किसान आन्दोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kisan andolan
saradar patel
vivaran nil vidroh, pabana vidroh, tebhaga andolan, champaran satyagrah, baradoli satyagrah aur mopala vidroh pramukh kisan andolan ke roop men jane jate hain.
shuruat 1859 ee.
prasiddhi bharat men kee jagahon par 'kisan andolan' hue. inamen se adhikansh andolan angrezon ke khilaf kiye ge the. kitane hi samachar patron ne kisanon ke shoshan, unake sath hone vale sarakari adhikariyon ke pakshapatapoorn vyavahar aur kisanon ke sngharsh ko apane patron men pramukhata se prakashit kiya tha.
any janakari telngana krishak andolan bharatiy itihas ke sabase lambe chhapamar krishak yuddh ka sakshi bana.

1857 ee. ke pratham svatntrata sngram ko angrezon ne kuchh deshi riyasaton ki sahayata se daba to diya, lekin isake pashchath bhi bharat men kee jagahon par sngram ki jvala logon ke dilon men dahakati rahi. isi bich anekon sthanon par ek ke bad ek kee kisan andolan hue. inamen se adhikansh andolan angrezon ke khilaf kiye ge the. kitane hi samachar patron ne kisanon ke shoshan, unake sath hone vale sarakari adhikariyon ke pakshapatapoorn vyavahar aur kisanon ke sngharsh ko apane patron men pramukhata se prakashit kiya tha. nil vidroh, pabana vidroh, tebhaga andolan, champaran satyagrah, baradoli satyagrah aur mopala vidroh pramukh kisan andolan ke roop men jane jate hain. jahan 1918 ee. ka kheda satyagrah gandhiji dvara shuroo kiya gaya, vahin 'mehata bandhuon' (kalyan ji tatha kunvar ji) ne bhi 1922 ee. men baradoli satyagrah ko prarambh kiya tha. bad men is satyagrah ka netritv saradar vallabh bhaee patel ji ke hathon men raha.

pramukh kisan andolan

pratham svatntrata sngram ke pashchath bharat men hue pramukh kisan andolan is prakar the-

nil andolan (1859-1860 ee.)

yah andolan bharatiyon kisanon dvara british nil utpadakon ke khilaf bngal men kiya gaya. apani arthik mangon ke sandarbh men kisanon dvara kiya jane vala yah andolan us samay ka ek vishal andolan tha. angrez adhikari bngal tatha bihar ke zamindaron se bhoomi lekar bina paisa diye hi kisanon ko nil ki kheti men kam karane ke lie vivash karate the, tatha nil utpadak kisanon ko ek mamooli si raqam agrim dekar unase kararanama likha lete the, jo bazar bhav se bahut kam dam par hua karata tha. is pratha ko 'dadani pratha' kaha jata tha.

pabana vidroh (1873-1876 ee.)

pabana zile ke kashtakaron ko 1859 ee. men ek ekt dvara bedakhali evn lagan men vriddhi ke viruddh ek sima tak snrakshan prapt hua tha, isake babajood bhi zamindaron ne unase sima se adhik lagan vasoola evn unako unaki zamin ke adhikar se vnchit kiya. zamindar ko zyadati ka mukabala karane ke lie 1873 ee. men pabana ke yusuf saray ke kisanon ne milakar ek 'krishak sngh' ka gathan kiya. is sngathan ka mukhy kary paise ekatr karana evn sabhayen ayojit karana hota tha.

dakkan vidroh

maharashtr ke poona evn ahamadanagar zilon men gujarati evn maravadi sahookar dher sare hathakande apanakar kisanon ka shoshan kar rahe the. disambar 1874 ee. men ek soodakhor kalooram ne kisan (baba sahib deshamukh) ke khilaf adalat se ghar ki nilami ki dikri prapt kar li. is par kisanon ne sahookaron ke viruddh andolan shuroo kar diya. in sahookaron ke viruddh andolan ki shuruat 1874 ee. men shiroor taluka ke karadah ganv se huee.

uttar pradesh men kisan andolan

homarool lig ke karyakataon ke prayas tatha gaurishnkar mishr, indr narayan dvivedi tatha madan mohan malaviy ke disha nirdeshan ke parinamasvaroop faravari, 1918 ee. men uttar pradesh men 'kisan sabha' ka gathan kiya gaya. 1919 ee. ke antim dinon men kisanon ka sngathit vidroh khulakar samane aya. pratapagadh zile ki ek jagir men 'naee dhobi bnd' samajik bahishkar sngathit karavaee ki pahali ghatana thi. avadh ki talukedari men gram pnchayaton ke netritv men kisan baithakon ka silasila shuroo ho gaya. jhinguripal sinh evn durgapal sinh ne isamen mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. lekin jald hi ek chehare ke roop men baba ramachandr ubhar kar samane ae. uttar pradesh ke kisan andolan ko 1920 ee. ke dashak men sarvadhik mazabooti baba ramachandr ne pradan ki. unake vyaktigat prayason se hi 17 aktoobar, 1920 ee. ko pratapagadh zile men 'avadh kisan sabha' ka gathan kiya gaya. pratapagadh zile ka 'kharaganv' kisan sabha ki gatividhiyon ka pramukh kendr tha. is sngathan ko javaharalal neharoo, gaurishnkar mishr, mata badal pande, kedaranath adi ne apane sahayog se shakti pradan ki. uttar pradesh ke haradoee, baharaich evn sitapur zilon men lagan men vriddhi evn upaj ke roop men lagan vasooli ko lekar avadh ke kisanon ne 'eka andolan' nam ka andolan chalaya. is andolan men kuchh zamindar bhi shamil the. is andolan ke pramukh neta 'madari pasi' aur 'sahadev' the. ye donon nimn jati ke kisan the.

