सूर्यकान्त त्रिपाठी 'निराला'  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sooryakant tripathi 'nirala'
Suryakant Tripathi Nirala.jpg
poora nam sooryakant tripathi nirala
any nam nirala
janm 21 faravari, 1896 [1]
janm bhoomi medanipur zila, bngal (pashchim bngal)
mrityu 15 aktoobar, sanh 1961
mrityu sthan prayag, bharat
abhibhavak pn. ramasahay
pati/patni manohara devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahityakar
mukhy rachanaen parimal, gitika, tulasidas (khandakavy) adi
vishay kavita, khndakavy, nibndh, samiksha
bhasha hindi, bngala, angrezi aur snskrit bhasha
prasiddhi kavi, upanyasakar, nibandhakar aur kahanikar
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
sooryakant tripathi nirala ki rachanaen

sooryakant tripathi nirala (angrezi: Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', janm- magh shukl 11 samvath 1953 athava 21 faravari, 1896 ee., medanipur bngal; mrityu- 15 aktoobar, 1961, prayag) hindi ke chhayavadi kaviyon men kee drishtiyon se vishesh mahattvapoorn hain. nirala ji ek kavi, upanyasakar, nibandhakar aur kahanikar the. unhonne kee rekhachitr bhi banaye. unaka vyaktitv atishay vidrohi aur krantikari tattvon se nirmit hua hai. usake karan ve ek or jahan anek krantikari parivartanon ke srashta hue, vahan doosari or paramparabhyasi hindi kavy premiyon dvara arase tak sabase adhik galat bhi samajhe gaye. unake vividh prayogon- chhand, bhasha, shaili, bhavasambandhi navyatar drishtiyon ne navin kavy ko disha dene men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. isalie ghisi-piti paramparaon ko chhodakar navin shaili ke vidhayak kavi ka puratanataposhak pidhi dvara svagat ka n hona svabhavik tha. lekin pratibha ka prakash upeksha aur agyan ke kuhase se bahut der tak achchhann nahin rah sakata.

jivan parichay

'nirala' ka janm mahishadal stet medanipur (bngal) men magh shukl paksh ki ekadashi, snvath 1953, ko hua tha. inaka apana ghar unnav zile ke gadhakola ganv men hai. nirala ji ka janm ravivar ko hua tha isalie yah surjakumar kahalae. 11 janavari, 1921 ee. ko pn. mahavir prasad ko likhe apane patr men nirala ji ne apani umr 22 varsh bataee hai. ramanaresh tripathi ne kavita kaumudi ke lie sanh 1926 ee. ke ant men janm sambndhi vivaran manga to nirala ji ne magh shukl 11 samvat 1953 (1896) apani janm tithi likhakar bheji. yah vivaran nirala ji ne svayn likhakar diya tha.[2] bngal men basane ka parinam yah hua ki bangla ek tarah se inaki matribhasha ho gayi.

parivar

'nirala' ke pita ka nam pn. ramasahay tha, jo bngal ke mahishadal rajy ke medinipur zile men ek sarakari naukari karate the. nirala ka bachapan bngal ke is kshetr men bita jisaka unake man par bahut gahara prabhav raha hai. tin varsh ki avastha men unaki man ki mrityu ho gayi aur unake pita ne unaki dekharekh ka bhar apane oopar le liya.

shiksha

nirala ki shiksha yahin bngali madhyam se shuroo huee. haeeskool pas karane ke pashchath unhonne ghar par hi snskrit aur angrezi sahity ka adhyayan kiya. haeeskool karane ke pashchath ve lakhanoo aur usake bad gadhakola (unnav) a gaye. prarambh se hi ramacharitamanas unhen bahut priy tha. ve hindi, bngala, angrezi aur snskrit bhasha men nipun the aur shri ramakrishn paramahns, svami vivekanand aur shri ravindranath taigor se vishesh roop se prabhavit the. maitrikuleshan kaksha men pahunchate-pahunchate inaki darshanik ruchi ka parichay milane laga.[3] nirala svachchhand prakriti ke the aur skool men padhane se adhik unaki ruchi ghoomane, khelane, tairane aur kushti ladane ityadi men thi. sngit men unaki vishesh ruchi thi. adhyayan men unaka vishesh man nahin lagata tha. is karan unake pita kabhi-kabhi unase kathor vyavahar karate the, jabaki unake hriday men apane ekamatr putr ke liye vishesh sneh tha.

