उमर ख़य्याम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

umar khayyam sngitamay pharasi rubaiyon ke prasiddh rachayita abul fatah umar bin ibrahim al khayyam athava khayyam (khema sinevale) ke vishay men yadyapi yoorop evn eshiya ke anek uchch koti ke vidvanh‌ lagabhag 100 varsh se shodhakary men snlagn hain kintu abhi tak nishchit roop se usaki janm evn mrityu tithi bhi nirdharit nahin ho saki hai. samakalin grnthon se keval yah pata chal saka hai ki 467 hi. (1074-75 ee.) men vah saljooq sultan jalaluddin malikashah ki vedhashala ka uchch adhikari niyukt ho gaya tha. 506 hi. (1112-13 ee.) men usake shishy tatha pharasi ke prasiddh vidvanh‌ nizami uruzi samarakndi ne usase balkh men bhent ki. 505 hi. (1112-13 ee.) athava 507 hi. (1113-14 ee.) men 'tarikhul hukama' ka lekhak abulahasan behaqi, balyavastha men usase mila. 508 hi. (1114-15 ee.) men usane sultan muhammad bin malikashah ke shikar ke lie lagnakundali taiyar ki. 530 hi. (1135-36 ee.) ke poorv usaka shishy nizami kanan ke pushpon se dhaki huee usaki kabr ke darshanarth pahuncha tha. usake pray: char varsh pahale usaki mrityu ho chuki thi. in mukhy tithiyon ke prasng men ullikhit vibhinn ghatanaon ke adhar par is bat ka anuman lagaya gaya hai ki usaka janm 440 hi. (1048-49 ee.) evn mrityu 526 hi. (1131-32 ee.) men huee. uttar poorv pharas ke kharasan prant ka nishapur nagar, jo madhyayug men ramaniyata evn samriddhi ke sath-sath vidvanon evn uchch koti ke vidyalayon ke lie vikhyat tha, usaki janmabhoomi tha.

umar khayyam apane jivanakal men hi jyotishi, vaigyanik evn darshanik ke roop men prasiddh ho gaya tha. 1074-75 ee. men sultan jalaluddin malikashah ki vedhashala men usane 'al tarikh al jalali' athava jalali pnchang taiyar karaya. usaki vaigyanik rachanaon men usake bijaganit 'risalah fi barahin al jabr val muqabala' ka anuvad fitzerald ke rubaiyon ke angreji bhashantar ke ath varsh poorv 1851 ee. men phransisi anuvad sahit peris se prakashit ho chuka tha, yadyapi yoorop ke vidvanon men is grnth ki charcha 1742 ee. se hi prarnbh ho gee thi. usaki any vaigyanik rachanaon men yooklid ke 'musadarat' siddhanton se snbndhit usaki shodhapoorn prastavana, ganit snbndhi grnth 'mushkilat-alahisab:' evn chandi sone ke apekshik bhar snbndhi grnth 'mizanul hikam v risalah maref meqadarijhab' adhik prasiddh hain. bahut se vidvanon ka mat hai ki aboo sina ke grnthon ke saman usaki darshanashastr snbndhi rachanaen bhi kam mahatv ki nahin hain. usane 'risale kaun v takalif' 'risale fi kulliyatil vujood', 'risale maujoo ilme kulli v vujood' evn 'risale ausaf', ya 'risalatul vujood' namak apani rachanaon men advaitavad tatha 'ek evn anek' ke siddhanton ki bade vidvattapoorn dhng se mimansa ki hai. rajadarabaron men vah chikitsak ke roop men bhi vikhyat tha. usake kuchh arabi sher bhi milate hain. kintu use adhik prasiddhi farasi rubaiyon ke karan hi mili.