mopala vidroh (1920 ee.)

keral ke malabar kshetr men mopalaon dvara 1920 ee. men vidrah kiya gaya. prarambh men yah vidroh angrez hukoomat ke khilafa tha. mahatma gandhi, shaukat ali, maulana abul kalam azad jaise netaon ka sahayog is andolan ko prapt tha. is andolan ke mukhy neta ke roop men 'ali musaliyar' charchit the. 15 faravari, 1921 ee. ko sarakar ne nishedhagya lagoo kar khilafat tatha kangres ke neta yakoob hasan, yoo. gopal menan, pi. moiddin koya aur ke. madhavan nayar ko giraphtar kar liya. isake bad yah andolan sthaniy mopala netaon ke hath men chala gaya. 1920 ee. men is andolan ne hindoo-musalamanon ke madhy sampradayik andolan ka roop le liya, parantu shighr hi is andolan ko kuchal diya gaya.

kooka vidroh

krishi sambandhi samasyaon ke khilaf angrez sarakar se ladane ke lie banaye gaye is sngathan ke snsthapak bhagat javaharamal the. 1872 ee. men inake shishy baba ram sinh ne angrezon ka kadaee se samana kiya. kalantar men unhen kaid kar rngoon (ab yangoon) bhej diya gaya, jahan par 1885 ee. men unaki mrityu ho gee.

ramosi kisanon ka vidroh

maharashtr men vasudev balavnt phadake ke netritv men ramosi kisanon ne zamindaron ke atyacharon ke viruddh vidroh kiya.

rnpaon ka vidroh

andhr pradesh men sitaram rajoo ke netritv men aupaniveshik shasan ke viruddh yah vidroh hua, jo 1879 ee. se lekar 1920-22 ee. tak chhitaput dhng se chalata raha. rnpaon ko 'mutta' tatha unake zamindar ko 'muttadar' kahate the. sulivan ne rnpaon ke vidroh ke karanon ki janch ki. usane naye zamidaron ko hatakar purane zamindaron ko rakhane ki sipharish ki thi.

tana bhagat andolan

is andolan ki shuruat 1914 een. men bihar men huee. yah andolan lagan ki oochi dar tatha chaukidari kar ke viruddh kiya gaya tha. is andolan ke pravartak 'jatara bhagat' the, jise kabhi 'virasa', kabhi 'jami' to kabhi 'kesar baba' ke samatuly hone ki bat kahi gayi hai. isake atirikt any netaon men balaram bhagat, gururakshitani bhagat adi is andolan se sambaddh the. 'munda andolan' ki samapti ke qarib 13 varsh bad 'tana bhagat andolan' shuroo hua. yah aisa dharmik andolan tha, jisake rajanitik lakshy the. yah adivasi janata ko sngathit karane ke lie naye 'pnth' ke nirman ka andolan tha. is mayane men yah birasa munda andolan ka hi vistar tha. mukti-sngharsh ke kram men birasa munda ne janajatiy pnth ki sthapana ke lie samudayikata ke adarsh aur manadnd nirdharit kiye the.

tebhaga andolan

kisan andolanon men 1946 ee. ka bngal ka tebhaga andolan sarvadhik sashakt andolan tha, jisamen kisanon ne 'phlaid kamishan' ki sifarish ke anuroop lagan ki dar ghatakar ek tihaee karane ke lie sngharsh shuroo kiya tha. yah andolan jotadaron ke viruddh bntaeedaron ka andolan tha. is andolan ke mahattvapoorn neta 'kamparam sinh' evn 'bhavan sinh' the. bngal ka 'tebhaga andolan' fasal ka do-tihaee hissa utpidi़t bataeedar kisanon ko dilane ka andolan tha. yah bngal ke 28 men se 15 zilon men phaila, visheshakar uttari aur tatavarti sundaraban kshetron men. 'kisan sabha' ke ahvan par lade ge is andolan men lagabhag 50 lakh kisanon ne bhag liya aur ise khetihar mazadooron ka bhi vyapak samarthan prapt hua.

