Makhanchor.jpg bharatakosh ki or se ap sabhi ko krishn janmashtami ki hardik shubhakamanaen Makhanchor.jpg

अमृतलाल नागर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

amritalal nagar vishay soochi
amritalal nagar
amritalal nagar
poora nam amritalal nagar
janm 17 agast, 1916
janm bhoomi gokulapura, agara, uttar pradesh
mrityu 23 faravari, 1990
mrityu sthan bharat
abhibhavak pandit rajaram nagar
sntan sharad nagar
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen manas ka hns, boond aur samudr, amrit aur vish, ekada naimisharanye, pidhiyan, khnjan nayan, chaitany mahaprabhu adi.
vishay natak, rediyonatak, riportaj, nibandh, snsmaran, anuvad, bal sahity, upanyas
bhasha hindi, gujarati, marathi, bangla, angrezi
shiksha haeeskool
puraskar-upadhi batuk prasad puraskar, sudhakar rachat padak, premachand puraskar', sahity akadami puraskar evn soviyat laind neharoo puraskar
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari nagar ji ki kritiyon ne hindi sahity ki garima badhayi hai. nagar ji ke tin rngamnchiy natak evn 25 se adhik rediyo fichar aur bahut se nibandh hain, jo abhi tak prakashit nahin hue hain.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

amritalal nagar (angrezi: Amritlal Nagar, janm: 17 agast, 1916; mrityu: 23 faravari, 1990) hindi ke prasiddh sahityakar the. unhonne natak, rediyonatak, riportaj, nibandh, snsmaran, anuvad, bal sahity adi ke kshetr men bhi mahatvapoorn yogadan diya hai. unhen sahity jagath men upanyasakar ke roop men sarvadhik khyati prapt huee tadapi unaka hasy-vyngy lekhan kam mahatvapoorn nahin hai.

jivan parichay

amritalal nagar ka janm susnskrit gujarati parivar men 17 agast, 1916 ee. ko gokulapura, agara, uttar pradesh men unaki nanihal men hua tha. unake pitamah pandit shivaram nagar 1895 ee. se lakhanoo akar bas ge. unake pita pandit rajaram nagar ki mrityu ke samay nagar ji kul 19 varsh ke the.

shiksha

amritalal nagar ki vidhivath shiksha arthoparjan ki vivashata ke karan haeeskool tak hi huee, kintu nirantar svadhyay dvara unhonne sahity, itihas, puran, puratatv, samajashastr, manovigyan adi vishayon par tatha hindi, gujarati, marathi, bangla evn angrezi adi bhashaon par adhikar prapt kiya.

karyakshetr

amritalal nagar ne ek chhoti si naukari ke bad kuchh samay tak mukt lekhan evn hasyaras ke prasiddh patr 'chakallas' ke sampadan ka kary 1940 se 1947 ee. tak kolhapur men kiya isake bad bambee evn madras ke film kshetr men lekhan ka kary kiya. yah hindi filmon men dabing kary men agrani the. disambar, 1953 se mee, 1956 tak akashavani, lakhanoo men drama, prodyoosar, usake kuchh samay bad svatntr lekhan ka kary kiya.

vyaktittv

nagar ji apane vyaktitv aur samajik anubhavon ki kasauti par vicharon ko kasate rahate hain aur jitani matra men unhen khara pate hain, utani hi matra men grahan karate hain. chahe un par deshi chhap ho ya videshi, purani chhap ho ya nayi. unaki kasauti moolabhoot roop se sadharan bharatiy jan ki kasauti hai, jo saty ko asthir tarkon ke dvara nahin, sadhanalabdh shraddha ke dvara pahachanati hai. andhashraddha ko katane ke lie ve tarkon ka prayog avashy karate hain, kintu tarkon ke karan anubhavon ko nahin jhuthalate, phalat: kabhi-kabhi purane aur naye donon un par jhunjhala uthate hain. 'ekada naimisharanye' men puranon aur pauranik charitron ka samajashastriy, ardh aitihasik svachchhand vishleshan ya 'manas ka hns' men yuva tulasidas ke jivan men 'mohini prasng' ka snyojan adi puranapnthiyon ko anuchit dussahas lagata hai, to baba ramajidas aur tulasi ke adhyatmik anubhavon ko shraddha ke sath ankit karana bahutere nayon ko nagavar aur pragativirodhi pratit hota hai. nagar ji in donon prakaron ke prativadon se vichalit nahin hote. apani is pravritti ke karan ve kisi ek sahityik khane men nahin rakhe ja sakate.