vivah

pandrah varsh ki alpayu men nirala ka vivah manohara devi se ho gaya. rayabareli zile men dalamoo ke pn. ramadayal ki putri manohara devi sundar aur shikshit thin, unako sngit ka abhyas bhi tha. patni ke zor dene par hi unhonne hindi sikhi. isake bad atishighr hi unhonne bngala ke bajay hindi men kavita likhana shuroo kar diya. bachapan ke nairashy aur ekaki jivan ke pashchath unhonne kuchh varsh apani patni ke sath sukh se bitaye, kintu yah sukh zyada dinon tak nahin tika aur unaki patni ki mrityu unaki 20 varsh ki avastha men hi ho gayi. bad men unaki putri jo ki vidhava thi, ki bhi mrityu ho gayi. ve arthik vishamataon se bhi ghire rahe. aise samay men unhonne vibhinn prakashakon ke sath prooph ridar ke roop men kam kiya, unhonne 'samanvay' ka bhi sampadan kiya.

parivarik vipattiyan

16-17 varsh ki umr se hi inake jivan men vipattiyan arambh ho gayin, par anek prakar ke daivi, samajik aur sahityik sngharshon ko jhelate hue bhi inhonne kabhi apane lakshy ko nicha nahin kiya. inaki man pahale hi gat ho chuki thin, pita ka bhi asamayik nidhan ho gaya. inaphluenja ke vikaral prakop men ghar ke any prani bhi chal base. patni ki mrityu se to ye toot se gaye. par kutumb ke palan-poshan ka bhar svayn jhelate hue ve apane marg se vichalit nahin hue. in vipattiyon se tran pane men inake darshanik ne achchhi sahayata pahunchayi.

karyakshetr

nirala ji ne 1918 se 1922 tak mahishadal rajy ki seva ki. usake bad snpadan svatntr lekhan aur anuvad kary kiya. inhonne 1922 se 23 ke dauran kolakata se prakashit 'samanvay' ka snpadan kiya. 1923 ke agast se 'matavala' ke snpadak mndal men kam kiya. inake isake bad lakhanoo men gnga pustak mala karyalay aur vahan se nikalane vali masik patrika 'sudha' se 1935 ke madhy tak snbaddh rahe. inhonne 1942 se mrityu paryant ilahabad men rah kar svatntr lekhan aur anuvad kary bhi kiya. ve jayashnkar prasad aur mahadevi varma ke sath hindi sahity men chhayavad ke pramukh stnbh mane jate hain. unhonne kahaniyan upanyas aur nibndh bhi likhe hain kintu unaki khyati vishesh roop se kavita ke karan hi hai.[2]

rachanaen

nirala ki rachanaon men anek prakar ke bhav pae jate hain. yadyapi ve khadi boli ke kavi the, par brajabhasha v avadhi bhasha men bhi kavitaen gadh lete the. unaki rachanaon men kahin prem ki saghanata hai, kahin adhyatmikata to kahin vipannon ke prati sahanubhooti v samvedana, kahin desh-prem ka zazba to kahin samajik roodhiyon ka virodh v kahin prakriti ke prati jhalakata anurag. ilahabad men patthar todati mahila par likhi unaki kavita aj bhi samajik yatharth ka ek aeena hai. unaka zor vaktavy par nahin varanh chitran par tha, sadak ke kinare patthar todati mahila ka rekhankan unaki kavy chetana ki sarvochchata ko darshata hai –

vah todati patthar
dekha use mainne ilahabad ke path par
vah todati patthar
koee n chhayadar ped
vah jisake tale baithi huee svikar
shyam tan, bhar bndha yauvan
nat nayan priy, karm-rat man
guru hathauda hath
karati bar-bar prahar
samane taroo-malika attalika prakar

  • isi prakar rah chalate bhikhari par unhonne likha-

pet-pith donon milakar hain ek
chal raha lakutiya tek
mutthi bhar dane ko,
bhookh mitane ko
munh phati purani jholi ko phailata
do took kaleje ke karata pachhatata.

