लॉर्ड कैनिंग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

laaurd kaining
Lord Canning

laaurd kaining, ise charls jaaun kaining bhi kaha jata hai. inaka janm 14 disambar, 1812, landan, inglaind men hua aur mrityu 17 joon, 1862, landan men huee. ye ek kushal rajanitigy aur 1857 ke sipahi vidroh ke dauran bharat ke gavarnar-janaral rahe. kaining 1858 men bharat ke pahale vaisaray bane.

gavarnar-janaral ka pad

jaaurj kaining ke sabase chhote putr charls kaining 1836 se sansad rahe aur 1837 men apani man se vaikaunt ki upadhi virasat men prapt ki. 1841 men vah sar raaubart pil ke mntrimandal men videshi mamalon ke rajy avar sachiv bane aur 1846 se kamishnar aauf vuds end faaurests rahe. laaurd eberadin (1853-55) ke tahat postamastar janaral bane aur 1856 men laaurd paaumarstan ki sarakar dvara bharat ke gavarnar-janaral niyukt kie ge. kaining ne tatkal faras ke shah ke khilaf, jinhonne afaganistan men briten ke sarakshit rajy herat par qabza kar liya tha, faras ki khadi men sainik abhiyan dal bheja. is abhiyan dal ne shah ki senaon ko herat se khaded diya aur afaganistan ke shasak dost muhammad ke sath mitrata kar li, jo 1857 ki sandhi dvara aur bhi sudridh ho gee.

bharat men janajagaran

usi varsh bharat men vidroh bhadaka, yah ek aisa janajagaran tha, jisane uttari bharat men british shasan ke khilaf vyapak vidroh ka roop le liya. kaining ne fauran atirikt sahayak senaen ekatrit kin, jinamen chin ja rahe british sainik bhi shamil the aur vidrohiyon ke mazaboot thikanon par phir se qabza kar liya. vidroh ke daman ke bad kaining ne bharatiyon ko yah vishvas dilane ki koshish ki ki unaka irada badala lene ka n hokar sulah karane ka tha.

kaining ki niti

british eest indiya kampani se british taj ko satta hastantarit kie jane ke bad bharat sarakar ke punargathan ki karyavahi kaining ki adhyakshata men huee. unhen 1859 men arl ki upadhi pradan ki gee. 1861 ke bharatiy parishad adhiniyam dvara unhonne apani karyakari parishad ka punargathan kiya aur dayitvon ka vibhagiy vitaran shuroo kiya. unhonne parishad ka vistar karake bharatiy gair-sarakari sadasyon ke lie jagah banaee aur bharatiy sena ko naya roop dekar usamen yooropiy adhikariyon ko bhar diya. unhonne relon ke vikas ko badhava diya aur akal rahat kary shuroo kie. sath hi kalakatta (kolakata), bambee (mumbee) aur madras (chennee) vishvavidyalayon ki sthapana men madad di.

paksh-vipaksh

unhonne bharatiy kashtakaron ko bedakhal hone ya behisab bhada vriddhi ke khilaf suraksha dilane ki koshish ki aur yooropiy nil utpadakon dvara unaka shoshan rokane ke lie hastakshep kiya. lekin kaining ne avadh men bhoo-rajasv samajhauta lagoo kiya, jo anuchit roop se bhoo-malikon ke hit men tha. apani patni ki mrityu (navambar 1861) ke bad unhonne 1862 men apane pad se istifa de diya. unaki koee santan nahin thi aur unaki upadhi bhi unake sath hi samapt ho gee.

mahattvapoorn kary

kaining ke mahattvapoorn kary is prakar hain-

  • sainy sudhar ke antargat kainnig ne bharatiy sainikon ki snkhya ghatate hue unake hathon se topakhanen ke adhikar ko chhin liya.
  • arthik sudharon ke antargat kainning ne british arthashastri vilsan ko bharat bulaya.
  • kaining ne 500 ru. se adhik ay par ayakar laga diya aur isake sath hi ayat par 10 pratishat tatha niryat par 4 pratishat kar nishchit kar diya.
  • namak kar men vriddhi kar di tatha tambakoo par bhi kar lagaya .
  • 1859 ee. men bngal kiraya adhiniyam svikrit hua jisamen un kisanon, jo pichhale 12 varsho se lagatar kiraye ki bhoomi par kheti kar rahe the ya lagatar 20 varsho se saman kiraye par kheti kar rahe the, ko bhoomi ka adhikari samajha gaya.
  • nyayik sudharon ke antargat kaining ne 'indiyan haee kort ekt 1861' dvara bambee, kalakatta tatha madras men ek-ek uchch nyayalay ki sthapana ki.
  • maikale ke dand vidhan, jabta divani v jabta faujadari ko antim roop se 1860 ee. men svikar kar liya.
  • sarvajanik sudharon ke tahat kainnig ne relalainon, sadakon v naharon ka nirman karavaya.
  • 1861 ka bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam isi ke samay men parit kiya gaya, jisamen gavarnar-janaral ke kaunsil ke sadasyon ki snkhya 4 se badhakar 5 kar di gayi. isi prakar lejisletiv kaunsil ke sadasyon ki snkhya 4 se badhakar 12 kar di gee.
  • samajik sudharon ke antargat vidhava punarvivah adhiniyam, 1856 kening ke samay men hi pas hua.
  • 1857 men jin bharatiy riyasaton ne angrezi raj ka samarthan kiya tha, unake lie 1858 ki ghoshana men samragyi dvara yah pran kiya gaya tha ki sthaniy rajaon ke adhikaron, gaurav tatha samman ko vah apane samman ke barabar hi manati hai. isi ke samay men vilay ki niti ko tilanjali dete hue navin niti apanayi gayi jisake anusar kushasan ke aropi rajaon ko dandit karane ka pravadhan to tha, kintu unake rajy ko vilay karane ka pravadhan nahin tha 1879 men malhar rav gayakavadh ko kushasan ke lie dandit karate hue sinhasan se utar diya gaya kintu unake rajy ko angrezi samrajy men nahin milaya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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