भारत छोड़ो आन्दोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat chhodo andolan
mahatma gandhi
vivaran bharat ko jald hi azadi dilane ke lie mahatma gandhi dvara angrezi shasan ke viruddh yah ek bada 'nagarik avgya andolan' tha.
shuruat 9 agast, 1942
moolamntr 'karo ya maro'
parinam 'bharat chhodo andolan' bharat ko svatantr bhale n karava paya ho, lekin isaka dooragami parinam sukhadayi raha. isalie ise "bharat ki svadhinata ke lie kiya jane vala antim mahanh prayas" kaha gaya.
alochana tatkalin bharatiy rajanitik dalon men 'samyavadi dal' ne is andolan ki alochana ki. muslim lig tatha udaravadiyon ko bhi yah andolan nahin bhaya.
any janakari dilli men jo utsav 15 agast-1947 ko manaye ja rahe the, unamen mahatma gandhi shamil nahin the. ve is samay kalakatta men the. rashtr ka vibhajan unake liye kisi bure sapane se kam nahin tha. gandhi ji ne hindoo, sikkh aur muslimon se kaha ki atit ko bhulakar apani pida par dhyan dene ke bajay ek-doosare ke sath apasi bhaeechare ki misal ko apanayen.

bharat chhodo andolan 9 agast, 1942 ee. ko sampoorn bharat men rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ke ahvan par prarambh hua tha. bharat ki azadi se sambandhit itihas men do padav sabase zyada mahattvapoorn nazar ate hain- pratham '1857 ee. ka svatntrata sngram' aur dvitiy '1942 ee. ka bharat chhodo andolan'. bharat ko jald hi azadi dilane ke lie mahatma gandhi dvara angrez shasan ke viruddh yah ek bada 'nagarik avgya andolan' tha. 'krips mishan' ki asaphalata ke bad gandhi ji ne ek aur bada andolan prarambh karane ka nishchay le liya. is andolan ko 'bharat chhodo andolan' ka nam diya gaya.

svatntrata ki mahanh ladaee

'bharat chhodo andolan' ya 'agast kranti bharatiy svatantrata andolan' ki antim mahanh ladaee thi, jisane british shasan ki ninv ko hilakar rakh diya. krips mishan ke khali hath bharat se vapas jane par bharatiyon ko apani chhale jane ka ahasas hua. doosari or doosare vishvayuddh ke karan paristhitiyan atyadhik gambhir hoti ja rahi thin. japan saphalatapoorvak singapur, malaya aur barma par qabza kar bharat ki or badhane laga, doosari or yuddh ke karan tamam vastuon ke dam betahash badh rahe the, jisase angrez satta ke khilaf bharatiy janamanas men asantosh vyapt hone laga tha. japan ke badhate hue prabhutv ko dekhakar 5 julaee, 1942 ee. ko gandhi ji ne harijan men likha "angezon! bharat ko japan ke lie mat chhodo, balki bharat ko bharatiyon ke lie vyavasthit roop se chhod jao."

krips mishan ka agaman

is samay dvitiy vishvayuddh chhid chuka tha, aur isamen british faujon ki dakshin-poorv eshiya men har hone lagi thi. ek samay yah bhi nishchit mana jane laga ki japan bharat par hamala kar hi dega. mitr desh, amerika, roos v chin briten par lagatar dabav dal rahe the, ki is snkat ki ghadi men vah bharatiyon ka samarthan prapt karane ke lie pahal karen. apane isi uddeshy ko poorn karane ke lie unhonne steford krips ko march, 1942 ee. men bharat bheja. briten sarakar bharat ko poorn svatntrata dena nahin chahati thi. vah bharat ki suraksha apane hathon men hi rakhana chahati thi aur sath hi gavarnar-janaral ke vito adhikaron ko bhi pahale jaisa hi rakhane ke paksh men thi. bharatiy pratinidhiyon ne krips mishan ke sare prastavon ko ek sire se kharij kar diya.

krips mishan ki asaphalata ke bad 'bharatiy neshanal kangres kameti' ki baithak 8 agast, 1942 ee. ko bambee men huee. isamen yah nirnay liya gaya ki angrezon ko har hal men bharat chhodana hi padega. bharat apani suraksha svayn hi karega aur samrajyavad tatha fansivad ke viruddh rahega. yadi angrez bharat chhod dete hain, to asthaee sarakar banegi. british shasan ke viruddh 'nagarik avgya andolan' chheda jaega aur isake neta gandhi ji honge.