  • ram ki shakti pooja ke madhyam se nirala ne ram ko samaj men ek adarsh ke roop men prastut kiya. ve likhate hain -

hogi jay, hogi jay
he purushottam navin
kah mahashakti ram ke badan men hueen lin.

  • sau padon men likhi gayi tulasidas nirala ki sabase badi kavita hai, jo ki 1934 men likhi gayi aur 1935 men sudha ke panch ankon men kistavar prakashit huyi. is prabandh kavy men nirala ne patni ke yuva tan-man ke akarshan men mohagrast tulasidas ke mahakavi banane ko bakhoobi dikhaya hai –

jaga jaga snskar prabal
re gaya kam tatkshan vah jal
dekha vama, vah n thi, anal pramita vah
is or gyan, us or gyan
ho gaya bhasm vah pratham bhan
chhoota jag ka jo raha dhyan.

  • nirala ki rachanadharmita men ekarasata ka put nahin hai. ve kabhi bhi bndhakar nahin likh pate the aur n hi yah unaki phakkad prakriti ke anukool tha. nirala ki joohi ki kali kavita aj bhi logon ke jehan men basi hai. is kavita men nirala ne apani abhivyakti ko chhndon ki sima se pare chhandavihin kavita ki or pravahit kiya hai–

vijan-van vallari par
soti thi suhag bhari sneh svapn magn
amal komal tan taruni joohi ki kali
drig bnd kiye, shithil patrank men
vasanti nisha thi

  • yahi nahin, nirala ek jagah sthir hokar kavita-path bhi nahin karate the. ek bar ek samaroh men akashavani ko unaki kavita ka sidha prasaran karana tha, to unake charon or maik lagae ge ki pata nahin ve ghoom-ghoom kar kis kone se kavita padhen. nirala ne apane samay ke mashahoor rajanisen, chandidas, govind das, vivekanand aur ravindr nath taigor ityadi ki bangla kavitaon ka anuvad bhi kiya, yadyapi un par taigor ki kavitaon ke anuvad ko apana maulik kahakar prakashit karane ke arop bhi lage. rajadhani dilli ko bhi nirala ne abhivyakti di-

yamuna ki dhvani men
hai goonjati suhag-gatha
sunata hai andhakar khada chupachap jahan
aj vah firadaus, sunasan hai pada
shahi divan am stabdh hai ho raha hai
dupahar ko, parshv men
uthata hai jhilli rav
bolate hain syar rat yamuna-kachhar men
lin ho gaya hai rav
shahi anganaon ka
nistabdh minar, maun hain maqabare.

  • nirala ki maulikata, prabal bhavodveg, lokamanas ke hriday patal par chha jane vali jivant v prabhavi shaili, adbhut vaky vinyas aur unamen antanihit goodh arth unhen bhid se alag khada karate hain. basnt pnchami aur nirala ka sambandh bada adbhut raha aur is din har sahityakar unake sannidhy ki apeksha rakhata tha. aise hi kinhin kshanon men nirala ki kavy rachana men yauvan ka bhavaveg dikha-

rok-tok se kabhi nahin rukati hai
yauvan-mad ki badh nadi ki
kise dekh jhukati hai
garaj-garaj vah kya kahati hai, kahane do
apani ichchha se prabal veg se bahane do.

  • yauvan ke charam men prem ke viyogi svaroop ko bhi unhonne ukera-

chhote se ghar ki laghu sima men
bndhe hain kshudr bhav
yah sach hai priy
prem ka payodhi to umadata hai
sada hi ni:sim bhoomi par.