telngana andolan

andhr pradesh men yah andolan zamindaron evn sahookaron ke shoshan ki niti ke khilaf tatha bhrasht adhikariyon ke atyachar ke viruddh 1946 ee. men kiya gaya tha. 1858 ee. ke bad hue kisan andolanon ka charitr poorv ke andolan se alag tha. ab kisan bagair kisi madhyasth ke svayn hi apani ladaee ladane lage. inaki adhikansh mange arthik hoti thin. kisan andolan ne rajanitik shakti ke abhav men british upanivesh ka virodh nahin kiya. kisanon ki ladaee ke pichhe uddeshy vyavastha-parivartan nahin tha, balki ve yathasthiti banae rakhana chahate the. in andolanon ki asaphalata ke pichhe kisi thos vicharadhara, samajik, arthik evn rajanitik karyakramon ka abhav tha.

bijoliya kisan andolan

yah 'kisan andolan' bharat bhar men prasiddh raha, jo mashahoor krantikari vijay sinh pathik ke netritv men chala tha. bijoliya kisan andolan san 1847 se prarambh hokar qarib arddh shatabdi tak chalata raha. jis prakar is andolan men kisanon ne tyag aur balidan ki bhavana prastut ki, isake udaharan apavadasvaroop hi prapt hain. kisanon ne jis prakar nirnkush naukarashahi evn svechchhachari samnton ka sngathit hokar muqabala kiya, vah itihas ban gaya.

akhil bharatiy kisan sabha (1936 ee.)

1923 ee. men svami sahajannd sarasvati ne 'bihar kisan sabha' ka gathan kiya. 1928 ee. men 'andh prantiy raiyyat sabha' ki sthapana en.ji. rnga ne ki. udisa men malati chaidhari ne 'uttakal prantiy kisan sabha' ki sthapana ki. bngal men 'tennensi ekt' ko lekar akaram khan, abdurrahim, fajalulahak, ke prayason se 1929 ee. men 'krishak praja parti' ki sthapana huee. aprail, 1935 ee. men snyukt prant men kisan sngh ki sthapana huee. isi varsh en.ji. rnga evn any kisan netaon ne sabhi prantiy kisan sabhaon ko milakar ek 'akhil bharatiy kisan sngathan' banane ki yojana banaee.

champaran satyagrah

champaran ka mamala bahut purana tha. champaran ke kisanon se angrez bagan malikon ne ek anubndh kara liya tha, jisake antargat kisanon ko zamin ke 3/20ven hisse par nil ki kheti karana anivary tha. ise 'tinakathiya paddhati' kahate the. 19vin shatabdi ke ant men rasayanik ragon ki khoj aur unake prachalan se nil ke bazar men giravat ane lagi, jisase nil bagan ke malik apane karakhane bnd karane lage. kisan bhi nil ki kheti se chhutakara pana chahate the.

kheda satyagrah

champaran ke bad gandhiji ne 1918 ee. men kheda kisanon ki samasyaon ko lekar andolan shuroo kiya. kheda gujarat men sthit hai. kheda men gandhiji ne apane pratham vastavik 'kisan satyagrah' ki shuruat ki. kheda ke kunabi-patidar kisanon ne sarakar se lagan men rahat ki mang ki, lekin koee riyasat nahin mili. gandhiji ne 22 march, 1918 ee. men kheda andolan ki bagador sambhali. any sahayogiyon men saradar vallabh bhaee patel aur indulal yagynik the. 22 march, 1918 ee. ko nadiyad men ek am sabha men gandhiji ne kisanon ka lagan ada n karane ka sujhav diya. lagan n ada karane ka pahala nara kheda ke 'kapadagnj' taluka men sthaniy neta 'mohan pandya' ne diya. gandhiji ke satyagrah ke age vivash hokar sarakar ne yah adesh diya ki, vasooli samarth kisanon se hi ki jay.

baradoli satyagrah (1920 ee.)

soorat (gujarat) ke baradoli taluke men 1928 ee. men kisanon dvara 'lagan' n adayagi ka andolan chalaya gaya. is andolan men keval 'kunabi-patidar' jatiyon ke bhoo-svami kisanon ne hi nahin, balki 'kaliparaj' (kale log) janajati ke logon ne bhi hissa liya. baradoli satyagrah poore rashtriy andolan ka sabase sngathit, vyapak evn saphal andolan raha hai. baradoli ke 'medata bandhuon' (kalyan ji aur kunvar ji) tatha dayal ji ne kisanon ke samarthan men 1922 ee. se andolan chalaya tha. bad men isaka netritv saradar vallabh bhaee patel ne kiya. baradoli kshetr men kaliparaj janajati rahati thi, jise 'hali paddhati' ke antargat uchch jatiyon ke yahan pushtaini mazadoor ke roop men kary karana hota tha.

telngana ka kisan andolan (1946-1951 ee.)

haidarabad riyasat men telngana men dvitiy vishv yuddh ke bad yah andolan shuroo hua. yahan par kisanon se kam dam par anaj ki zabaran vasooli ki ja rahi thi, jisake karan unake andar ek akrosh utpann hua. is andolan ka tatkalik karan 'kamyunist neta' kamaraiya ki pulis dvara hatya kar dena tha. kisanon ne pulis v zamindaron par hamala kar diya tatha haidarabad riyasat ko samapt kar bharat ka ang banane mang ki. telngana krishak andolan bharatiy itihas ke sabase lambe chhapamar krishak yuddh ka sakshi bana.



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