vardha prastav

gandhi ji ne kangres ko apane prastav ko n svikar kiye jane ki sthiti men chunauti dete hue kaha ki "main desh ki baloo se hi kangres se bhi bada andolan khada kar doonga." 14 julaee, 1942 ee. men kangres karyasamiti ki vardha baithak men gandhi ji ke is vichar ko poorn samarthan mila ki bharat men snvaidhanik gatirodh tabhi door ho sakata hai, jab angrez bharat se chale jayen. vardha men kangres karyasamiti ne 'angrezon bharat chhodo prastav' parit kiya. andolan ki sarvajanik ghoshana se poorv 1 agast, 1942 ee. ko ilahabad men 'tilak divas' manaya gaya. is avasar par javaharalal neharoo ne kaha- "ham ag se khelane ja rahe hain. ham dudhari talavar ka prayog karane ja rahe hain, jisaki chot ulti hamare oopar bhi pad sakati hai."

akhil bharatiy kangres ki baithak

andolan ke dauran 8 agast, 1942 ee. ko 'akhil bharatiy kangres' ki baithak bambee ke aitihasik 'gvaliya taink' men huee. gandhi ji ke aitihasik 'bharat chhodo prastav' ko kangres karyasamiti ne kuchh snshodhanon ke bad 8 agast, 1942 ee. ki svikar kar liya. yuddh ki teyari men sahayog dene ke prastav ke sath-sath sarakar ko tatkal qadam uthane ki chunauti di gayi. kaha gaya ki "bharat ki svatntrata ki ghoshana ke sath ek sthayi sarakar gathit ho jayagi aur svatntr bharat snyukt rashtr sngh ka ek mitr banega." muslim lig se vayada kiya gaya ki aisa snvidhan banega, jisamen sngh men shamil hone vali ikaiyon ko adhikadhik svayattata milegi aur bache hue adhikar usi ke pas rahengen. prastav ka antim ansh tha- "desh ne samrajyavadi sarakar ke viruddh apani ichchha zahir kar di hai. ab use us bindu se lautane ka bilkul auchity nahin hai. atah samiti ahinsak dhng se, vyapak dharatal par gandhi ji ke netritv men janasngharsh shuroo karane ka prastav svikar karati hai."

moolamntr 'karo ya maro'

kangres ke is aitihasik sammelan men mahatma gandhi ne lagabhag 70 minat tak bhashan diya. apane snbodhan men unhonne kaha ki "main apako ek mntr deta hoon, karo ya maro, jisaka arth tha- bharat ki janata desh ki azadi ke lie har dhng ka prayatn kare. gandhi ji ke bare men bhogarajoo pattabhi sitaramaiya ne likha hai ki "vastav men gandhi ji us din avatar aur paigambar ki prerak shakti se prerit hokar bhashan de rahe the." 'vah log jo kurbani dena nahin janate, ve azadi prapt nahin kar sakate.' bharat chhodo andolan ka mool bhi isi bhavana se prerit tha. gandhi ji vaise to ahinsavadi the, magar desh ko azad karavane ke lie unhonne 'karo ya maro' ka mool mntr diya. angrezi shasakon ki damanakari, arthik loot-khasoot, vistaravadi evn naslavadi nitiyon ke viruddh unhonne logon ko kramabaddh karane ke lie 'bharat chhodo andolan' chheda tha. gandhiji ne kaha tha ki-

"ek desh tab tak azad nahin ho sakata, jab tak ki usamen rahane vale log ek-doosare par bharosa nahin karate."

gandhi ji ke in shabdon ne bharat ki janata par jadoo-sa asar dala aur ve naye josh, naye sahas, naye snkalp, nee astha, dridh nishchay aur atmavishvas ke sath svatntrata sngram men kood pade. desh ke kone-kone men 'karo ya maro' ki avaz gunjayaman ho uthi, aur charon or bas yahi nara shraman hone laga.

netaon ki giraftari

9 agast ko bhor men hi 'aaupareshan ziro aauvar' ke tahat kangres ke sabhi mahattvapoorn neta giraphtar kar liye gaye. gandhi ji ko poona ke 'aga khan mahal' men tatha kangres karyakarini ke any sadasyon ko ahamadanagar ke durg men rakha gaya. kangres ko avaidhanik snstha ghoshit kar british sarakar ne is snstha ki sampatti ko jabt kar liya aur sath men julooson ko pratibndhit kar diya. sarakar ke is krity se janata men akrosh vyapt ho gaya. janata ne svayn apana netritv snbhal kar juloos nikala aur sabhaain kin. svatantrata andolan ke dauran yah pahala andolan tha, jo netritv vihinata ke bad bhi utkarsh par pahuncha. sarakar ne jab andolan ko dabane ke lie lathi aur bnndook ka sahara liya to andolan ka rookh badalakar hisatmak ho gaya. anek sthanon par rel ki patariyan ukhadi geen aur steshanon men ag laga di gee. bambee, ahamadabad evn jamashedapur men mazadooron ne snyukt roop se vishal hadatal kin. snyukt prant men baliya evn basti, bambee men satara, bngal men midanapur evn bihar ke kuchh bhagon men 'bharat chhodo andolan' ke samay asthayi sarakaron ki sthapana ki gayi. in svashasit samanantar sarakaron men sarvadhik lambe samay tak sarakar satara tak thi. yahan par vidroh ka netritv nana patil ne kiya tha. satara ke sabase mahattvapoorn neta vaee.bi. chahnan the. pahali samantar sarakar baliya men chitoo pandey ke netritv men bani.