nirala ke kavy men adhyatmikata, darshanikata, rahasyavad aur jivan ke goodh pakshon ki jhalak milati hai par lokamanyata ke adhar par nirala ne vishayavastu men naye pratiman sthapit kiye aur samasamayikata ke put ko bhi khoob ubhara. apani putri saroj ke asamayik nidhan aur sahityakaron ke ek gut dvara anavarat anargal alochana kiye jane se nirala apane jivan ke antim varshon men manovikshipt se ho gaye the. putri ke nidhan par shok-santapt nirala saroj-smriti men likhate hain-

mujh bhagyahin ki too sambal
yug varsh bad jab huee vikal
dukh hi jivan ki katha rahi
kya kahoon aj, jo nahin kahi.[4]

lokapriy rachana

sanh 1916 ee. men 'nirala' ki atyadhik prasiddh aur lokapriy rachana 'juhi ki kali' likhi gayi. yah unaki prapt rachanaon men pahali rachana hai. yah us kavi ki rachana hai, jisane 'sarasvati' aur 'maryada' ki failon se hindi sikhi, un patrikaon ke ek-ek vaky ko snskrit, bangla aur angrezi vyakaran ke sahare samajhane ka prayas kiya. is samay ve mahishadal men hi the. 'ravindr kavita kanan' ke likhane ka samay yahi hai. sanh 1916 men inaka 'hindi-bngla ka tulanatmak vyakaran' 'sarasvati' men prakashit hua.

kavy pratibha ko prakash

ek samany vivad par mahishadal ki naukari chhodakar ve ghar vapas chale aye. kalakatta se prakashit hone vale ramakrishn mishan ke patr 'samanvay' men ve sanh 1922 men chale gaye. 'samanvay' ke sampadan kal men unake darshanik vicharon ke pusht hone ka bahut hi achchha avasar mila. is kal men jo darshanik chetana unako prapt huee, usase unaki kavyashakti aur bhi samriddh huee. sanh 1923-24 ee. men mahadev baboo ne unhen 'matavala' ke sampadan mandal men bula liya. phir to kavy pratibha ko prakash men le ane ka sarvadhik shrey 'matavala' ko hi hai. 'matavala' men bhi ye 2-3 varshon tak hi rah paye. is kal ki likhi gayi adhikansh kavitaen 'parimal' men sngrahit hain.

arthik snkat ka kal

sanh 1927-30 ee. tak ve barabar asvasth rahe. phir svechchha se gnga pustak mala ka sampadan tatha 'sudha' men sampadakiy ka lekhan karane lage. sanh 1930 se 42 tak unaka adhikansh samay lakhanoo men hi bita. yah samay unake ghor arthik snkat ka kal tha. is samay jivakoparjan ke lie unhen janata ke lie likhana padata tha. samany janaruchi katha sahity ke adhik anukool hoti hai. unake kahani sngrah 'lili', 'chaturi chamar', 'sukul ki bibi', (1941 ee.) aur sakhi ki kahaniyan tatha 'apsara', 'alaka', 'prabhavati', (1946 ee.) 'nirupama' ityadi upanyas unake arth snkat ke phalasvaroop pranit hue. ve samay-samay par futabaaul lekh bhi likhate rahe. in lekhon ka sngrah 'prabandh padm' ke nam se isi samay men prakashit hua. isaka tatpary yah nahin hai ki ve janaruchi ke karan apane dharatal se utar kar samany bhoomi par a gaye. unake kavyagat prayog chalate rahe. sanh 1936 ee. men svaratal yukt unake giton ka sngrah 'gitika' nam se prakashit hua. do varsh ke bad arthath sanh 1938 ee. men unaka 'anamika' kavy sngrah prakash men aya. yah sngrah sanh 1922 ee. men prakashit 'anamika' sngrah se bilkul bhinn hai. sanh 1938 ee. hi unake antarmukhi prabandh kavy 'tulasidas' ka bhi prakashan hua.

