भारतीय राष्ट्रीय आन्दोलन (द्वितीय चरण)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy rashtriy andolan (dvitiy charan)
Kolaz-freedom.jpg
vivaran bharatiy rashtriy andolan, bharat ki azadi ke lie sabase lambe samay tak chalane vala ek pramukh rashtriy andolan tha.
shuruat 1885 ee. men kangres ki sthapana ke sath hi is andolan ki shuruat huee, jo kuchh utar-chadhavon ke sath 15 agast, 1947 ee. tak anavarat roop se jari raha.
pramukh sngathan evn parti garam dal, naram dal, gadar parti, azad hind fauj, bharatiy rashtriy kangres, indiyan homarool lig, muslim lig
any pramukh andolan asahayog andolan, bharat chhodo andolan, savinay avgya andolan, svadeshi andolan, namak satyagrah
parinam bharat svatntr rashtr ghoshit hua.
snbndhit lekh gandhi yug, raaulet ekt, thiyosaauphikal sosayati, varnakyoolar pres ekt, indiyan kaunsil ekt, hartog samiti, hantar samiti, batalar samiti riport, neharoo samiti, golamez sammelan
any janakari bharat ke rashtriy andolan ko tin bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-
  1. pratham charan
  2. dvitiy charan
  3. tritiy charan.
andolan ka dvitiy charan (1905-1919 ee.)

bharatiy rashtriy andolan ke is charan men ek or ugravadi to doosari or krantikari andolan chalaye gaye. donon hi ek matr uddeshy, british rajy se mukti evn poorn svarajy ki prapti, ke lie lad rahe the. ek taraf ugravadi vicharadhara ke log 'bahishkar andolan' ko adhar banakar lad rahe the to doosari or krantikari vicharadhara ke log bamon aur bandookon ke upayog se svatantrata prapt karana chahate the. jahan ek or ugravadi shantipoorn sakriy rajanitik andolanon men vishvas karate the, vahin kratikari angrezon ko bharat se bhagane men shakti evn hinsa ke upayog men vishvas karate the.

Blockquote-open.gif bharat men ugr rashtravad ke uday men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvah bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray evn vipin chandr pal ne kiya. in netaon ke yogy netritv men hi yah andolan phala-phoola. tilak manate the ki "achchhi videshi sarakar ki apeksha hin svadeshi sarakar shreshth hai." tilak ne 'ganapati utsav' evn 'shivaji utsav' ko shuroo karavakar bharatiyon men rashtriy chetana ke prasar ki disha men prayas kiya. Blockquote-close.gif