vichar

amritalal nagar hindi ke gambhir kathakaron men sarvadhik lokapriy hain. isaka arth hi yah hai ki ve vishishtata aur rnjakata donon tatvon ko apani kritiyon men sametane men samarth hue hain. unhonne n to parampara ko hi nakara hai, n adhunikata se munh moda hai. unhen apane samay ki purani aur nayi donon pidhiyon ka sneh samarthan mila aur kabhi-kabhi donon ka upalnbh bhi mila hai. adhyatmikata par gahara vishvas karate hue bhi ve samajavadi hain, kintu jaise unaki adhyatmikata kisi sampraday kathaghare men bandi nahin hai, vaise hi unaka samajavad kisi rajanitik dal ke pas bandhak nahin hai. unaki kalpana ke samajavadi samaj men vyakti aur samaj donon ka mukt svasth vikas samasya ko samajhane aur chitrit karane ke lie use samaj ke bhitar rakhakar dekhana hi nagar ji ke anusar thik dekhana hai. isilie boond (vyakti) ke sath hi sath ve samudr (samaj) ko nahin bhoolate.

jagath ke prati drishtikon

nagar ji ki jagath ke prati drishti n atirekavadi hai, n hathagrahi. ekangadarshi n hone ke karan ve usaki achchhaiyon aur buraiyon, donon ko dekhate hain. kintu buraiyon se uthakar achchhaiyon ki or viphalata ko bhi ve manushyatv manate hain. jivan ki kroorata, kuroopata, viphalata ko bhi ve ankit karate chale hain, kintu usi ko manav niyati nahin manate. jis prakar snkirn arthik svarthon aur mrit dharmikata ke thekedaron se ve apane lekhan men joojhate rahe hain, usi prakar moolyon ke vighatan, dishahinata, arthahinata adi ka nara lagakar nishkriyata aur atmahatya tak ka samarthan karane vali bauddhikata ko bhi nakarate rahe hain. apane lekhak-nayak aravind shnkar ke madhyam se unhonne kaha hai, jad-chetan, bhay, vish-amrit may, andhakar-prakashamay jivan men nyay ke lie karm karana hi gati hai. mujhe jina hi hoga, karm karana hi hoga, yah bandhan hi meri mukti bhi hai. is andhakar men hi prakash pane ke lie mujhe jina hai.[1] nagar ji aropit buddhi se kam nahin karate, kisi drishti ya vad ko jas ka tas nahin lete.

sahityik jivan

amritalal nagar

nagar ji kissagoee men mahir hain. yadyapi gambhir uttaradayitvon ka nirvah karane ke karan kahin-kahin unake upanyason men bahason ke dauran tatvik vivechan ke lambe-lambe prnsag bhi a jate hain. tathapi ve apani kritiyon ko upadeshatmak ya ubaoo nahin banane dete. rochak kathaon aur thos charitron ki bhoomika se hi vicharon ke akash ki or bhari gayi in udanon ko sadharan pathak bhi jhel lete hain. unake sahity ka lakshy bhi sadharan nagarik hai, apane ko asadharan manane vala sahityakar ya buddhijivi samikshak nahin. samaj men khoob ghul-milakar apane dekhe-sune aur anubhav kiye charitron, prasngon ko tanik kalpana ke put se ve apane katha sahity men dhalate rahe hain. apani arambhik kahaniyon men unhonne kahin-kahin svachhandatavadi bhavukata ki jhalak di hai. kintu unaka jivan bodh jyon-jyon badhata gaya tyon-tyon ve apane bhavatirek ko snyat aur kalpana ko yatharthashrit karate chale gaye. apane pahale apraudh upanyas mahakal men samajik yatharth ke jis svachchh bodh ka parichay unhonne diya tha, nihit svarth ke vividh roopon ko samrajyavadi utpidan, zamindaron, vyapariyon dvara sadharan janata ke shoshan, sampradayikatavadiyon ke hathakndon adi ko benakab karane ka jo sahas dikhaya tha, vah paravarti upanyason men kalatmak snyam ke sath-sath uttarottar nikharata chala gaya.