mukt vritt

  • hindi kavy kshetr men 'nirala' ka padarpan mukt vritt ke sath hota hai. ve is vritt ke pratham puraskartta hain. vastav men 'nirala' ki uddam bhav dhara ko chhand ke bandhan bandh nahin sakate the. gini-ginaee matraon aur antyanuprason ke bndhe ghaton ke bich unaka bhavollas nahin bnt sakata tha. aisi sthiti men kavyabhivyakti ke lie mukt vritt ki anivaryata svat: hi siddh hai. unhonne 'parimal' ki bhoomika men likha hai-
"manushyon ki mukti ki tarah kavita ki bhi mukti hoti hai. manushy ki mukti karm ke bandhan men chhutakara pana hai aur kavita mukt chhandon ke shasan se alag ho jana hai. jis tarah mukt manushy kabhi kisi tarah doosaron ke pratikool acharan nahin karata, usake tamam kary auron ko prasann karane ke lie hote hain phir bhi svatntr. isi tarah kavita ka bhi hal hai."
  • 'mere git aur kala' shirshak nibandh men unhonne likha hai-
"bhavon ki mukti chhandon ki mukti chahati hai. yahan bhasha, bhav aur chhand tinon svachhand hain."
  • ritikal ki kritrim chhandobaddh rachana ke viruddh yah navin unmeshashil kavy ki pahali vidroh vani hai. bhav-vynjana ki drishti se muktachhand komal aur parush donon prakar ki bhavabhivyakti ke lie saman roop se samarth hain, yadyapi 'nirala' ka kahana hai ki, "yah kavita stri ki sukumarata nahin, kavittv ka purush garv hai", kintu 'joohi ki kali' jaisi utkrisht koti ki shrringarik rachana isi vritt men likhi gayi hai.
  • 'nirala' dvara prastut mukt chhand ka adhar kavitt chhand hai. isamen kavi ko bhavanukool charanon ke prasar ki khuli chhoot hai. bhav ki poornata ke sath vritt bhi samapt ho jata hai. aj to mukt vritt kavy-rachana ka mukhy chhand ho gaya hai, par apani vishisht nadayojana ke karan 'nirala' ne usamen prabhavapoorn sngitatmakata la di hai. 'shefalika ka patr' adi rachanaen isi chhand men likhi gayi hain. 'pnchavati prasng'-giti naty ke lie isase adhik upayukt aur koee chhand nahin ho sakata tha. ye samast rachanaen 'parimal' ke tritiy khand men sngrahit hain.
  • 'parimal' ke dvitiy khand ki rachanaen svachchhand chhand men likhi gayi hain, jise 'nirala' muktigit kahate hain. in giton men tuk ka agrah to hai par matraon ka nahin. pant ke 'ansoo', 'uchchhvas' aur 'parivartan' bhi isi chhand men likhe gaye hain. 'parimal' ke pratham khand men samamatrik tukant kavitaen hain. mukt vrittatmak kavitaen akhyan pradhan hain to muktagit chitran pradhan aur matrik chhand men likhi gayi kavitaon men bhav aur kalpana ki pradhanata dekhi ja sakati hai. unaki bahu-vastusparshini pratibha ka parichay arambh se hi milane lagata hai-vishesh roop se sadi-gali manyataon ke prati tivr vidroh tatha nimnavarg ke prati gahari sahanubhooti unamen prarambh se hi dikhaee deti hai.
  • chhayavadi kaviyon ne mukhyat: pragiton ki rachana ki hai. ye pragit gey to hote hain par ye shastranumodit dhng par nahin gaye ja sakate hain. nad-yojana ki or adhik jhukav hone ke karan 'nirala' ne naye svar-tal se yukt giton ki srishti ki. angrezi svar-maitri ka prabhav bngala ke giton par pad chuka tha, usake rng-dhng par bngala giton ki svar lipiyan bhi taiyar ki gayin. hindi ke kaviyon men 'nirala' is disha men bhi agrasar hue. unhen hindi sngit ki shabdavali aur gane ke dhng donon khatakate the. isake phalasvaroop 'gitika' ki rachana huee.

git

nirala ke git gayakon ke giton ki bhanti rag-raganiyon ki roodhiyon se bndhe hue nahin hain. uchcharan ka naya adhar liye hue sabhi git ek alag bhoomi par pratishthit hain. inake svar, tal aur lay angrezi giton se prabhavit hain. piyanon par gaye jane vale dharmik giton ki jhalak in giton men milati hai. isalie in giton ki gayan-paddhati aur bhavavinyas men pavitrata ka spasht snket milata hai. yadyapi 'gitika' ki mool bhavana shrringarik hai, phir bhi bahut se giton men madhury bhav se atmanivedan kiya gaya hai. jagah-jagah manoram prakriti-varnan tatha utkrisht desh-prem ka chitran bhi milata hai. is sngrah ki ek badi visheshata yah bhi hai ki isamen sngitatmakata ke nam par kavy paksh ko kahin par bhi vikrit nahin hone diya gaya hai.