ugravadita ke karan

  • british sarakar dvara lagatar kangres ki mango ke prati apanayi jane vali upekshapoorn niti ne kangres ke yuva netaon, jaise- bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray evn vipin chandr pal ko andar tak andolit kar diya. in yuva netaon ne udaravadi netaon ki rajanitik bhikshavriti men koee vishvas nahin jataya. inhonne sarakar se apani mange manavane ke lie kathor qadam uthane ki avashyakata par bal diya.
  • hindoo dharm ke punarutthan ne bhi ugravad ke uday men mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. kangres ke udaravadi netaon ne pashchimi sabhyata evn snskriti men apani poorn nishtha jataee, parantu doosari or svami vivekanand, dayannd sarasvati, tilak, lala lajapat ray, aravind ghosh evn vipinachandr pal jaise log bhi the, jinhonne apani sabhyata evn snskriti ko pashchaty snskriti se shreshth pramanit kiya. aravind ghosh ne kaha ki "svatntrata hamare jivan ka uddeshy hai aur hindoo dharm hi hamare is uddeshy ki poorti karega. rashtriyata ek dharm hai aur vah eeshvar ki den hai. aini besent ne kaha ki "sari hindoo pranali pashchimi sabhyata se badhakar hai."
  • 1876 ee. se 1900 ee. ke madhy bharat lagabhag 18 bar akal ki chapet men a chuka tha, jisamen dhan-jan ki bhishan hani huee. 1897-1898 ee. men bambee men pleg ki bimari ki chapet men akar lagabhag 1 lakh, 73 hazar log kal kavalit ho gaye. sarakar ne is disha men aisa koee prayas nahin kiya, jisase is bimari ko roka ja sakata, balki ulte pleg ki janch ke bahane bharatiyon ke gharon men unaki bahan-betiyon ke sath amanaviy v barbarata ka vyavahar kiya gaya. tilak ne sarakar ki is kali karatoot ki apane patr 'kesari' men katu alochana ki, jisake karan unhen 18 mahine tak sakht pahare men jel men rahana pada. pleg ke samay ki jyadatiyon se prabhavit hokar poona ke 'chapekar bandhuon' (damodar evn balakrishn) ne pleg adhikari raind evn amarst ko goli mar di. niahsndeh in ghatanaon ne ugr rashtravad ko protsahan diya.
  • laaurd bekan ka yah kathan ki 'adhik daridrata aur arthik asntosh kranti ko janm deta hai', bharat ke sndarbh men aksharashah saty hai, kyonki angrezon ki tivr arthik shoshan ki nati ne sachamuch bharat men ugravad ko janm diya. shikshit bharatiyon ko rozagar se door rakhane ki sarakar ki niti ne bhi ugravad ko badhava diya. dadabhaee nauroji ne 'dren thyori' ka pratipadan kar angrez rajy ki shoshan nitiyon ka anavaran kar diya. govind ranade ki 'aise in indiyan ikonomiks, ramesh chandr datt ki 'ikonomik histri aauf indiya, adi pustakon ne angrezi rajy ki arthik nitiyon ki dhol ki pol khol di. isane ugravad evn svarajy ki disha men netaon ko unmukh kiya.
  • tatkalin antarrashtriy ghatanaon ka bhi ugravadi tatvon ko badhava dene men mahattvapoorn yogadan raha hai. misr, faras evn turki men saphal svatntrata sngram ne bharatiyon ko kafi utsahit kiya. 1896 ee. men afrika ka pichhade evn chhote rashtr abisiniya ya ithiyopiya ne itali ko parast kar diya. 1905 ee. men japan ki roos par vijay adi se sachamuch ugr rashtravadi logon ko badhava mila. gairet ne mana tha ki "itali ki har ne 1897 men lokamany tilak ke andolan ko bada bal pradan kiya."
  • laaurd karzan ki pratikriyavadi nitiyon ka bharatiy yuva man par kadi pratikriya huee. karzan ke sat varsh ke shas kal ko 'shishtamandalon, bhoolon tatha ayogon ka kal' kaha jata hai. karzan ke pratikriyavadi karyon, jaise- 'kalakatta kaauraporeshan adhiniyam', 'vishvidyalay adhiniyam' evn 'bngal vibhajan' ne bharat men ugravad ko badhane men mahattvapoorn kary kiya.
  • bharat men ugr rashtravad ke uday men mahattvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvah bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray evn vipin chandr pal ne kiya. in netaon ke yogy netritv men hi yah andolan phala-phoola. tilak manate the ki "achchhi videshi sarakar ki apeksha hin svadeshi sarakar shreshth hai evn 'svarajy mera janm siddh adhikar hai aur ise mai lekar rahoonga." tilak ne 'ganapati utsav' evn 'shivaji utsav' ko shuroo karavakar bharatiyon men rashtriy chetana ke prasar ki disha men prayas kiya.

lajapat ray ka kathan

lala lajapat ray kaha- "angrez bhikhari se adhik ghrina karate hain or main sochata hoon ki bhikhari ghrina ke patr hain bhi. atah hamara kartavy hai ki ham yah siddh kar den ki ham bhikhari nahin hai." vipin chandr pal ne bngal ke yuvaon ka netritv kiya. unhen bngal men 'tilak ka senapati' mana jata hai. kuchh any mahattvapoorn karan, jaise- upaniveshon men bharatiyon ke sath kiya jane vale durvyavahar, jatiy katuta evn bharatiyon ke sath kiye jane vale abhadr vyavahar bhi bharat men ugr rashtravad ko protsahan dene ke lie uttaradayi rahe.

rajanitik lakshy evn kary pranali

kangres ke char pramukh netaon- bal gngadhar tilak, lala lajapat ray, vipin chandr pal evn aravind ghosh ne bharat men ugravadi andolan ka netritv kiya. in netaon ne svarajy prapti ko hi apana pramukh lakshy evn uddeshy banaya. tilak ne nara diya ki 'svarajy mera janm siddh adhikar hai aur main ise lekar rahoonga.' isake alava unhonne kaha 'svarajy athava svashasan svadharm ke lie avashyakata hai.' svarajy ke bina n koee samajik sudhar ho sakata hai, n koee audyogik pragati, n koee upayogi shiksha aur n hi rashtriy jivan ki paripoornata. yahi ham chahate hain aur isi ke lie eeshvar ne mujhe is snsar men paida kiya hai.' aravind ghosh ne kaha ki 'rajanitik svatantrata ek rashtr ka jivan shvas hai. bina rajanitik svatantrata ke samajik tatha shaikshinak sudhar, audyogik prasar, ek jati ki naitik unnati adi ki bat sochana moorkhata ki charam sima hai.' jahan udaravadi dal ke neta british samrajy ke antargat 'aupaniveshik svashasan' chahate the, vahin ugravadi netaon ka manana tha ki british shasan ka ant kar hi ham svarajy ya svashasan prapt kar sakate hain. udaravadi dal snvaidhanik andolan men, angrezon ki nyayapriyata men, varshik sammelanon men, bhashan dene men, prastav parit karane men aur inglaind ko shishtamadal bhejane men vishvas karata tha. ugravadi neta ahinsatmak pratirodh, samoohik andolan evn atm balidan men vishvas karate the. sar henari kaautan ne kaha ki 'ugravadi bharat men sab prakar se mukt aur svatntr rashtriy shasan pranali ki sthapana karana chahate the.'

