अवध की बेगमें  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

avadh ki begamen, ye navab asafuddaula ki man aur dadi thin.

hestings ki mang

1775 ee. men avadh ki gaddi par baithane ke bad asafuddaula ne eest indiya kampani ke sath phaijabad ki sndhi ki, jisake antargat usane avadh men british sena rakhane ke lie ek badi dhanarashi dena svikar kiya. avadh ka prashasan bhrasht aur kamazor tha, at: niyat dhanarashi n de sakane ke karan navab par kampani ka baqaya chadh gaya. 1781 ee. tak maisoor, marathon tatha chetasinh se huee ladaiyon ke karan kampani ko rupaye ki badi avashyakata thi. gavarnar-janaral varen hestings ne avadh ke navab se baqay ki raqam ko chukata kar dene ke lie zor dala, lekin navab ne bhugatan karane men apani asamarthata vyakt karate hua ki, main bhugatan us samay kar sakata hoon, jab mujhe us badi jagir tatha daulat par adhikar ka dava diya jae, jo meri man aur dadi ne hathiya li hai. avadh ki begamen asafuddaula ko 250,000 paund ki dhanarashi pahale de chuki thi. 1775 ee. men britash rejident midiltan ke samajhane par 300,000 paund unhonne pun: diya. isase kampani ka pavana (prapt karane vali vastu ya dhan) ada kar diya gaya. kalakatta sthit kaunsil ne begamon ko ashvasan diya tha ki bhavishy men unase mang nahin ki jaegi. varen hestings ne is prakar ka vachan dene ka virodh kiya tha, kintu kaunsil ke andar matadan men vah parajit ho gaya tha. isake bad hi 1780 ee. men chetasinh kand hua.

asafuddaula ki asamarthata

hestings avadh ki begamon se naraz tha, kyonki 1775 ee. men unhonne kaunsil men usake virodhiyon ka samarthan prapt kiya tha. at: 1781 ee. men avadh ke navab ne jab baqaya bhugatan karane men us samay tak apani asamarthata vyakt ki, jab tak use apani man aur dadi ki daulat n di jae, to hestings ne tatkal usake anurodh ko svikar kar british rejident midiltan ko adesh diya, ki vah begamon par baqaye ki dhanarashi ka bhugatan karane ke lie zor dale.

briston ki yatanaen

choonki rejident midiltan ne zor-zabarardasti karane men samuchit tatparata nahin dikhaee, at: usake sthan par briston ko niyukt kar diya gaya, jisane begamon ke uchch padasth karmachariyon ko qaid men dalava diya, unako bediyan dalava din. unaka bhojan bhi band karava diya tha aur kadachit unako kode bhi lagavaye. unhen itani kathor yatanaen di geen ki unaki durdasha dekhakar svayn navab bhi vichalit hone laga, kintu hestings tas se mas nahin hua aur koee samajhauta varta chalane athava daya prakat karane ki manahi kar di. akhir men begamon ko badhy hokar dhan dena pada, jisake sambandh men kalakatta sthit kaunsil ne 1775 ee. men unhen garanti di thi ki ab unase dhan ki koee mang nahin ki jaegi. sara mamala nisndeh ghinavana, kshudratapoorn aur rajy ki avashyakataon ko dekhate hue bhi anuchit tha.

hestings ki dalil

hestings ki bad men di gee yah dalil badi lachar thi, ki chetasinh se santhaganth ke karan begamon ne british snrakshan prapt karane ka adhikar kho diya tha, tatha kalakatta ki kaunsil dvara di gee garanti samapt ho gee thi. varen hestings ne begamon ke khilaf dveshavash karravaee ki thi aur yah vismayakari hai ki laaurd sabha ne use begamon par atyachar karane ke arop se doshamukt kar diya. usane ni:sndeh un par atyachar kiya tha, yadyapi is prakar zor-zabardasti se prapt ki gee dhanarashi ka upayog kampani ki hi seva men kiya gaya tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

(pustak 'bharatiy itihas kosh') prishth snkhya-292

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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