bngal ke midanapur zile men tamaluk athava tamralipti men gathin rashtriy sarakar 1944 ee. tak chalati rahi. yahan ki sarakar ko jatiy sarakar ke nam se jana jata hai. satish savnt ke netritv men gathit is jatiy sarakar ne skoolon ko anudan diye aur 'sashastr vidyut vahini sainy sngathan' banaya. is andolan se sarvadhik prabhavit kshetr the- bngal, bihar, uttar pradesh, madras evn bambee. jayaprakash narayan, ramamanohar lohiya evn aruna asif ali jaise netaon ne bhoomigat rahakar is andolan ko netritv pradan kiya. bambee men usha mehata evn unake kuchh sathiyon ne kee mahine tak kangres rediyo ka prasaran kiya. ramamanohar lohiya niyamit roop se rediyo par bolate the. navambar 1942 ee. men pulis ne ise khoj nikala aur jabt kar liya.

gandhi ji ka prabhav

'bharat chhodo andolan' mool roop se ek janandolan tha, jisamen bharat ka har jati varg ka vyakti shamil tha. is andolan ne yuvaon ko ek bahut badi snkhya men apani or akrisht kar liya. yuvaon ne apane kaaulej chhod diye aur ve jel ka rasta apanane lage. jis dauran kangres ke neta jel men the, thik isi samay mohammad ali jinna tatha muslim lig ke unake sathi apana prabhav kshetr failane men lag gaye. isi varsh men muslim lig ko pnjab aur sindh men apani pahachan banane ka mauqa mila, jahan par usaki abhi tak koee khas pahachan nahin thi. joon 1944 ee. men jab vishvayuddh samapti ki or tha, gandhi ji ko jel se riha kar diya gaya. jel se nikalane ke bad unhonne kangres aur muslim lig ke bich fasale ko patane ke lie jinna ke sath kee bar mulakat ki aur unhen samajhane ka prayatn kiya. isi samay 1945 ee. men briten men 'lebar parti' ki sarakar ban gee. yah sarakar poori tarah se bharatiy svatntrata ke paksh men thi. usi samay vayasaray laaurd vevel ne kangres aur muslim lig ke pratinidhiyon ke bich kee baithakon ka ayojan kiya.

andolan ki alochana

tatkalin bharatiy rajanitik dalon men 'samyavadi dal' ne is andolan ki alochana ki. muslim lig ne bhi 'bharat men chhodo andolan' ki alochana karate hue kaha ki "andolan ka lakshy bharatiy svatantrata nahin, varanh bharat men hindoo samrajy ki sthapana karana hai, is karan yah andolan musalamanon ke lie ghatak hai." muslim lig tatha udaravadiyon ko bhi yah andolan nahin bhaya. sar tezabahadur saproo ne is prastav ko 'avicharit tatha asamayik' bataya. bhimarav ambedakar ne ise 'anuttaradayitv poorn aur pagalapan bhara kary' bataya. 'hindoo mahasabha' evn 'akali andolan' ne bhi isaki alochana ki. yah andolan sngathan evn ayojan men kami, sarakari seva men karyarat uchchadhikariyon ki vafadari v andolanakariyon ke pas sadhan evn shakti ke abhav ke karan poorn roop men saphal nahin ho saka.

kebinet mishan ki asaphalata

gandhi ji ne 'bharat chhodo andolan' ko bahut hi suniyojit dhng se chalane ki rooparekha taiyar ki thi. unhonne kaha, 'ham ya to bharat ko azad karavaenge ya is koshish men mit jaenge.' bharat men 1946 ee. ke prarambh men prantiy vidhan mndalon ke lie ne sire se chunav sampann hue. in chunavon men kangres ko bhari saphalata prapt huee. muslimon ke lie arakshit siton par muslim lig ko bhari bahumat prapt hua. isi samay 1946 ee. ki garmiyon men kaibinet mishan bharat pahuncha. mishan ne kangres aur muslim lig ko ek aisi snghiy vyavastha par razi karane ki koshish ki, jisamen bharat ke andar vibhinn pranton ko simit svayattata di jaye. lekin kaibinet mishan ka yah prayas asaphal siddh hua. is mishan ke asaphal ho jane ke karan jinna ne pakistan ki sthapana ke lie lig ki mang ke samarthan men ek pratyaksh karyavahi divas ka ailan kiya. 16 agast, 1946 ee. ka din isake liye niyat kiya gaya tha, lekin usi din kalakatta men sngharsh shuroo ho gaya. yah hinsa kalakatta se prarambh hokar bngal, bihar aur pnjab tak phail gee. kee sthanon par hindoo, to kee sthanon par muslimon ko nishana banaya gaya.
feri imarat par gandhi ji ki pratima, sen fransisko