bahishkar andolan

apani mangon ko manavane ke lie udaravadiyon ki anunay-vinay ki niti ko asvikar karate hue use ugravadiyon ne 'rajanitik bhikshavritti' ki sngya di. tilak ne kaha ki 'hamara uddeshy atm-nirbharata hai, bhikshavritti nahin.' vipin chandr pal ne kaha ki 'yadi sarakar mere pas akar kahe ki svarajy le lo, to main upahar ke lie dhanyavad dete hue kahoonga ki 'mai us vastu ko svikar nahin kar sakata, jisako prapt karane ki samarthy mujhamen nahin hai.' in netaon ne videshi mal ka bahishkar, svadeshi mal ko angikar kar rashtriy shiksha evn satyagrah ke mahatv par bal diya. udaravadi neta svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan ko bngal tak hi simit rakhana chahate the aur unaka bahishkar andolan videshi mal ke bahishkar tak hi simit tha, kintu ugravadi neta in andolanon ka prasar desh ke vistrit kshetr men karana chahate the. inake bahishkar andolan ki tulana gandhi ji ke 'asahayog andolan' se ki ja sakati hai. ye bahishkar andolan ko asahayog andolan aur shantipoorn pratirodh tak le jana chahate the. keval videshi kapade ka hi bahishkar nahin, apitu sarakari skoolon, adalaton, upadhiyon sarakari naukariyon ka bhi bahishkar isamen shamil tha.

krantikari gatividhiyon se jude sngathan evn snsthapak
sthapana varsh sngathan sthan snsthapak
1901 ee. mitr mela poona savarakar bandhu
1902 ee. anushilan samiti midanapur gyanendr nath bos
1904 ee. abhinav bharat poona vi.di. savarakar
1905 ee. svadesh bandhav samiti varisal ashvini kumar datt
1907 ee. anushilan samiti dhaka varindr kumar ghosh tatha bhoopendranath datt
1907 ee. bharat mata sosaiti pnjab ajit sih evn amba prasad
1923 ee. hindustan ripablik esosiaishan kanapur shachindranath sanyal
1926 ee. naujavan sabha lahaur bhagat sinh
1928 ee. hindustan soshalist ripablik esoesieshan dilli chandrashekhar azad

lala lajapat ray ne bahishkar ke sandarbh men kaha ki 'ham logon ne rajanivas se mukh modakar nirdhanon ki jhopadiyon ki or kar liya hai.' yahi hai bahishkar andolan ki manovritti, niti evn atmik mahatv. ugravadi netao ne rashtriy shiksha ke mahatv ko svikar karate hue isi men bharatiyon ke hit ke nihit hone ki bat kahi. vipin chandr pal ne kaha 'rashtriy shiksha vah shiksha hai, jo rashtriy rooparekhaon ke adhar par chalaee jay, jo rashtr ke pratinidhiyon dvara niyntrit ho aur jo is prakar niyntrit evn snchalit ho, jisaka uddeshy rashtriy bhagy ki prapti ho.' gurudas banarji ne bngal men 'rashtriy shiksha parishad' evn tilak ne 'dakshin shiksha samaj' ki sthapana ki. bal gngadhar tilak ne sarakar ke sath asahayog karane ki salah di.

krantikari andolan

bam aur pistaul ki rajaniti men vishvas rakhane vale krantikari vicharadhara ke log samajhaute ki rajaniti men kadapi vishvas nahin karate the. unaka uddeshy tha- 'jan do ya jan lo.' bam ki rajaniti unake lie isalie avashyak ho gayi thi, kyonki unhen apani bhavanayen vyakt karane ya azadi ke lie sngharsh karane ka aur koee rasta nazar nahin a raha tha. atnkavadi shighr-atishighr parinam chahate the. ve udaravadiyon ki prerana aur ugravadiyon ke dhimen prabhav ki niti men vishvas nahin karate the. matribhoomi ko videshi shasan se mukt karane ke lie ve hatya karana, daka dalana, baink, dakaghar athava relagadiyon ko lootana sabhi kuchh vaidh samajhate the. krantikari vicharadhara ke sarvadhik samarthak bngal men the. unhen british hukoomat ke prati ghrina thi. ve boriya-bistar sahit angrezon ko bharat se bahar bhagana chahate the. 'varisal sammelan' ke bad 22 aprail, 1906 ee. ke akhabar 'yugantar' ne likha, 'upay to svayn logon ke pas hai. utpidan ke is abhishap ko rokane ke lie bharat men rahane vale 30 karod logon ko apane 60 karod hath uthane hongen, bal ko bal dvara hi roka jana chahie.' in krantikari yuvakon ne ayarish atnkavadiyon evn roosi nihaliston (ativadi) ke sngharsh ke tarikon ko apanakar badanam angrez adhikariyon ko marane ki yojana banaee. is samay desh ke anek bhagon men, mukhyatah, maharashtr evn pnjab men krantikari karyavahiyan huee.