praudhakal

1935 ee. se 1938 ee. tak 'nirala' ki kavy rachana ko praudhakal kaha ja sakata hai. is bich likhi huee kavitaen 'anamika' men sngrahit hain. 'anamika' ka prakashan 1938 ee. men hua. 'anamika' men sngrahit adhikansh rachanaen 'nirala' ki utkrisht bhav-vynjana tatha kalatmak praudhata ki dyotak hain. 'preyasi', 'rekha', 'sarojasmriti', 'ram ki shaktipooja' adi unaki shreshthatam rachanaen hain. 'sarojasmriti' hindi ka sarvashreshth shok-git hai to 'ram ki shaktipooja' adi unaki shreshthatam rachanaen hain. 'sarojasmriti' men karuna ki prishthabhoomi par shrringar, hasy, vyngy ityadi anek bhavon ka kavyatmak sngumphan kiya gaya hai. natakiy gunon se ot-prot hone ke karan vah aur bhi prabhavapoorn ho uthi hai. kavy men karta ke jis nirlep vyaktitv ka mahattv ti.es. iliyat ne sthapit kiya hai, vah is kavita men charam oonchaee par pahuncha hua hai. 'ram ki shaktipooja' men kavi ka paurush aur oj charamotkarsh ke sath abhivyakt hua hai. mahakavy men bhavagat audaty ke anukool kalagat audaty avashyak hai. is kavita men donon prakar ki udattataon ka nir-kshir sammishran hua hai.

pratham prerana kendr

'tulasidas' men katha ki apeksha chintan ka vistar adhik hai. is prabandh men tulasi ke manas paksh ka udghatan karate hue tatkalin parivesh ka poora sahara liya gaya hai. chitrakoot kanan ki chhavi ki chintadhara ka pratham prerana kendr hai. prakriti ka jo chitr kavi ke sammukh prastut hua hai, usako do paksh hain-prakriti ka svayn ka paksh aur tatkalin samaj ka niroopan. kavi ne in donon pakshon ka nirvah bahut kushalatapoorvak kiya hai. bharat ke sanskritik hras ke punaruddhar ki prerana tulasi ko prakriti ke madhyam se hi milati hai. ise dekhakar unaki antarvrittiyan manthit ho uthi hain. inhin antarvrittiyon ka niroopan pustak ki mool chintadhara hai. is prabandh men bhi unake shilpi ka roop sahaj hi bhasit ho jata hai. chhandon ki bndish, roopakon ki vishad yojana, navin shabd-vinyas adi unake apane hain. par is granth men aise shabdon ka vyavahar bhi hua hai, jo arth ki drishti se ise durooh bana dete hain. phir bhi jo log kavy men buddhi-tattv ki ahamiyat svikar karenge, ve ise nirvivad roop se ek shreshth rachana manenge.

poorn kavitaen

praudh kritiyon ki sarjana ke sath hi 'nirala' vyngyavinod poorn kavitaen bhi likhate rahe hain. jinamen se kuchh 'anamika' men sngrahit hain. par isake bad bahy paristhitiyon ke karan, jinamen unake prati paramparavadiyon ka ugr virodh bhi sammilit hai, unamen vishesh parivartan dikhaee padane laga. 'nirala' aur pant moolat: anubhootivadi kavi hain. aise vyaktiyon ko vyaktigat aur samajik paristhitiyan bahut prabhavit karati hain. isake phalasvaroop unaki kavitaon men vyngyoktiyon ke sath-sath nishedhatmak jivan ki gahari abhivyakti hone lagi. 'kukuramutta' tak pahunchate-pahunchate vah pragativad ke virodh men tark upasthit karane lagata hai. upalambh aur vyngy ke samapt hote-hote kavi men vishadatmak shanti a jati hai. ab unake kathan men duniya ke lie sandesh bhagavanh ke prati atmanivedan hai aur hai sahityik-rajanitik mahapurushon ke prashasti ankan ka prayas. 'anima' jivan ke inhin pakshon ki dyotak hai, par isaki kuchh anubhootiyon ki tivrata man ko bhitar se kured deti hai. 'bela' aur 'naye patte' men kavi ki mukhy drishti urdoo aur farasi ke bandon (chhandon) ko hindi men dalane ki or rahi hai. isake bad ke unake do git-sngrahon-'archana' aur 'gitagunj' men kahin par gahari atmanubhooti ki jhalak hai to kahin vyngyokti ki. unake vyngy ki banagi dekhane ke lie unaki do gady ki rachanaon 'kullibhant' aur 'billesur bakariha' ko bhulaya nahin ja sakata.