'boond aur samudr' tatha 'amrit aur vish' jaise vartaman jivan par likhit upanyason men hi nahin, 'ekada naimisharanye' tatha 'manas ka hns' jaise pauranik-aitihasik pithika par rachit sanskritik upanyason men bhi utpidakon ka pardafash karane aur utpiditon ka sath dene ka apana vrat unhonne bakhoobi nibhaya hai. atit ko vartaman se jodane aur prerana ke srot ke roop men prastut karane ke snkalp ke karan hi 'ekada naimisharanye' men puranakaron ke katha-sootr ko bharat ki ekatmakata ke lie kiye gaye mahanh sanskritik prayas ke roop men, tatha 'manas ka hns' men tulasi ki jivan katha ko asaktiyon aur pralobhanon ke snghaton ke karan dagamaga kar adig ho jane vali 'astha ke sngharsh ki katha' evn utpidit lokajivan ko snjivani pradan karane vali 'bhaktidhara ke pravah ki katha' ke roop men prabhavashali dhng se ankit kiya hai.

aparadh bodh ka anubhav

samajik paristhitiyon se joojhate hue vyakti ke antarman men kamavritti ke ghat pratighat ka chitran bhi unhonne vishvasaniy roop se kiya hai. kam ko ichchhashakti git aur srijan ke prerak ke roop men grahan karane ke karan ve use bahut adhik mahatv dete hain. kam apane adharon (vyaktiyon) ke sat, raj, tam ke anshon ki nyoonadhikata ke karan sahasron roop dharan kar sakata hai. apane nikrisht roop men vah balatkar ya indriy bhog matr banakar rah jata hai to apane utkrisht roop men prem ki sngya pata hai. nagar ji ne kuntharahit hokar kintu uttaradayitv ke bodh ke sath kam ki vikrit (virahesh aur badi, lachchhoo aur uma mathur, lavasool aur juana adi), svaroop (sajjan aur vanakanya, ramesh aur ranivala adi) aur divy (somahuti aur hajya, tulasi aur ratnavali) evn inake anekanek mishrit roopon ki chhaviyan apani kritiyon men anki hain. pidita nari ke prati unaki sada sahanubhooti rahi hai, chahe vah kannagi ke sadrish ekanishth ho, chahe madhavi ke sadrish veshya. svarthi purush ki bhog-vasana hi nari ko veshya banati hai. at: purush hone ke karan unake prati nagar ji apane man men aparadh bodh ka anubhav karate hain. jisaka anshik parimarjan unhonne sadbhavana poorn bhentavartaon par adharit ye kothevaliyan jaisi tathyapoorn kriti ke dvara kiya hai.

zindadili aur vinodi vritti

nagar ji ki zindadili aur vinodi vritti unaki kritiyon ko kabhi vishadapoorn nahin banane deti. 'navabi masanad' aur 'seth bankemal' men hasy vyngy ki jo dhara pravahit huee hai, vah anant dhara ke roop men unake gambhir upanyason men bhi vidyaman hai aur vibhinn charitron evn sthitiyon men bich-bich men prakat hokar pathak ko ullasit karati rahati hai. nagar ji ke charitr samaj ke vibhinn vargon se grihit hain. unamen achchhe bure sabhi prakar ke log hain, kintu unake charitr-chitran men manovishleshanatmakata ko kam aur ghatanaon ke madhy unake vyavahar ko adhik mahatv diya gaya hai. anekanek ekayami saphal vishvasaniy charitron ke sath-sath unhonne boond aur samudr ki 'taee' jaise jatil charitron ki srishti ki hai, jo ghrina aur karuna, vidvesh aur vatsaly, pratihinsa aur utsarg ki vilakshan samashti hai.

samajik paridrishy ko ubharane ki cheshta

kee samikshakon ki shikayat rahi hai ki nagar ji apane upanyason men 'sngrahavritti' se kam lete hain, 'chayanavritti' se nahin. isilie unamen anapekshit vistar ho jata hai. vastut: nagar ji ke bade upanyason men samagr samajik jivan ko jhalakane ki drishti adyatan hai. at: thode se charitron par adharit subaddh kathanak paddhati ke sthan par ve shithil sambandhon se judi aur ek-doosare ki poorak lagane vali kathaon ke madhyam se yathasambhav poore samajik paridrishy ko ubharane ki cheshta karate hain. mahabharat evn puranon ke anushilan ne unhen is paddhati ki or prerit kiya hai. shilp par anavashyak bal dene ko ve uchit nahin manate. unaka kahana hai ki faaurm ke lie main pareshan nahin hota, bat jab bhitar-bhitar pakane lagati hai to vah apana faaurm khud apane sath lati hai. main saralata ko lekhak ke lie anivary gun manata hoon. jatilata, kutrimata, danv-pench se lekhak mahanh nahin ban sakata. isilie keval 'faaurm' ke pichhe daudane vale lekhak ko main tutapnjiya samajhata hoon.

