ siddhant par adharit tha. 'kaaurnavaaulis snhita' se kalektaron ki nyayik evn faujadari se sambandhit shakti ka hanan ho gaya aur ab unake pas matr ‘kar’ sambandhit shaktiyan hi rah gayi thin. usane vakalat pesha ko niyamit banaya. 1790-1793 ee. ke madhy kaaurnavaaulis ne faujadari qanoon men kuchh parivartan kiye, jinhen angrez snsad ne 1797 ee. men ek adhiniyam dvara pramanit kar diya. in sudharon ke antargat hatya ke mamale men hatyare ki bhavana par adhik bal diya gaya, n ki hatya ke astr athava dhng par. isi prakar mritak ke abhibhavakon ki ichchha se kshama karana athava ‘rakt ka mooly’ nirdharit karana band kar diya gaya tatha ang vichchhedan ke sthan par kadi qaid ki saza ki agya di gayi. isi prakar 1793 ee. men yah nishchit kiya gaya ki sakshi ke dharm vishesh ke mamale par koee asar nahin padega.

pulis vyavastha

laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne ‘pulis sudhar’ ke antargat kampani ke adhikariyon ke vetan men vriddhi ki aur gramin kshetron men pulis adhikar prapt zamidaron ko is adhikar se vnchit kar diya. angrez majistreton ko zile ki pulis ka bhar de diya gaya. zilon ko 400 varg mil kshetr men vibhajit kar diya gaya. zilon men pulis thana ki sthapana kar ek daroga ko usaka prabhari banaya gaya. laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ko pulis vyavastha ka janak bhi kaha jata hai.

prashasanik sudhar

prashasanik sudhar ke antargat kampani ke adhikariyon evn karmachariyon ke vetan men vriddhi ki gee aur vyaktigat vyapar par pabandi laga di gee. laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne prashasanik vyavastha ka yooropiyakaran kiya. bharatiyon ke lie sena men 'soobedar', 'jamadar', 'prashasanik seva' men 'munsiph', 'sadar, amir' ya 'dipti kalektar' se oonche pad nahin diye jate the.

sthayi bhoomi kar vyavastha

bngal men bhoo-rajasv vasooli ka adhikar kise diya jay, tatha use kitane samay tak ke lie diya jay, is par antim nirnay kaaurnavaaulisas ne sar jaaun shor ke sahayog se kiya, aur antim roop se zamidaron ko bhoomi ka svami man liya gaya. gyatavy hai ki, 'jems grant' ne kaaurnavaaulis tatha sar jaaun shor ke vicharon ka virodh karate hue zamidaron ko keval bhoomikar sngrahakarta hi mana tha, tatha samast bhoomi ko 'sarakan ki bhoomi' ke roop men manyata di thi. 1790 ee. men das varsh ki vyavastha ki gee, jise ‘jaaun shor ki vyavastha’ ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. parantu is vyavastha ko 1793 ee. men ‘sthayi bandobast’ men parivartit kar diya gaya. zamidaron ko ab bhoo-rajasv ka 8/9 bhag eest indiya kampani ko tatha 1/9 bhag apani sevaon ke lie apane pas rakhana tha. is vyavastha ke anek dosh samane aye. yadyapi kampani ne ise poori tarah apane hit men bataya, parantu shighr hi yah vyavastha utpidan tatha shoshan ka sadhan ban gee. karon ki snkhya 36 se ghatakar 23 kar di gee. purani rajasv samiti ka nam 'rajasv bord' rakh diya gaya. laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne vyapar bord ke sadasyon ki snkhya ghatakar 11 se 5 kar di tatha thekedaron ke sthan par gumashton tatha vyaparik pratinidhiyon dvara mal lene ki vyavastha bana di. kaaurnavaaulis ko bharat men ‘nagarik seva ka janak’ mana jata hai.


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