bngal men krantikari andolan

agar yah man liya jaye ki bngal krantikari andolan ka gadh tha, to atishyokti n hogi. bngal men krantikari vicharadhara ko barindr kumar ghosh evn bhoopendranath (vivekanand ke bhaee) ne phailaya. 1906 ee. men in donon yuvakon ne milakar 'yungatar' namak samachar patr ka prakashan kiya. bngal men krantikari andolan ki shuruat 'bhadralok samaj' namak samachar patr ne ki. is samachar patr ne kranti ke prachar men sarvadhik yogadan diya. patr ke dvara logon men rajanitik v dharmik shiksha ka prachar kiya gaya. barindr ghosh evn bhoopendranath ke sahayog se hi 1907 ee. men midanapur men 'anushilan samiti' ka gathan kiya gaya, jisaka uddeshy tha 'khoon ke badale khoon'. 'anushilan samiti' ke alava bngal ki 'suhrad samiti' (mayasen sinh), 'svadeshi bandhav samiti' (varisal), 'vrati samiti' (faridapur) adi krantikari gatividhiyon ka snchalan karati thin. anek krantikari samachar patron ka bhi bngal se prakashan shuru hua, jisamen brahm bndyopadhyay dvara prakashit 'sandhya', aravindr ghosh dvara sampadit 'vandemataram', bhoopendranath datt dvara sampadit 'yugantar' adi pramukh the. varisal men pulis dvara kiye ge lathi charj par apani pratikriya vyakt karate huye 'yugantar' ne kaha ki 'angrez sarakar ke daman ko rokane ke lie bharat ki tis karod janata apane 60 karod hath uthae aur takat ka mukabala takat se kiya jaye.'

kranti se jude patr/patrikaen v sampadak
patrikaen/pustaken snpadak/prakashak
bhavani mndir aravind ghosh
yugantar barindr kumar ghosh
sandhya brahm bndhopadhyay
vndemataramh maidam bhikaji kama (lndan men)
bam mainual pi.en. bapat
vandi jivan shachindranath sanyal
bharatiy svatntrata sngram vi.di. savarakar
bharat mata ajit sinh

bngal ke krantikariyon men hemachandr qanoonagon ka nam vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hai, jinhonne peris men ek roosi se sainy prashikshan prapt kar 1908 ee. men kalakatta men sthit 'manikatalla' men bam banane hetu karakhana khola. 23 disambar, 1907 ee. ko dhaka ke poorv ziladhish elen ki pith par goli mari gayi. praphull chaki aur khudiram bos ne kingsaford ko marane ke lie us par bam phenka, parantu vah bach gaya. pulis ke ghere se bachane ke lie chaki ne svayn ko goli mar li, jabaki khudiram bos pakade gaye. antatah unhen 11 mee, 1908 ee. ko phansi de di gayi. is ghatana ke bad pulis ne manikatalla par chhapa mara. 34 logon ko giraphtar kiya gaya, jisamen barindr ghosh aur aravind ghosh bhi the. in sab par 'alipur shadayantr kes' ke tahat mukadama chalaya gaya. barindr ghosh ko ajivan karavas ki saza mili tatha aravind ko uchit sakshy ke abhav men chhod diya gaya. 1905 ee. men barindr kumar ghosh ne 'bhavani mndir' namak kranti se sambandhit pustak likhi.

bngal ke ek aur krantikari jatindr nath mukharji the, jinhen 'bagha jatin' ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. 9 sitambar, 1915 ko balasor men pulis dvara muthabhed men mare ge. bngal ke ek mahanh krantikari rasabihari bos the, jinhonne kalakatta se dilli rajadhani parivartan ke samay laaurd harding par bam phenka tha. giraphtari se bachane ke lie rasabihari bos japan chale gaye the. avadh bihari, amirachandr, lal mukund, basnt kumar ko giraphtar kar in par 'dilli shadayntr' ke tahat mukadama chalaya gaya. bngal men badh rahi krantikariyon ki gatividhiyon ke daman hetu sarakar ne 1900 ee. men 'visphotak padarth adhiniyam' tatha 1908 ee. men 'samachar patr adhiniyam' ka sahara lekar kranti ko kuchalane ka prayas kiya. sarakar ke daman chakr ke chalate aravind ghosh krantikari kriya-kalapon ko chhodakar snnyasi ho ge tatha pandicheri men apana ashram sthapit kar liya. brahm bndyopadhyay, jinhonne sarvapratham ravindranath taigor ko 'gurudev' kahakar sambodhit kiya tha, ramakrishn math men svami ji ban ge.