usaki rubaiyon ki prachinatam pramanik hastalikhit pothi, jisaka abhi tak pata chal saka hai, istnbol ki 1456-57 ee. ki pothi hai jisamen 131 rubaiyan hain. istnbol men hi 1460-61ee. ki nakal ki huee tatha pothi men 315 rubaiyan, aksaford ke baaudaliyan pustakalay ki 1460-61 ee. ki ek pothi men 158 rubaiyan, viyena ki 1550 ee. ki pothi men 482 rubaiyan, bankipur (patana) ke khudabakhsh pustakalay ki pothi men 604 aur 1894 ee. men lakhanoo se prakashit snskaran men 770 rubaiyan hain. 897 ee. men roosi vidvanh‌ zokovoski ne umar khayyam ki vastavik rubaiyon ki chhanabin prarnbh ki aur nikola ke 1867 ee. ke phransisi snskaran ki 464 rubaiyon men 82 ko any pharasi kaviyon ki bataya hai. jis prakar usaki rubaiyon ke adhar par usake jivan se snbndhit anek ghatanaen gadh li gee hain, usi prakar any farasi kaviyon ki rubaiyan bhi usake nam par thop di gee hain aur usaki darshanashastr aur any gnbhir vishayon se snbndhit rubaiyan 'bhoolati bhatakati' any kaviyon ki rachanaon men sammilit ho gee hain. angrej vidvanh‌ ee.di.ros, phransisi pndit kristen zen tatha profesar braun ne vidvattapoorn shodh dvara shuddh rubaiyon ka pata lagane ka prayatn kiya hai. eshiya evn yoorop ke any vidvanon ki bhi is snbndh men rachanaen abhi tak prakashit hoti ja rahi hain kintu usaki pramanik rubaiyon ki vastavik snkhya abhi tak nirdharit nahin ho saki hai.[1]

snsar ki lagabhag sabhi bhashaon men usaki rubaiyon ke pady athava gady anuvad prakashit ho chuke hain. prachinatam angreji padyanuvad fitzerald ne 1859 ee. men prakashit karaya tha. 1867 ee. men nikola ne phransisi snskaran nikala. 1868 ee. fitzerald ke angreji anuvad ka doosara snskaran prakashit hua. isake bad ke anuvadon ke snskaranon ka, jinamen sachitr snskaran bhi sammilit hain, anuman lagana hi asnbhav hai. 1898 ee.men ee. herin elen ne fitzerald ke bhashantar ko mool rubaiyon se milakar yah siddh kar diya hai ki fitazerald ne mool ki chinta n karake kahin-kahin do-do, tin tin rubaiyon ka bhav ek men hi aur kahin mool ki atma men pravisht hokar keval kavyamay vyakhya kar di hai.

umar khayyam ki rubaiyon men basnt, sura-sundari-upabhog, vihar, prem, rati evn vishayavasana ke jo bhav sphutit hain tatha jo vyngy prapy hain unake adhar par kuchh vidvanon ne use nastik, jadavadi athava keval rasik, kamuk ya mauji jiv bataya hain kintu usake any gnbhir grnthon evn samakalin rajanitik tatha samajik uthal puthal ki prishthabhoomi men yadi usaki rubaiyon ka adhyayan kiya jae to gyat ho jaega ki vah bade uchch koti evn svatntr vicharon ka soophi tha aur parnparaon, roodhiyon, andhavishvason evn dharmandhata ka virodh karane men use eeshvar ka bhi koee bhay n tha.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 129 |
  2. sn.grn.-(pharasi tatha arabi)-uruzi samaraqndi : 'chahar maqala', 'shaharazori', 'nuzahatul aravah'; shekh najmuddin dayah : 'mirasadul ebad'; ibne asir : 'tarikhe kamil'; jamaluddin qifti : 'akhb़arul ulma'; zakariya qazavini; 'asarul belad; rashiduddin fazalullah : 'jame uttavarikh'; maulana khusaro abr qohi : 'firadausuttavarikh'; haji khalifa : 'kashphujjunnoon'; ahamad bin nasrullah thatthi : 'tarikhe alafi'. (urdoo) saiyad suleman nadavi : 'khayyam aur usake savaneh v tasanif par naqedana nazar'. (angreji) braun : 'litrari histari aauv parashiya; arabere, e.je. : 'klaisikal parshiyan litarechar' ; 'inasathaklopidiya aauv islam' tatha anuvadon ki prastavanaen. (hindi) maithilisharan gupt : 'rubaiyate umar khayyam' (sachitr); keshavaprasad pathak : 'rubaiyate umar khayyam' (sachitr).

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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