भारत सरकार अधिनियम- 1858  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat sarakar adhiniyam (1858) ko 'bharatiy prashasan sudhar sambandhi adhiniyam' bhi kaha gaya hai. eest indiya kampani ke bharatiy shasan ke viruddh inglaind men asntosh ki bhavana vidyaman thi. varshon se use samapt karane hetu andolan chal raha tha. udaravadi, sudharavadi aur snsadiy shasan ke samarthak yah mang kar rahe the ki kampani jaisi vyaparik snstha ke hathon men bharat jaise vishal desh ka shasan bhar nahin saunpa jana chahiye. snsad ne samay-samay par vichitr ekt parit kiye, jinake madhyam se kampani par snsad ka prabhavashali niyantran sthapit karane ka prayas kiya gaya. '1857 ke vidroh' ne is vicharadhara ko aur bhi gati pradan kar di thi.

parit samay

'1857 ee. ka vidroh' bharatiy itihas ki ek asadharan tatha mahattvapoorn ghatana thi. yadyapi kuchh videshi itihasakaron ne is kranti ko sainik vidroh ki sngya di hai, tathapi bharatiyon ki drishti se yah 'pratham svatantrata sngram' tha. pakistani itihasakaron ne bhi ise 'azadi ki jng' ka nam diya hai. is kranti ke phalasvaroop mugal samrajy ki rahi-sahi satta poornaroop se samapt ho gayi. maratha shakti ke punah sthapit hone ki asha par pani phir gaya aur kampani ke prashasan ki trutiyon ka bhanda phoot gaya. atah british sarakar ne 1858 ee. men ek adhiniyam parit kiya, jise 'bharatiy prashasan sudhar sambandhi adhiniyam' kahate hain. is adhiniyam ke dvara bharat men kampani ke shasan ka ant kar diya gaya aur inglaind ki sarakar ne bharatiy pradeshon ka prabandh sidha apane hathon men le liya.[1]

karan

eest indiya kampani ki samapti ki prishthabhoomi pahale hi taiyar ho chuki thi. isake bhrasht kushasan ke viruddh inglaind men ansatosh charam sima par pahunch chuka tha. kampani se briten ki sarakar ko arthik labh bhi nahin ho raha tha. kampani ne bharat ke buhat bade bhoo-bhag par adhikar kar liya tha. atah vah ek vyaparik snstha ke sthan par rajanitik satta ban chuki thi. parinamasvaroop british shasan ke antargat ek snvaidhanik virodhabhas utpann ho gaya tha. inglaind ke udaravadi, sudharavadi aur snsadiy shasan ke samarthakon ne kampani ke vyaparik ekadhikar ke vi andolan shuroo kar diya. britenavasiyon ke sath-sath bharatavasi bhi kampani sarakar ki samapti ke lie avaz uthane lage the. unhonne british snsad ko ek prarthana-patr bhi diya tha. is prakar, kampani ki samapti ki taiyar ho chooki thi. yahi karan tha ki 1853 ee. ke adhiniyam ke dvara kampani ke karyakal ko anishchit hi rakha gaya.

'1857 ka vidroh' kampani sarakar ki samapti ka tatkalik karan tha. vastutah yah kampani ke shasan ke viruddh bharatiyon ka pratham svantrata sngram tha. yadyapi kranti ko nirdayatapoorvak daba diya gaya. isake parinamon ko dekhakar british rashtr ka antahkaran jag utha aur vah is nishkarsh par pahunch gaya ki eest indiya kampani ka ant avashy hi kar diya jaye. kith ke shabdon men- "vidroh ka sara uttaradayitv kampani ke mathe par madha gaya aur isake shasan ka vinash avashyambhavi ho gaya." brait ne likha ki- "is prashn par rashtr ka sadvavivek jag utha evn usane eest indiya kampani ko tod dene ka nirnay kiya."

laaurd pamarstan ka prastav

1857 ee. men inglaind men am chunav hue aur laaurd pamarstan vahan ke pradhanamntri ban gaye. 12 faravari, 1858 ee. ko laaurd pamarstan ne 'haus aauph kaaumans' men ek vidheyak prastut kiya. isamen usane dvaidh shasan pranali ke doshon par jor diya aur eest indiya kampani ka ant kar bharatiy pradeshon ka shasan prabandh inglaind ki sarakar ke hathon men hastantarit karane ka prastav rakha. usane 'haus aauph kaaumans' men apana ek prasiddh bhashan dete hue kaha ki- "hamari rajanitik vyavastha ka siddhant hai ki sabhi prashasakiy karyon ko mntrimandal uttaradayittv se juda hona chahie, jisaka arth hai snsad se janamat tatha kraun ke prati uttaradayittv? lekin is mamale men[2] men bharat sarakar ke pramukh karyon ka uttaradayittv us snstha par hai, jo n to snsad ke prati uttaradayi hai aur n kraun ke dvara niyukt, balki un logon dvara nirvachit hoti hai, jinaka bharat se keval itana hi sambandh hai ki kuchh poonji men unaka sajha hai."[1]

pamarstan ne is bat par ashchary prakat kiya ki itana vishal aur badi janasnkhya vala 'bharat' jaisa desh jan-boojhakar ek shasapatrit kampani ke dekh-rekh aur prabandh men rakha jaye. isalie usane prastav rakha ki snchalak mandal aur svami mandal ko samapt kar diya jaye aur usake sthan par ek-ek president ki niyukti ki jaye, jo sarakar ka sadasy aur mntrimandal ka ang ho. president ki sahayata ke lie ek parishad ki vyavastha ki jaye. is parishad men 8 sadasy honge, jinaki niyukti inglaind ke samrat ke dvara ki jayegi inamen se pratyek do sadasy do varsh bad avakash grahan karenge aur unaki jagah naye sadasyon ka chunav kiya jayega. keval vahi vyakti parishad ke sadasy chune ja sakate the, jo ya to eest indiya kampani ke nideshak rah chuke hon ya to ek nishchit avadhi tak sainik ya asainik ke roop men bharat men seva kar chuke hon ya jo kuchh nishchati varshon tak sthaniy shasan se sambandhit hokar bharat men rahe hon.