pnjab men krantikari andolan

pnjab men 1906 ee. ke prarambh men hi krantikari andolan phail gaya tha. pnjab sarakar ke ek 'upaniveshikaran vidheyak' ke karan kisanon men vyapak asantosh vyapt tha. isaka uddeshy chinab nadi ke kshetr men bhoomi ki chakabandi ko hatotsahit karana tatha sampatti ke vibhajan ke adhikaron men hastakshep karana tha. isi samay sarakar ne jal kar men vriddhi karane ka phaisala kiya, jisase janata men asantosh phail gaya. is toofan ko uthata dekhakar sarakar bechain ho gee. usane ravalapindi men andolan ko kuchalane ki drishti se sarvajanik sabhaon par rok laga di tatha lala lajapat ray v ajit sinh ko giraphtar kar mandale jel bhej diya gaya. 1915 ee. men pnjab men ek sngathit andolan ki rooparekha taiyar ki gee, jisamen nishchit kiya gaya ki 21 faravari, 1915 ko sampoorn uttar bharat men ek sath kranti ka bigul bajaya jay. yah yojana sarakar ko pata chal gee. anek neta pakade gaye tatha in par 'lahaur shadayantr' ka mukadama chalaya gaya. in netaon men prithvi sinh, paramannd, karatar sinh, vinayak damodar savarakar, jagath sinh, adi deshabhakt the. amerika men 'gadar parti' ki sthapana ke bad pnjab gadar parti ki gatividhiyon ka pramukh kendr ban gaya tha. ajit sinh ne lahaur men 'anjuman-e-mohibban-e-vatan' namak snstha ki sthapana ki tatha 'bharat mata' nam se akhabar nikala.

maharashtr men krantikari andolan

maharashtr men krantikari andolan ko ubharane ka shrey lokamany tilak ke patr 'kesari' ko jata hai. tilak ne 1893 ee. 'shivaji utsav' manana arambh kiya. isaka uddeshy dharmik kam rajanitik adhik tha. maharashtr men 1893-1897 ee. ke bich pleg phaila v angrez sarakar ne maraham lagane ke bajay daman kary kiya. atah 22 joon, 1897 ee. ko pleg kamishnar amarst ki goli marakar hatya kar di gee. is sambandh men damodar chapekar ko pakadakar mrityu dand de diya gaya. tilak ko bhi vidroh bhadakane ke arop men 18 mah ka karavas diya gaya. 1908 ee. men bambee prant ke char deshi bhasha ke samachar patron par sarakar ne kahar dhaya. 24 joon, 1908 ee. ko tilak ko phir giraphtar kiya gaya aur 'kesari' men prakashit lekhon ke adhar par pahale to un par rajadroh ka mukadama chalaya gaya, phir 6 varsh ki saza de di gee. bambee men isake virodh men mazadooron ne jabaradast hadatal ki, jo chhah dinon tak chali. maharashtr men nasik bhi krantikari andolan ka gadh tha. vinayak damodar savarakar ne 1901 ee. men nasik men 'mitramela' namak snstha ki sthapana ki, jo ki mejini ke 'tarun itali' ke namoone par 'abhinav bharat' men parivartit ho gayi. is snstha ke mukhy sadasy anant lakshman karakare ne nasik ke nyayadhish jaikshan ki goli marakar hatya kar di. is hatyakand se jude logon par 'nasik shadayantr kes' ke tahat mukadama chalaya gaya, jisamen savarakar ke bhaee ganesh shamil the; jinhen ajivan karavas ki saza mili. maharashtr se mahattvapoorn krantikari patr 'kal' ka sampadan kiya gaya.

videsho men krantikari andolan

videshon men bharatiy krantikari sngathan
sthapana varsh sngathan snsthapak desh
1905 ee. indiya haus shyamaji krishna varma lndan (inglaind)
1906 ee. abhinav bharat vi.di. savarakar lndan (ingalaind)
1907 ee. indiyan indipendens lig tarakanath das amerika
1913 ee. gadar parti lala haradayal, ramachandr v barakatulla sain fransisko
1914 ee. indiyan indipendens lig lala haradayal v barindranath chattopadhyay barlin (jarmani)
1915 ee. indiyan indipendens lig v svatntr bharat ki asthaee sarakar raja mahendr pratap qabul (afaganistan)
1942 ee. indiyan indipendens lig ras bihari bos tokyo (japan)
1942 ee. azad hind phauj subhashachandr bos singapur

