ग़दर पार्टी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gadar parti
gadar parti ka dhvaj
vivaran 'gadar parti' paradhin bharat ko angrezon se svatntr karane ke uddeshy se bana ek dal tha.
sthapana 25 joon, 1913
uddeshy gadar shabd ka arth hai- vidroh. isaka mukhy uddeshy bharat men kranti lana tha. jisake lie angrezi niyntran se bharat ko svatntr karana avashyak tha.
snsthapak sohan sinh bhakana
any janakari 1 navambar 1913 se ek saptahik patr ‘gadar’ ka prakashan bhi shuroo kiya. yah patr sen phransisko ke 'yugantar ashram' se khule am prakashit hota tha. pahale ise urdoo aur gurumukhi men prakashit kiya gaya lekin bad men kee any bhashaon men bhi isaka prakashan hua.

gadar parti paradhin bharat ko angrezon se svatntr karane ke uddeshy se bana ek dal tha. ise amerika aur kanada ke bharatiyon ne 25 joon 1913 men banaya tha. ise prashant tat ka hindi sngh (Hindi Association of the Pacific Coast) bhi kaha jata tha. yah parti "gadar" nam ka patr bhi nikalati thi jo urdoo aur pnjabi men chhapata tha.

gadar ka arth

gadar shabd ka arth hai - vidroh. isaka mukhy uddeshy bharat men kranti lana tha. jisake lie angrezi niyntran se bharat ko svatntr karana avashyak tha. gadar parti ka haid kvartar sain phransisko men sthapit kiya gaya. isane ek 'yugantar ashram' nam se ek snstha bhi sthapit ki, jisaka kary yuva bharatiyon men deshabhakti ki bhavana phailana hai aur unhen vidroh ke lie prashikshit karana hai.

sthapana

gadar parti ki sthapana 25 joon, 1913 ee. men ki gee thi. parti ka janm amerika ke sain phransisko ke 'estoriya' men angrezi samrajy ko jad se ukhad phenkane ke uddeshy se hua. gadar parti ke snsthapak adhyaksh sohan sinh bhakana the. isake atirikt kesar sinh thathagadh (upadhyaksh), lala haradayal (mahamntri), lala thakuradas dhuri (snyukt sachiv) aur pandit kanshiram madaroli (koshadhyaksh) the. ‘gadar’ namak patr ke adhar par hi parti ka nam bhi ‘gadar parti’ rakha gaya tha. ‘gadar’ patr ne snsar ka dhyan bharat men angrezon ke dvara kie ja rahe atyachar ki or dilaya. nee parti ki kanada, chin, japan adi men shakhaen kholi geen. lala haradayal isake mahasachiv the.

gadar saptahik patr

is sngathan ne 1 navambar 1913 se ek saptahik patr ‘gadar’ ka prakashan bhi shuroo kiya. yah patr sen phransisko ke yugantar ashram se khule am prakashit hota tha. pahale ise urdoo aur gurumukhi men prakashit kiya gaya lekin bad men kee any bhashaon men bhi isaka prakashan hua. is patr ko bharat aur duniya ke un deshon men pahunchane ki jabaradast koshishen ki gayin, jahan pravasi bharatiy rahate the. isaki saikadon pratiyan shnghaee, hangakang aur kee doosare raston se bharat pahunchati thin. gadar ki lokapriyata kafi badhi aur isamen chhapane vali grnthi bhagavan sinh ki krantikari kavitaon ne duniya bhar men phaile bharatiyon ke hriday men svatntrata prapti ki tivrata ka bhav jagane men khasi kamayabi bhi payi. gadar parti ke taur-tarike aur gadar ki vicharadhara ko desh men bhi kafi alochanaen sahan karani padin lekin is bat men koee sndeh ki gunjaish nahin ki gadar parti ne desh ki ajadi ke lie eemanadar aur sahasik koshish ki.[1]

gadar andolan

yugantar ashram gadar parti ka mukhyalay tha. yahin se gadar parti ne ek postar chhapa tha jise pnjab men jagah jagah chipakaya bhi gaya tha. is postar par likha tha -"jng da hoka arthath yuddh ki ghoshana.

gadar ke netaon ne nirnay liya ki ab vah samay a gaya hai ki ham british sarakar ke khilaf usaki sena men sngathit vidroh kar sakate hain. kyonki tab pratham vishvayuddh dhire-dhire qarib a raha tha aur british hakumat ko bhi sainikon ki bahut avashyakata thi. netritv ne bharat vapis ane ka nirnay liya. agast 1914 men badi railiyon aur janasabhaon ka ayojan kiya gaya. jisamen sabhi hinduon se kaha gaya ki ve hindustan ki or lauten aur british hakumat ke viruddh sashastr vidroh men bhag len. is prakar gadar parti ke adhyaksh sohan sinh bhakana jo ki japan men the ne bharat ane ka nirnay liya. unhonne badi savadhani se apani yojana ko taiyar kiya. british hakumat ke dushmanon se madad prapt karane ke lie gadar parti ne barakatullah ko kabul bheja. kapoor sinh mohi chini krantikariyon se sahayata prapt karane ke lie sun-yat sen se mile. sohan sinh bhakana bhi tokiyo men jarman kanusalar se mile. teja sinh svatntr ne turkish militri akadami men jana tay kar liya taki prashikshan prapt kiya ja sake. gadar parti ke neta pani aur jal ke raste bharat pahunchana chahate the. isake lie kamagatamaroo, es.es. koriya aur naimasaing nam ke jahajon par hajaron gadar neta chadhakar bharat ki or ane lage.