drashta kavi

sab milakar 'nirala' bharatiy snskriti ke drashta kavi hain-ve galit roodhiyon ke virodhi tatha snskriti ke yuganuroop pakshon ke udghatak aur poshak rahe hain par kavy tatha jivan men nirantar roodhiyon ka moolochchhed karate hue inhen anek sngharshon ka samana karana pada. madhyam shreni men utpann hokar paristhitiyon ke ghat-pratighat se morcha leta hua adarsh ke lie sab kuchh utsarg karane vala mahapurush jis manasik sthiti ko pahuncha, use bahut se log vyaktitv ki apoornata kahate hain. par jahan vyakti ke adarshon aur samajik hinataon men nirantar sngharsh ho, vahan vyakti ka aisi sthiti men padana svabhavik hi hai. hindi ki or se 'nirala' ko yah bali deni padi. jagrit aur unnatishil sahity men hi aisi baliyan sambhav hua karati hain- pratigami aur uddeshyahin sahity men nahin.

pramukh kritiyan

sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' ki rachanaen[5]
kavita sngrah
upanyas
  • apsara
  • alka
  • prabhavati
  • niroopama
  • chameli
  • uchchshrnkhalata
  • kale karaname.
puran katha

mahabharat.

kahani sngrah
  • chaturi chamar
  • shukul ki bivi
  • sakhi
  • lili
  • devi.
alochana
  • ravindr-kavita-kannan.
nibandh sngrah
  • prabandh-parichay
  • prabandh pratibha
  • bngabhasha ka uchcharan
  • prabandh pady
  • prabandh pratima
  • chabuk
  • chayan
  • sngharsh.
sahayak granth
  • krantikari kavi 'nirala': bachchan sinh
  • nirala ki sahity-sadhana: ramavilas sharma.
anuvad
  • anand math
  • vishv-vikarsh
  • krishn kant ka vil
  • kapal kundala
  • durgesh nandini
  • raj sinh
  • raj rani
  • devi chaudharani
  • yugalnguliya
  • chandrashekhar
  • rajani
  • shri ramakrishna vachanamrit
  • bharat men vivekanand
  • rajayog.

nidhan

15 aktoobar, 1961 ko apani yaden chhodakar nirala is lok ko alavida kah gaye par mithak aur yatharth ke bich antarvirodhon ke bavajood apani rachanatmakata ko yatharth ki bhavabhoomi par tikaye rakhane vale nirala aj bhi hamare bich jivant hain. inaki mrityu prayag men huee thi. mukti ki utkat akanksha unako sadaiv bechain karati rahi, tabhi to unhonne likha –

todo, todo, todo kara
patthar ki, nikalo phir gnga-jaladhara
grih-grih ki parvati
pun: saty-sundar-shiv ko snvarati
ur-ur ki bano arati
bhranton ki nishchal dhruvatara
todo, todo, todo kara.[6]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. A history of Indian literature: Modern Indo-Arayan literatures ..., Volume 8
  2. 2.0 2.1 kavita kosh (hindi) (ech ti em el) kavita kosh. abhigaman tithi: 21 aktoobar, 2010.
  3. shabdanjali (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 21 aktoobar, 2010.
  4. srijanagatha (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 21 aktoobar, 2010.
  5. anubhooti (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 21 aktoobar, 2010.
  6. sahity kunzj (hindi) (echatiemal). . abhigaman tithi: 21 aktoobar, 2010.

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