angrezi prashasan ke chngul se bachane ke lie krantikariyon ne videshon men rahakar bharat ki svatantrata ke lie ladaee ladi. pratham charan ke krantikari andolan ke samay hi qabul (afaganistan) men raja mahendr pratap ne jarmani ke sahayog se disambar, 1915 men 'antarim bharat sarakar' ki sthapana ki. mntrimandal ke any sahayogi sadasyo men maulana abdullah, maulana bashir, si. pillai, shamasher sinh, daauktar mathura sinh, khuda baksh aur muhammad ali pramukh the. barakatullah asthaee sarakar men pradhanamntri the. isi dauran raja mahendr pratap apani sarakar ke samarthan ke lie lenin se mile the. faravari, 1905 men bharat se bahar landan ki dharati par shyamaji krishn varma ke dvara 'indiyan homarool sosayati' ki sthapana ki gee. ise 'indiya haus' ki sngya di jati hai. abdullah suharavardi isake upaghyaksh the. 'indiyan homarool sosayati' ne 'indiyan sosialajist' namak patrita bhi nikali. shighr hi 'indiya haus' landan men nivas karane vale bharatiyon ke lie andolan ka kendr ban gayi. is snstha ke any sadasy the- lala haradayal, madan lal dhingara, vinayak damodar savarakar adi.

'indiya haus' ke sadasy madan lal dhingara ne 1 julaee, 1909 ko bharat sachiv ke rajanitik salahakar viliyam hnt karjan vaili ki gali marakar hatya di. dhingara ko giraphtar kar phansi de di gayi. shyamaji krishn varma ki ek any sahayogi maidam bhikaji kama thin. yah maharashtr ke parasi parivar se sambandhit thin. inhonne 1902 men bharat chhod diya tatha yoorop ke vibhinn deshon men bharat men angrezi shasan ke viruddh prachar kiya. inhonne 1907 men stutagart (jarmani) men antarrashtriy samajavadi kangres men bharat ki or se bhag liya. yahin unhonne bharat ka rashtriy tirnga dhvaj phaharaya. maidam kama ko 'madar aauf indiyan rivolyooshan' kaha jata hai. 1908 ee. men 'indiya haus' ne 1857 ee. ki kranti ki svarn jaynti manane ka nishchay kiya. savarakar ne is vidroh ko 'bharatiy svatntrata sngram' ki sngya di. yah vichar unhonne apani pustak 'd indiyan var aauf d indipendens' men vyakt kiya. 'd grev varnig' namak pustak ki pratiyan bhi lndan men banti gayin.

1913 ee. men anek bharatiy logon ne lala haradayal ke netritv men sain fransisko (amerika) men 'gadar parti' ki sthapana ki. isake adhyaksh sohan sinh the. lala haradayal is parti ke prachar vibhag ke sachiv the. is sngathan ne 'yugantar pres' ki sthapana kar 1 navambar, 1913 se 'gadar' namak saptahik (bad men masik) patr ka sampadan kiya. yah samachar patr hindi, gurumukhi, urdoo evn gujarati bhasha men nikala jata tha. gadar samachar patr men chhapane vali kavitaon ko 'gadar ki goonj' shirshak se prakashit kiya jata tha. is dal ke any neta the- ramachandr, barakatulla, ras bihari bos, raja mahendr pratap, abdul rahaman evn maidam kama adi. pratham vishv yuddh men jarmani evn briten ke amane-samane hone ke karan jarmani ne bharatiy krantikariyon kon arthik evn astr-shastr ka sahayog dene ke lie ek 'indiyan indipendens kameti' ki sthapana ki. maulavi ubedulla sindhi dvara kuchh patr mahamood hasan ko pili silk par farasi bhasha men likha gaya. bad men patron ke pakade jane par ise 'silk pepar shadayntr' ke nam se jana gaya.

kalakatta adhiveshan (1906 ee.)

kangres ka 'kalakatta adhiveshan' 1906 ee. men kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men sampann hua. is adhiveshan men naram dal tatha garam dal ke bich jo matabhed the, vah ubharakar samane a gaye. in matabhedon ke karan agale hi varsh 1907 ee. ke 'soorat adhiveshan' men kangres ke do tukade ho gaye aur ab kangres par naramapnthiyon ka qabza ho gaya.

soorat adhiveshan (1907 ee.)

kangres ka 'soorat adhiveshan' 1907 ee. men soorat men sampann hua. aitihasik drishti se yah adhiveshan ati mahattvapoorn tha. garam dal tatha naram dal ke apasi matabhedon ke karan is adhiveshan men kangres do bhagon men vibhajit ho gee. isake bad 1916 ee. ke 'lakhanoo adhiveshan' men pun: donon dalon ka apas men vilay hua.

muslim lig ki sthapana

1 aktoobar, 1906 ee. ko ech.ech. aga khan ke netritv men muslimon ka ek dal vayasaray laaurd minto se shimala men mila. aligadh kaaulej ke prinsapal archabold is pratinidhimandal ke janak the. is pratinidhimandal ne vayasaray se anurodh kiya ki prantiy, kendriy v sthaniy nirvachan hetu muslimon ke lie prithakh sampradayik nirvachan ki vyavastha ki jay. is shishtamandal ko bhejane ke pichhe angrez uchch adhikariyon ka hath tha. minto ne inaki mango ka poorn samarthan kiya. jisake phalasvaroop muslim netaon ne dhaka ke navab salimulla ke netritv men 30 disambar, 1906 ee. ko dhaka men 'muslim lig' ki sthapana ki.