lagabhag 8 hajar gadar sadasy bharat vidroh ke lie laut rahe the aur unaka pahunchana 1916 tak tay tha. deharadoon men bhaee paramanand ne ghoshana ki ki 5 hajar gadar sadasy unake sath ayen. lekin bich ki kisi kamazor kadi ke karan yah soochana british hakumat tak pahunch gayi. unhonne yuddh ki ghoshana vale postaron ko gnbhirata se liya. sitambar 1914 ko sarakar ne ek adhyadesh parit kiya jisake tahat rajy sarakaron ko yah adhikar de diya gaya ki ve bharat men dakhil hone vale kisi bhi vyakti ko hirasat men lekar poochhatachh kar sakenge bhale hi vah bharatiy mool ka kyon n ho. pahale bngal aur pnjab ki rajy sarakaron ko yah adhikar diye gaye aur isake lie ludhiyana men ek poochhatachh kendr bhi sthapit kiya gaya. kamagata maroo ke yatri is adhyadesh ke pahale shikar bane. sohan sinh bhakana aur any logon ko naimasaing jahaj se utarate samay giraphtar kar liya gaya aur ludhiyana laya gaya. ve gadar sadasy jo posamaroo jahaj se aye the ve bhi pakade gaye. unhen mintagumari aur multan ki jelon men bhej diya gaya. jo jamanat par chhoot ge.[2]

vidroh aur kranti ka din

bharat men gadar ke javanon ne doosare krantikariyon ke sath achchhe rishte kayam kar liye. inamen se kuchh ne bngal aur uttar pradesh men revyoolooshnari parti aauph indiya (1917) gathit ki. vishnu ganesh pingale, karatar sinh sarabha, ras bihari bos, bhaee paramanand, haphij abdula adi krantikariyon ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada ki. amritasar ko kantrol sentar ke roop men prayog kiya gaya. use gadar parti ne bad men lahaur sthanantarit kar diya. 12 pharavari 1915 ko gadar parti ne nirnay liya ki vidroh aur kranti ka din 21 pharavari 1915 hoga. poori rananiti ko miyan mir, phirojapur, merath, lahaur aur dilli ki phauji chhavaniyon men lagoo kiya gaya tha. kohat, bannoo aur dinapur men bhi vidroh usi din hona tha. karatar sinh saraba ko phirojapur ko niyntran men lena tha. pingale ko merath se dilli ki or badhana tha. daktar mathura sinh ko phrntiyar ke kshetron men jana tha. nidhan sinh chugh, guramukh sinh aur haranam sinh ko jhelam, ravalapindi aur hote hue mardan jana tha. bhaee paramanand ji ko peshavar ka kary diya gaya tha. durbhagy se british hakumat ko apane ejenton ke madhyam se kranti ki khabar lag gayi. gadar ke nayakon ne vidroh ki tithi men 21 pharavari ke sthan par 19 pharavari karake parivartan kar diya. parantu british prashasan ne tivrata dikhate hue kary kiya aur bharatiy sena ko bina hathiyar ka bana diya. barood ke godamon par kabja kar diya isake bad gadar parti ke bahut se neta aur yojak giraphtar ho gaye. unhen lahaur men kaid kar liya gaya. 82 gadar netaon ke oopar mukadama chala jise lahaur kanspresi kes kaha gaya. 17 gadar sadasyon ko bhagoda ghoshit kiya gaya.[2]

prerana srot

pnjab ke gavarnar maikal o dayar ne british hakumat se vishisht qanooni pravadhanon ki mang ki jisake tahat kort men apil ki vyavastha n ho sake. angrej sarakar "diphens aauph indiya rool" ka pravadhan lekar ayi jisake tahat gadar netaon ke viruddh jhatapat nirnay ho sake. 13 sitambar 1915 ko 24 gadar netaon ko maut ki saja sunaee gee shesh ko umr kaid di gayi. 25 aktoobar 1915 ko doosare lahaur kanspresi kes men 102 gadar netaon ka mukadama prarambh hua, jisaka nirnay 30 march 1916 ko hua, jisake tahat 7 ko phansi ki saja di gayi, 45 ko umrakaid aur anyon ko 8 mahine se 4 varsh ki kathor saja sunaee gayi. gadar parti ke mahanh netaon sohan sinh bhakana, karatar sinh sarabha, lala haradayal adi ne jo kary kiye, usane bhagat sinh, rajaguru, sukhadev jaise krantikariyon ko svatantrata sngram men bhag lene ke lie prerit kiya.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ladaee bahar se bhi ladi gee (hindi) bharatiy paksh. abhigaman tithi: 7 march, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 gadar andolan 1912 (hindi) sngat snsar. abhigaman tithi: 7 march, 2013.

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