सिपाही क्रांति 1857  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sipahi svatntrata sngram ka prarambh merath se 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko hua tha, lekin isake poorv hi baharamapur aur bairakapur ki chhavaniyon ke sainikon men asantosh ke lakshan prakat ho chuke the. 28 march, 1857 ee. ko mngal pande namak bharatiy sainik ne din-dahade ek angrez padadhikari ko mar dala. us samay jo vidroh hua, vah jald hi daba diya gaya. phir bhi vidrohagni bhitar hi bhitar dhadhakati rahi aur grishm ritu ke madhy men isaki jvala bhadak uthi.

kranti ke karan

is kranti ke rajanitik, samajik, dharmik aur sainik kee karan the. laaurd dalahauzi dvara god pratha ka ant tatha deshi rajyon ko kushasan ke bahane hadapane ki niti se bharatiy rajyon ke shasakon ko apana sinhasan bachane ki chinta pidit karane lagi thi. doosari or gaddi se hataye ge shasak tatha unake ashrit bekari tatha arthabhav se pidit hokar angrezon se dvesh karane lage. aise apadasth shasakon men se peshava bajirav dvitiy ke dattak putr nana sahab aur jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee ne vidroh ko sngathit karane men pramukh evn sakriy bhag liya. jhansi ki rani ne mrityu paryant angrezon se virata poorvak yuddh kiya.

bharatiyon ka asntosh

rajyapaharan ki niti tatha apahrit rajyon, visheshakar avadh men nayi bhoomi-vyavastha se zamindaron aur sadharan janata men atyant asantosh vyapt hua; inamen se adhikansh ve log the, jo sainy seva se mukt hone ke karan bekar ho ge the. shikshit bharatiyon ko unaki yogyata ke anuroop naukariyan, laaurd maikale jaise padhe-likhe angrezon dvara hindoo janata ki khuli bhartsana, hindoo dharm ki eesaee mishanariyon dvara khuli alochana, sati pratha aur shishu bali ka nishedh, hindoo vidhavaon ke purnavivah ko vaidhanik roop dena, kisi hindoo dvara eesaee dharm svikar kar lene par uttaradhikar se vnchit hone par rok tatha rel, tar-dak adi ka prasar in sabake sammilit prabhav ne hinduon ke mastishk men yah bhavana bhar di ki unaka dharm snkat men hai aur angrezon dvara aise kutsit prayas kiye jo rahe hain, jinase vivash hokar unhen eesaee dharm svikar karana padega. antat: jis bharatiy sainyabal ka british samrajy ki sthapana evn nirman men mahattvapoorn yogadan tha, usamen bhi gahara asantosh vyapt ho gaya.

bharatiy sainikon ki mushkilen

bharatiy sainik ka vetan tatha bhatta bharatiy sashastr sena men niyukt angrez sainik ki apeksha bahut hi kam tha tatha usaki padonnati ke marg men anek kathinaiyan thin. bharatiy sainik ko barma tatha afaganistan jaise doorasth deshon ke yuddh kshetron tak apana saman adi le jane ka vyay svayn hi vahan karana padata tha aur aise desh, dharm tatha jati-panti ke niyamon aur bandhanon ke karan, hinduon ke lie varjit the, kyonki isase unake jatichyut hone ka bhay tha. ek jyeshthatam sarvochch bharatiy sainik ko bhi bahudha kanishth angrez padadhikari ke adhin kary karana padata tha. in samast karanon se bharatiy padati sena men atyant asantosh tha, jabaki samast bharatiy sainyashakti men angrez sainikon ki snkhya keval panchavan bhag thi, arthath 2,33,000 men se 45,322 angrez sainik the. isase spasht hai ki bharatiy sipahiyon ko bharat men angrezi samrajy banaye rakhane aur apani shakti evn mahatta ka garv tha. kintu bharatiy sena men sevarat angrezon ki tulana men unake prati jo hey vyavahar kiya jata tha, usane unamen angrezon ke prati tivr asantosh utpann kiya.

charbi vale karatoos

bharatiy padati sena ka yah asantosh us samay hatasha men parivartit hua, jab un par charbi lage hue karatooson ke sath enfild rayafalen (bandooqen) ladi geen, jinase hindoo aur musalaman donon hi dharmon ke sipahiyon ko dharmabhrasht hone ka bhay hua. is prakar kuchh din poorv se hi sulagati huee asantosh ki agni men charbi lage karatooson ne ahuti ka kary kiya aur isake phalasvaroop vidroh ki jvala bhadak uthi.

vidrohiyon ki saphalata

prarambh men vidrohiyon ko vishesh saphalata mili. 10 mee, 1857 ee. ko merath se chalakar doosare hi din unhonne dilli par adhikar kar liya aur bahadur shah zafar ko, jo keval ek kathaputali shasak matr tha, dilli ka samrat ghoshit kar diya gaya. dilli par adhikar kar lene se vidrohiyon ki pratishtha badh gee aur agale do mahinon men hi yah vidroh avadh aur roohelakhand men bhi phail gaya. rajapootana men sthit nasirabad, gvaliyar rajy men nimach, vartaman uttar pradesh men bareli, lakhanoo, varanasi aur kanapur ki chhavaniyon ke sipahiyon ne bhi angrezon ke viruddh vidroh kar diya. udhar bundelakhand men vidroh ka netritv karati huee jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee ne un sabhi yooropiyanon ko, jo usake hathon men padate ge, mar dala. vidroh prarambh hone par sabhi or se vidrohi dilli ki or chal pade. keval kanupar men sthit angrezi sainik chhavani aur lakhanoo men rejidensi ka ghera dal diya gaya.