marle minto sudhar

jab laaurd minto bharat ka gavarnar bana, tab us samay samoocha bharat rajanitik ashanti ki taraf dhire-dhire badh raha tha. laaurd minto ne is ashanti ke bare men svayn likha tha ki "oopar se shant dikhane vali satah ke niche rajanitik ashanti ka gubar chhipa tha aur unamen se bahut kuchh nitant nyayochit tha." tatkalin bharat sachiv jaaun marle evn vayasaray laaurd minto ne sudharon ka 'bharatiy parishad ekt, 1909' parit kiya, jise 'marle minto sudhar' kaha gaya. 25 mee ko vidheyak parit hua tatha 15 navambar, 1909 ko rajakiy anumodan ke bad lagoo ho gaya. is ekt ke antargat kendriy tatha prantiy vidhanamandalo ke akar evn unaki shakti men vriddhi ki gee.

rajadroh sabha adhiniyam

marle minto sudharon par kadi pratikriya vyakt karate hue ugravadi sngathanon ne apani krantikari gatividhayon ko kafi tej kar diya, jisake parinamasvaroop british sarakar ne 1911 ee. men 'rajadroh sabha adhiniyam' parit karake ugravadi dal ke neta lala lajapat ray evn ajit sinh ko giraphtar kar andolan ko kuchalane ka prayas kiya.

dilli darabar

1911 ee. men hi dilli men ek bhavy darabar ka ayojan inglaind ke samrat jaaurj pncham evn maharani meri ke svagat men kiya gaya. us samay bharat ka vayasaray laaurd harding tha. is darabar men bngal vibhajan ko radd karane ki ghoshana huee aur sath hi bngali bhashi kshetron ko milakar ek alag prant banaya gaya. rajadhani ko kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit karane ki ghoshana huee, yadyapi rajadhani ka dilli men vidhivat sthanantaran 1912 ee. men hi snbhav ho saka.

kamagatamaroo prakaran

kamagatamaroo prakaran 1914 ee. men ghata. is prakaran ke antargat kanada ki sarakar ne un bharatiyon par kanada men ghusane par poori tarah se pratibandh laga diya, jo bharat se sidhe kanada n aya ho. kamagatamaroo jahaz, jis par 376 yatri savar the, use kanada men ghusane nahin diya gaya. jab ye jahaz 'yakohama' pahuncha, tab usase pahale hi pratham vishvayuddh prarambh ho gaya. isake bad jab jahaz 'bajabaj' pahuncha to yatriyon v pulis men jhadapen hueen. isamen 18 yatri mare gaye aur jo shesh bache the, ve jel men dal diye ge. husain rahim, sohan lal pathak evn balavnt sinh ne in yatriyo ki ladaee ladane ke lie 'shor kamati' (tatiy samiti) ki sthapana ki.

lakhanoo adhiveshan (1916 ee)

kangres ka lakhanoo adhiveshan ambikacharan majoomadar ki adhyakshata men 1916 ee. men lakhanoo men sampann hua. is adhiveshan men hi garam dal tatha naram dal, jinake apasi matabhedon ke karan kangres ka do bhagon men vibhajan ho gaya tha, unhen phir ek sath laya gaya. lakhanoo adhiveshan men 'svarajy prapti' ka bhi prastav parit kiya gaya. kangres ne 'muslim lig' dvara ki ja rahi 'sampradayik pratinidhitv' ki mang ko bhi svikar kar liya.

homarool lig andolan

'homarool lig andolan' ka uddeshy british samrajy ke adhin rahate hue snvaidhanik tariqe se svashasan ko prapt karana tha. is lig ke pramukh neta bal gngadhar tilak evn shrimati eni besent thin. svarajy ki prapti ke lie tilak ne 28 aprail, 1916 ee. ko belaganv men 'homarool lig' ki sthapana ki thi. inake dvara sthapit lig ka prabhav karnatak, maharashtr (bambee ko chhodakar), madhy prant evn barar tak phaila hua tha.

mantegyoo-chemsaford riport

british pradhanamntri layad jaaurj ne bharatiy janata ko santvana dene ke vichar se edavin mantegyoo ko bharat ka sachiv niyukt kiya. mantegyoo ko bharatiy rashtriy bhavanao ka samarthak mana jata tha. british snsad men mantegyoo ne kaha tha ki "shikshit bharatiyo ki mang niahsandeh unaka adhikar hai tatha unhen uttaradayitv snbhalane aur atmanirnay ka avasar diya jana chahie."