pramukh kritiyan

amritalal nagar ne 1928 men chhitaput evn 1932 se 1933 se jamakar likhana shuroo kiya. inaki prarambhik kavitaen megharaj indr ke nam se, kahaniyan apane nam se tatha vyngyapoorn rekhachitr-nibandh adi taslim lakhanavi ke nam se likhit hain. yah kathakar ke roop men supratishthit the. yah 'boond aur samudr' (1956) ke prakashan ke sath hindi ke pratham shreni ke upanyasakaron ke roop men many hain.

kahani evn rekhachitr
san kritiyan
1935 'vatika'
1938 'avashesh'
1939 'navabi masanad'
1941 'tularam shastri'
1947 'adami nahin, nahin'
1948 'panchavan dasta'
1955 'ek din hazar dastan'
1956 'etam bam'
1963 'pipal ki pari'
1973 'kaladnd ki chori'
1970 'meri priy kahaniyan'
1970 'panchavan dasta aur sat any kahaniyan'
upanyas
san kritiyan
1942-1943 'mahakal'
1944 'seth bankemal'
1956 'boond aur samudr'
1959 'shatarnj ke mohare'
1960 'suhag ke noopur'
1966 'amrit aur vish'
1968 'sat ghoonghatavala mukhada'
1971 'ekada naimisharanye'
1972 'manas ka hns'
bal sahity
san kritiyan
1947 'natakhat chachi'
1950 'nindiya aja'
1969 'bajarngi naurngi'
1969 'bajarngi pahalavan'
1970 'itihas jharokhe'
1971 'bal mahabharat'
1971 'bharat putr naurngi lal'
anuvad
san kritiyan
1935 'bisati' (mopasan ki kahaniyan)
1937 'prem ki pyas' (gustav phoolaber krit 'madam bovari' ka snkshipt bhavanuvad)
1939 'kala purohit' (etan chekhab ki kahaniyan)
1948 'ankhon dekha gadar' (vishnubhatt godase krit 'majha pravas')
1955 'do phakkad' (kanhaiyalal manikalal munshi ke tin gujarati natak)
1956 'sarasvat' (mama varerakar ka marathi natak)
bhentavarta evn snsmaran
san kritiyan
1957 'gadar ke phool'
1961 'ye kothevaliyan'
1973 'jinake sath jiya'

bhasha

bhasha ke kshetriy prayogon ko vividh vargon men prayukt bhinnataon ke sath jyon ka tyon utar dene men nagar ji ko kamal hasil hai. bolachal ki sahaj, chatul, chnchal bhasha gambhir darshanik samajik prasngon ki guruta evn antarng pranay prasngon ki komalata ka nirvah karane ke lie kis prakar badal jati hai, ise dekhate hi banata hai. sachamuch bhasha par nagar ji ka asadharan adhikar hai. nagar ji shilp ke prati udasin hain. apane purane shilp se age badhane ki cheshta barabar karate rahe hain. 'boond aur samudr' men pauranik shilp ke abhinav prayog ke anantar 'amrit aur vish' men apane patron ki duhari sattaon ke adhar par do-do kathaon ko sath-sath chalana, 'manas ka hns' men flaish baik ke drishy roop ka vyapak prayog karana unaki shilp sajagata ke udaharan hain. phir bhi yah saty hai ki unake lie kathy hi mukhy hai shilp nahin.

puraskar

nagar ji ko 'boond' aur 'samudr' par kashi nagari pracharini sabha ka batuk prasad puraskar evn sudhakar rajat padak, 'suhag ke noopur' par uttar pradesh shasan ka 'premachand puraskar', 'amrit aur vish' par sahity akadami ka 1967 ka puraskar evn soviyat laind neharoo puraskar 1970 tatha sahityik sevaon par yugantar ka 1972 ka puraskar pradan kiya ja chuka hai.

mrityu

amritalal nagar ji ka nidhan sanh 23 faravari, 1990 ee. men hua tha. nagar ji ki kritiyon ne hindi sahity ki garima badhayi hai. nagar ji ke tin rngamnchiy natak evn 25 se adhik rediyo fichar aur bahut se nibandh hain, jo abhi tak prakashit nahin hue hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. amrit aur vish, prishth snkhya 716

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