सर्वोदय -महात्मा गाँधी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sarvoday angrez lekhak raskin ki ek pustak hai- 'anatoo dis last'- is antavale ko bhi. is pustak men mukhy: tin baten bataee gee hain-

  1. vyakti ka shrey samashti ke shrey men nihit hai.
  2. vakil ka kam ho ya naee ka, donon ka mooly saman hi hai, kyonki pratyek vyakti ko apane vyavasay dvara ajivika chalane ka saman adhikar hai.
  3. mazadoor, kisan aur karigar ka jivan hi sachcha aur sarvotkrisht jivan hai.

baibil ki ek kahani

is pustak ke nam ka adhar baibil ki ek kahani hai. angoor ke ek bag ke malik ne apane bag men kam karane ke lie kuchh mazadoor rakhe. mazadoori tay huee ek peni roj. dopahar ko aur tisare pahar sham ko jo bekar mazadoor malik ke pas ae, unhen bhi usane kam par laga diya. kam samapt hone par sabako ek peni mazadoori di, jitani subah vale ko, utani hi sham vale ko. is par kuchh mazadooron ne shikayat ki, to malik ne kaha, "mainne tumhare prati koee anyay to kiya nahin. kya tumane ek peni roj par kam mnjoor nahin kiya tha. tab apani mazadoori le lo aur ghar jao. main ant vale ko bhi utani hi mazadoori doonga, jitani pahale vale ko."

subah vale ko jitana, sham vale ko bhi utana hi-pratham vyakti ko jitana, antim vyakti ko bhi utana hi, isamen samanata aur advait ka vah tatv samaya hai, jisapar sarvoday ka vishal prasad khada hai.[1]

gandhi ji ka anuvad

raskin ki is pustak ka gandhi ji ne gujarati men anuvad kiya 'sarvoday' ke nam se. sarvoday arthath‌ sabaka uday, sabaka vikas. sarvoday bharat ka purana adarsh hai. hamare rishiyon ne gaya hai-'sarvepi sukhin: sntu'. sarvoday shabd bhi naya nahin hai. jain muni samntabhadr kahate hain-sarvapadamntakarn nirntn sarvodayn tirthamidn tavaiv'. 'sarv khalvidn brahm', 'vasudhaiv kutunbakn', athava 'soahamh‌' aur 'tattvamasi' ke hamare puratan adarshon men 'sarvoday' ke siddhant antarnihit hai.

sarvoday ka adarsh

'sarvoday' ka adarsh hai advait aur usaki niti hai samanvay. manavakrit vishamata ka vah ant karana chahata hai aur prakritik vishamata ko ghatana chahata hai. jivamatr ke lie samadar aur pratyek vyakti ke prati sahanubhooti hi sarvoday ka marg hai. jiv matr ke lie sahanubhati ka yah apoot jab jivan men pravahit hota hai, tab sarvoday ki lata men surabhipoorn suman khilate hain. darvin ne kaha-'prakriti ka niyam hai, badi machhali chhoti machhali ko khakar jivit rahati hai.' haksale ne kaha- jio aur jine do.' sarvoday kahata hai-'tum doosaron ko jilane ke lie jio.' doosaron ko apana banane ke lie prem ka vistar karana hoga, ahinsa ka vikas karana hoga aur shoshan ko samapt kar aj ke samajik moolyon men parivartan karana hoga.'
vinoba bhave kahate hain-

'sarvoday' aise vargavihin, jativihin aur shoshanamukt samaj ki sthapana karana chahata hai, jisamen pratyek vyakti aur samooh ko apane sarvangin vikas ka sadhan aur avasar mile. vinoba kahate hain-'jab ham sarvoday ka vichar karate hain, tab oonch-nich bhavashali varnavyavastha divar ki tarah samane khadi ho jati hai. use tode bina sarvoday sthapit nahin hoga. sarvoday ko saphal banane ke lie jatibhed mitana hoga aur arthik vishamata door karani hogi. inako mitane se hi sarvoday samaj banega.'

samaj rachana

'sarvoday aisi samaj rachana chahata hai jimen varn, varg, dharm, jati, bhasha adi ke adhar par kisi samuday ka n to snhar ho, n bahishkar ho. sarvoday ki samaj rachana aisi hogi, jo sarv ke nirman aur sarv ki shakti se sarv ke hit men chale, jisamen kam ya adhik sharirik samarthy ke logon ko samaj ka snrakshan saman roop se prapt ho aur sabhi tuly parishramik (ikvitebal vejej) ke hakadar mane jaen. vigyan aur lokatntr ke is yug men sarv ki kranti ka hi mooly hai aur vahi sare vikas ka mapadnd hai. sarv ki kranti men poonji aur buddhi men paraspar sngharsh ki gunjaish nahin hai. ve saman star par paraspar poorak shaktiyan hain. svabhavat: sarvoday ki samaj rachana men antim vyakti samaj ki chinta ka sabase pahale adhikari hai.