bharat sachiv mantegyoo dvara dvara 20 agast, 1917 ee. ko briten ki 'kamans sabha' men ek prastav padha gaya, jisamen bharat men prashasan ki har shakha men bharatiyon ko adhik pratinidhitv diye jane ki bat kahi gayi thi. ise 'mantegyoo ghoshana' kaha gaya. mantegyoo ghoshana ko udaravadiyon ne 'bharat ke maignakarta ki sngya' di. navambar, 1917 men mantegyoo bharat aye aur yahan unhonne tatkalin vayasaray laaurd chemsaford se vyapak vichar vimarsh ke bad 1919 ee. men 'mantegyoo-chemsaford riport' ko jari kiya. 'mantegyoo ghoshana' aur 'mantegyoo-chemsaford riport' ke adhar par nirmit 'bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1919' ko mantegyoo ne snsad dvara nirmit sarakar aur bharat ke janapratinidhiyon ke bich setu ki sngya di. 1919 ee. ke 'bharat sarakar adhiniyam' ke nam se prasiddh is ekt se pranto men 'dvaidh shasan' ki vyavastha ki gee.

lokamany tilak ne is adhiniyam ko asantoshajanak aur nirashajanak tatha 'ek bina sooraj ka sabera' bataya. 1919 ee. ke kangres ke 'amritasar adhiveshan' men kangres ne in sudharon ko aparyapt, asantoshajanak aur nirashajanak bataya. 1919 ee. ke sudharon ko lekar matabhed ke karan hi kangres men dvitiy vibhajan hua. 1918 ee. men surendranath banarji ke netritv men udaravari netao ne mantegyoo sudharon ka svagat kiya tatha kangres se alag hokar 'akhil bharatiy udaravadi sngh' ki sthapana ki. 1919 ee. ke adhiveshan ka snvaidhanik sudhar 1921 ee. men lagoo hua. is adhiniyam ke antargat prantiy vishay pahali bar arakshit aur hastantarit men vibhajit huye. pahali bar bharatiy vidhanamandal ko bajat pas karane sambandhit adhikar mila tatha pahali bar 'lok seva ayog' ki sthapana ka pravadhan kiya gaya. 1919 ee. ke adhiniyam ki das varsh bad samiksha ke lie ek vaidhanik ayog ki niyukti ka pravadhan tha, bad men yah ayog 'saiman ayog' ke nam se jana gaya.

raulat ekt

raulat ekt 8 march, 1919 ee. ko lagoo kiya gaya. bharat men krantikariyon ke prabhav ko samapt karane tatha rashtriy bhavana ko kuchalane ke lie british sarakar ne nyayadhish 'sar sidani raulat' ki adhyakshata men ek kameti niyukt ki. kameti le 1918 ee. men apani riport prastut ki. kameti dvara diye gaye sujhavon ke adhar par kendriy vidhanamandal men faravari, 1919 ee. men do vidheyak laye gaye. parit hone ke uparant in vidheyakon ko 'raulat aikt' ya 'kala qanoon' ke nam se jana gaya.

jaliyanvala bag hatyakand

pnjab ke amritasar nagar men jaliyanvala bag namak sthan par angrezon ki senaon ne bharatiy pradarshanakariyon par andhadhundh goliyan chalakar badi snkhya men unaki hatya kar di. yah ghatana 13 aprail, 1919 ee. ko ghatit huee. is ghatana ke bad mahatma gandhi ne 1920-1922 ke 'asahayog andolan' ki shuruat ki. us din vaishakhi ka tyohar tha. 1919 ee. men bharat ki british sarakar ne raaulet ekt ka shantipoorvak virodh karane par jananeta pahale hi giraphtar kar lie the. is giraphtari ki ninda karane aur pahale hue goli kand ki bhartsana karane ke lie jaliyanvala bag men shantipoorvak ek sabha ayojit ki gayi thi. 13 aprail, 1919 ko tisare pahar das hazar se bhi zyada nihatthe stri, purush aur bachche janasabha karane par pratibndh hone ke bavajood amritasar ke jaliyanvala bag men virodh sabha ke lie ekatr hue the.

hantar samiti

'hantar samiti' ki sthapana british sarakar dvara 1 aktoobar, 1919 ee. ko ki gee thi. laaurd hantar ko is samiti ka adhyaksh niyukt kiya gaya tha. desh men jaliyanvala bag ke hatyakand ko lekar jo ugr pradarshan adi hue, usase vivash hokar angrez sarakar ne ghatana ki janch karane ke lie 'hantar samiti' ki sthapana ki. is samiti ne jaliyanvala bag ke sampoorn prakaran par lipa-poti karane ka prayas kiya. britaniya akhabaron men ghatana ke lie zimmedar janaral dayar ko 'british samrajy ka rakshak' aur 'british samrajy ka sher' adi kahakar sambodhit kiya gaya.


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