je. es. mil ka tark

je. es. mil ne kampani ke paksh men tark prastut karate hue kaha ki- "parliyament ka niyntran snchalak mandal ki apeksha adhik prabhavashali siddh nahin ho sakata." usaka kahana tha ki "snchalak mandal ke sadasy anubhavi rajanitigy hote hain, jo nirdaliy hone ke karan apane kartavyon ka palan nishpaksh roop se karate hain. isalie usane is bat ki vakalat ki ki kampani ka prashasan samrat ke kisi mntri ko hastantarit n kiya jaye."

laaurd palarstan mil ke tarkon se sahamat nahin hua. usane lokasabha men in tarkon ka niahsnkoch roop se uttar dete hue kaha ki- "snsad ek uttaradayi snstha hai aur ab yah atit ki bhanti prabhav shoony bhi nahin hai. prashasan ke ve sare sudhar jin par kampani garv karati hai, sab parliyament ke sadasyon dvara kiye gaye hain. usaka kahana tha ki "bharatiy shasan ki vartaman vyavastha men ekata, kushalata aur uttaradayittv ki bhavana ka abhav hai, jinhen snsadiy niyntran ke dvara hi laya ja sakata hai." mntrimandal ka shighr hi patan hone se pamarstan dvara prastut vidheyak usake karyakal men parit nahin ho saka.

dijaraili ka vidheyak

26 march, 1858 ko 'haus aauph kaaumans' ke neta dijaraili ne bharat ka shasan samrat ko hastantarit karane ke lie lokasabha men ek vidheyak prastut kiya. usane prastavit kiya ki bharat ke shasan ki jimmedari samrat ke ek mntri ke hathon men saup di jaye, jo 18 sadasyon ki ek kaunsil ki sahayata se shasan ka snchal karen. adhe sadasy samrat dvara manonit hon aur adhe sadasy inglaind ki vibhinn vyaparik snsthaon dvara chune jayen. dijaraili ka yah bil upahas ka vishay ban gaya aur svatah hi samapt ho gaya. ant men 30 aprail, 1858 ko kaaumans sabha men stainale dvara prastut 14 prastavon ko pas kiya gaya. in prastavon ke adhar par 1858 ee. ka vidheyak taiyar kiya gaya, jise ant men snsad ke vidheyak ke roop men pas kar diya. 2 agast, 1858 ee. ko ek adhiniyam ko samragyi ki anumati prapt ho gee. is prakar 1858 ee. ke adhiniyam ke phalasvaroop eest indiya kampani ke shasan ka ant hua aur sath hi shasan ke un doshon ka bhi, jisake lie kampani buri tarah badanam thi. 1 disambar, 1858 ee. ko snchalak mandal ki antim sabha huee aur bade hi hridayasparshi shabdon men bahumooly tatha vishal bharatiy samrajy upahar ke roop men british samragyi ko arpit kar diya gaya.[1]

visheshataen

'bharat sarakar adhiniyam (1858)' ki pramukh visheshataen is prakar thin-

  1. british eest indiya kampani ka shasan samapt kar shasan ki zimmedari british kraun ko saunp di gayi.
  2. bharat ka gavarnar-janaral ab bharat ka vayasaray kaha jane laga tha.
  3. 'bord aauf dairektars' evn 'bord aauf kantrol' ke samast adhikar 'bharat sachiv' ko saunp diye gaye. bharat sachiv british mntrimandal ka ek sadasy hota tha, jisaki sahayata ke lie 15 sadasyiy 'bharatiy parishad' ka gathan kiya gaya tha, jisamen 7 sadasyon ki niyukti 'kort aauf dayarektars' evn shesh 8 ki niyukti british sarakar karati thi. in sadasyon men adhe se adhik ke lie yah shart thi ki ve bharat men kam se kam 10 varsh tak rah chuke hon.
  4. bharat sachiv v usaki kaunsil ka kharch bharatiy rajakosh se diya jayaga. snbhavit janapad seva men niyuktiyan khuli pratiyogita ke dvara ki jane lagin, jisake lie rajy sachiv ne janapad ayukton ki sahayata se nigam banae.
  5. is adhiniyam ke lagoo hone ke bad 1784 ee. ke 'pit ekt' dvara sthapit dvaidh shasan paddhati poori tarah samapt ho gayi. deshon v rajaon ka kraun se pratyaksh sambandh sthapit ho gaya aur dalahauzi ki 'rajy hadap niti' nishprabhavi ho gayi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 bharat ka snvaidhanik vikas (1858 se 1909 ee. tak) (hindi) kranti 1857. abhigaman tithi: 25 disambar, 2014.
  2. kampani ke mamale men

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