niyam

sarvoday samaj ki rachana vyaktigat jivan ki shuddhi par hi ho sakati hai. jo vrat niyam vyaktigat jivan men 'mukti' ke sadhan hain ve hi jab samajik jivan men bhi vyavahrit honge, tab sarvoday samaj banega. vinoba kahate hain-'sarvoday ki drishti se jo samaj rachana hogi, usaka arnbh apane jivan se karana hoga. niji jivan men asaty, hinsa, parigrah adi hua to sarvoday nahin hoga, kyonki sarvoday samaj ki vishamata ko ahinsa se hi mitana chahata hai. samyavadi ka dhyey bhi vishamata mitana hai, parntu is achchhe sadhy ke lie vah chahe jaisa sadhan istemal kar sakata hai, parntu sarvoday ke lie sadhanashuddhi bhi avashyak hai.'

samajavadi

gandhi ji bhi kahate hai-'samajavad ka prarnbh pahale samajavadi se hota hai. agar ek bhi aisa samajavadi ho, to usapar shoony badhae ja sakate hain. har shoony se usaki kimat dasaguna badh jaegi, lekin agar pahala ank shoony ho, to usake age kitane hi shoony badhae jaen, usaki kimat phir bhi shoony hi rahegi.' isilie gandhi ji saty, ahinsa, astey, aparigrah, brahmachary, asvad, sharirashram, nirbhayata, sarvadharmasamanvay, asprishyata aur svadeshi adi vraton ke palan par itana jor dete the.

parishramik ki samanata

jitana vetan naee ko utana hi vetan vakil ko. 'anatoo dis last' ka yah tatv sarvoday men poornat: grihit hai. samyavad bhi parishramik men samanata chahata hai. yah tatv donon men saman hai.

pratiyogita ka abhav

pratiyogita sngharsh ko janm deti hai. samyavadi ke lie sngharsh to param tatv hi hai. parntu sarvoday sngharsh ko nahin, sahakar ko manata hai. sngharsh men hinsa hai. sarvoday ka sara bhavan hi ahinsa ki ninv par khada hai.

sadhan shuddhi

samyavad sadhy ki prapti ke lie sadhan shuddhi ko avashyak nahin manata. sarvoday men sadhan shuddhi pramukh hai. sadhy bhi shuddh aur sadhan bhi shuddh.

trastiship ki yojana

anuvnshik snskaron se labh uthane ke lie trastiship ki yojana ke vishay men vinoba kahate hain- "snpatti ki vishamata kritrim vyavastha ke karan paida huee hai, aisa manakar use chhod bhi den, to manushy ki sharirik aur bauddhik shakti ki vishamata poori tarah door nahin ho sakati. shikshan aur niyaman se yah vishamata kuchh ansh tak kam ki ja sakati. kintu adarsh ki sthiti men is vishamata ke sarvatha abhav ki kalpana nahin ki ja sakati. isalie sharir, buddhi aur snpatti in tinon men se jo jise prapt ho, use yahi samajhana chahie ki vah sabake hit ke lie hi mili hai. yahi trastaship ka bhav hai. apani shakti aur snpatti ka trasti ke nate hi manushyamatr ke hit ke lie prayog karana chahie. trastiship men aparigrah ki bhavana nihit hai. samyavad men anuvnshikata ke lie koee sthan nahin hai. usaki niti to abhijaty ke snhar ki rahi hai."

vikendrikaran

sarvoday satta aur snpatti ka vikendrikaran chahata hai jisase shoshan aur daman se bacha ja sake. kendrikrit audyogikaran ke is yug men to yah aur bhi avashyak ho gaya hai. vikendrikaran ki yahi prakriya jab satta ke vishay men lagoo ki jati hai, tab isaki nishpatti hoti hai shasanamukt samaj men. samyavadi ki kalpana men bhi rajasatta tej garmi men rakhe hu ghi ki tarah ant men pighal janevali hai. parntu usake pahale use jame hue ghi ki tarah hi nahin, balki tratski ke sir par mare hue hathaude ki tarah, thos aur majaboot hona chahie. (gramasvarajy). parntu gandhi ji ne adi, madhy aur ant tinon sthitiyon men vikendrikaran aur shasanamuktata ki bat kahi hai. yahi sarvoday ka marg hai. is samay snsar men utpadan ke sadhanon ke svamitv ki do paddhatiyon prachalit hain-

  1. niji svamitv (praivet onaraship)
  2. sarakar svamitv (stet onaraship).
  • niji svamitv poonjivad hai, poonjivad men shoshan hai,
  • sarakar svamitv samyavad, samyavad men daman.
  • bharat ki parnpara, usaki pratibha aur usaki paristhiti, tinon ki mang hai ki vah rajanitik aur arthik sngathan ki koee tisari hi paddhati vikasit kare, jisase poonjivad ke 'niji abhikram' aur samyavad ke 'samoohik hit' ka labh to mil jae, kintu unake doshon se bacha ja sake. gandhi ji ki 'trastiship' aur 'gramasvarajy' ki kalpana aur vinoba ki is kalpana par adharit 'gramadan-gram svarajy' ki vistrit yojana men, donon ke doshon ka parihar aur gunon ka upayog kiya gaya hai. yahan svamitv n niji hai, n sarakar ka, balki ganv ka hai, jo svayatt hai. is tarah sarvoday ki yah kranti ek nee vyavastha snsar ke samane prastut kar rahi hai'.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dadadharmadhikari-'sarvoday darshan'

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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