lakshy ka abhav

kanapur ke nikat bithoor men nana sahab ko peshava ghoshit kiya gaya, isase yah spasht ho gaya ki vidrohiyon men kisi sunishchit lakshy ka abhav hai. unaka lakshy kya tha-mugal samrat ko pun: sinhasanasin karake bharat men musalamani rajy ki pun: sthapana, athava brahman peshava ke adhin hindoo rajy ki sthapana? samast vidroh kal men uddeshyon men yahi aspashtata bani rahi, jisase usaki shakti shithil hoti chali gee. prarambh men yah lakshyahinata spasht n thi aur bharat men angrezi shasan ke lie vastavik bhay utpann ho gaya tha. dilli, kanapur, lakhanoo aur bundelakhand is vidroh ke mukhy kendr ban ge the. angrezi satta, jo prarambhik praharon se danvadol ho rahi thi, dhire-dhire sikkhon, gorakhon aur dakshin bharat ki sainik chhavaniyon se laye ge sainikon ke dvara phir se sthapit ho gee. 14 sitambar, 1857 ee. ko dilli par unaka pun: adhikar ho gaya aur kanapur par bhi 27 joon, 1857 ee. ko adhikar kar liya gaya. 25 sitambar ko lakhanoo ka ghera bhi tod diya gaya, kintu shahar poona vidrohiyon ke hathon men pad jane ke karan 5 navambar ko us par adhikar ho saka. isi bich sar kalin kaimpabel, senadhyaksh aur sar hyooroj sadrish do vishesh anubhavi afasaron ke netritv men angrezon ki nee sena bhi a gee.

vidroh ka daman

kaimpabel ne avadh aur ruhelakhand men vidroh ka daman kiya aur sar hyooroj ne bundelakhand men. usane jhansi ki rani ko lagatar kee yuddhon men parast kiya, parantu rani viratapoorvak ladati huee viragati ko prapt huee. tatya tope ko, jo nana sahab ka senapati tha, bandi banakar fansi de di gee. 14 sitambar ko jab dilli par angrezon ka pun: adhikar hua, bahadurashah dvitiy ko bandi banakar rngoon (vartaman yangoon) bhej diya gaya, jahan usaki mrityu ho gee. usake do putron aur pautron ko karnal hadsan ne bina kisi nyayik janch ke goli se uda diya. nana sahab nepal ki taraf taraee ke jngalon ki or bhag gaya aur phir usaka pata n laga. 8 julaee, 1858 ee. ko tatkalin gavarnar-janaral laaurd kaining ne vidroh ki samapti aur shanti sthapana ki ghoshana ki.

kampani rajy ki samapti

vidroh kal men donon hi pakshon ki or se atyant amanushik atyachar hue. us kal ki katu smritiyon ne yooropiyanon aur bharatiyon ke bich ek aisi khaee paida kar di, jo dirghakal tak pat nahin saki. is vidroh ke phalasvaroop bharat men kampani ka rajy samapt ho gaya aur bharat ka prashasan kampani se inglaind ki maharani ke hathon men a gaya. maharani viktoriya ne is parivartan ki ghoshana ki aur sabhi ko kshama karane tatha dharmik svatntrata, deshi rajaon ke adhikaron ki raksha evn god pratha ke ant ki niti ko tyag dene ka vachan diya.

vidroh ki viphalata ke karan

angrezon ki saphalata aur vidrohiyon ki viphalata ke kee karan the, jo nimn prakar hain-

  1. vidroh kuchh vargon tak hi simit tha. is vidroh ka kshetr pashchim men pnjab, poorv men bngal, uttar men avadh aur dakshin men narmada nadi tak hi simit tha. yah vidroh keval sainikon tak hi simit tha, deshi naresh aur bharat ki sadharan janata isase alag rahi.
  2. vidrohiyon ka koee ek mool uddeshy nahin tha aur unhen kisi kendribhoot tatha kushal netritv ke snchalan ka suyog bhi prapt nahin tha.
  3. vidrohi bhali prakar sngathit bhi nahin the. pratyek dal ka apana neta hota tha, jo apane hi bal par yuddh karata tha.
  4. sikkhon ne apani thode din poorv huee parajay ke lie vidrohi sipahiyon ko karan manakar svamibhakti ki bhavana se angrezon ka poora sath diya. vastut: yah unhin ki sahayata ka parinam tha ki dilli par angrezon ka pun: adhikar hua aur vidrohiyon ki ridh toot gee.
  5. yadyapi vidrohi atyadhik virata se lade, par unhonne apane men se koee suyogy senanayak nahin chuna. isake viparit angrezon men anushasan tatha ek vyakti ke nirdeshan men kary karane ke gun the. unhen haivalak, nikolsan, autaram tatha laaurens jaise anek pratibhashali padadhikariyon aur senanayakon ka nirdeshan prapt tha.
  6. ant men ek karan yah bhi diya ja sakata hai ki vidrohi log bharatiy samaj ke ek alpansh matr the. angrezon ki vijay bharatiy janata ke bahut bhari ansh ki sakriy evn nishkriy sahayata ke phalasvaroop huee, kyonki unhen vidrohi sipahiyon ke karyon evn gatividhiyon men koee aisi visheshata nahin dikhalaee di, jisase prerit hokar sabhi unaka sath dete.


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