andolan ka prabhav

'bharat chhodo andolan' bharat ko svatantr bhale n karava paya ho, lekin isaka dooragami parinam sukhadayi raha. isalie ise "bharat ki svadhinata ke lie kiya jane vala antim mahanh prayas" kaha gaya. agast, 1942 ee. ke vidroh ke bad prashn sirf yah tay karana tha ki svatntrata ke bad sarakar ka svaroop kya ho? 1942 ee. ke andolan ki vishalata ko dekhate hue angrezon ko vishvas ho gaya tha ki unhonne shasan ka vaidy adhikar kho diya hai. is andolan ne vishv ke kee deshon ko bharatiy janamanas ke sath khada kar diya. chin ke tatkalin marshal chyang kaee shek ne 25 julaee, 1942 ee. ko snyukt rajy amerika ke rashtrapati roojavelt ko patr men likha, "angrezon ke lie sabase shreshth niti yah hai ki ve bharat ko poorn svatantrata de den." roojavelt ne bhi isaka samarthan kiya. saradar vallabh bhaee patel ne andolan ke bare likha- "bharat men british raj ke itihas men aisa viplav kabhi nahin hua, jaisa ki pichhale tin varshon men hua, logon ki pratikriya par hamen garv hai."

sarakar ne 13 faravari, 1943 ee. ko 'bharat chhodo andolan' ke samay hue vidrohon ka poora dosh mahatma gandhi evn kangres par thop diya. gandhi ji ne in bebuniyad doshon ko asvikar karate hue kaha ki "mera vaktavy ahinsa ki sima men tha." unhonne kaha ki- "svatantrata sngram ke pratyek ahinsak sipahi ko kagaz ya kapade ke ek tukade par 'karo ya maro' ka nara likhakar chipaka lena chahie, jisase yadi satyagrah karate samay usaki mrityu ho jae to use is chihn ke adhar par doosare tattvon se alag kiya ja sake, jinaka ahinsa men vishvas nahin hai." gandhi ji ne apane oopar lage aropon ko siddh karane ke lie sarakar se nishpaksh janch ki mang ki. sarakar ke is or dhyan n dene par 10 faravari, 1943 ee. se unhonne 21 din ka upavas shuroo kar diya. upavas ke terahaven din hi gandhi ji ki sthiti bilkul najuk ho gayi. british bharat ki sarakar unhen mukt n karake unaki mrityu ki pratiksha karane lagi. kuchh itihasakaron ka manana hai ki 'aga khan mahal' men unake antim snskar ke lie chandan ki lakadi ki vyavastha bhi kar di gayi thi. sarakar ki is barbar niti ke virodh men vayasaray ki kaunsil ke sadasy sar modi, sar e.en. sarakar evn ane ne istifa de diya.

mauntabetan ki ghoshana

laaurd vavel ke sthan par laaurd mauntabetan ko faravari 1947 ee. men bharat ka vayasaray niyukt kar diya gaya. mauntabetan ne hindoo aur muslimon men antim daur ki varta ka mahaul taiyar kiya. jab sulah ke lie unaka prayas bhi vifal ho gaya to, unhonne ailan kar diya ki british bharat ko svatntrata de di jaegi, lekin usaka vibhajan bhi hoga. satta hastantaran ke lie 15 agast ka din nishchit kiya gaya. us din bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men logon ne jamakar khushiyan manayin. dilli men jab snvidhan sabha ke adhyaksh ne mohanadas karamachnd gandhi ko rashtrapita ki upadhi dete hue snvidhan sabha ki baithak shuroo ki to bahut der tak madhur dhvani charon or vidyaman rahi. bahar jama bhid gandhiji ke jayakare laga rahi thi.

azadi ki prapti

desh ki rajadhani dilli men jo utsav 15 agast-1947 ko manaye ja rahe the, unamen mahatma gandhi shamil nahin the. ve is samay kalakatta men the. unhonne vahan par bhi kisi karyakram men bhag nahin liya, kyonki unhonne itane din tak jis svatntrata ke lie sngharsh kiya tha, vah ek bahut badi kimat par prapt huee thi. rashtr ka vibhajan unake liye kisi bure sapane se kam nahin tha. hindoo aur musalaman ek-doosare ki gardan katane par amada the. gandhi ji ne hindoo, sikkh aur muslimon se kaha ki atit ko bhulakar apani pida par dhyan dene ke bajay ek-doosare ke sath apasi bhaeechare ki misal ko apanayen.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


suvyavasthit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah